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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

1 Kings 20

Introduction

Overview

1 Kings 20:1, Ben-hadad, not content with Ahab’s homage, besieges Samaria; 1 Kings 20:13, By the direction of a prophet, the Syrians are slain; 1 Kings 20:22, As the prophet forewarned Ahab, the Syrians, trusting in the valleys, come against him in Aphek; 1 Kings 20:28, By the word of the prophet, and God’s judgment, the Syrians are smitten again; 1 Kings 20:31, The Syrians submitting themselves, Ahab sends Ben-hadad away with a covenant; 1 Kings 20:35, The prophet, under the parable of a prisoner, making Ahab judge himself, denounces God’s judgment against him.

Verse 1

am 3103, bc 901

Benhadad: 1 Kings 15:18, 1 Kings 15:20, 2 Kings 8:7-10, 2 Chronicles 16:2-4, Jeremiah 49:27, Amos 1:4

Thirty and two: 1 Kings 20:16, 1 Kings 20:24, Genesis 14:1-5, Judges 1:7, Ezra 7:12, Isaiah 10:8, Ezekiel 26:7, Daniel 2:37

and horses: Exodus 14:7, Deuteronomy 20:1, Judges 4:3, 1 Samuel 13:5, Isaiah 37:24

besieged: Leviticus 26:25, Deuteronomy 28:52, 2 Kings 6:24-29, 2 Kings 17:5, 2 Kings 17:6

Reciprocal: 2 Samuel 10:19 - servants 1 Kings 16:24 - the name of the city 2 Kings 6:8 - the king 1 Chronicles 19:9 - the kings 1 Chronicles 19:19 - the servants

Verse 2

2 Kings 19:9, Isaiah 36:2-22, Isaiah 37:9, Isaiah 37:10

Verse 3

Exodus 15:9, Isaiah 10:13, Isaiah 10:14

Reciprocal: 1 Kings 20:32 - Thy servant

Verse 4

I am thine: Leviticus 26:36, Deuteronomy 28:48, Judges 15:11-13, 1 Samuel 13:6, 1 Samuel 13:7, 2 Kings 18:14-16

Reciprocal: 1 Kings 2:38 - The saying 1 Kings 20:7 - denied him not 2 Kings 10:5 - We are thy servants 2 Kings 16:7 - I am thy servant 1 Corinthians 6:19 - and ye

Verse 6

and they shall search: 1 Samuel 13:19-21, 2 Samuel 24:14, 2 Kings 18:31, 2 Kings 18:32

pleasant: Heb. desirable, Genesis 27:15, Ezra 8:27, Isaiah 44:9, Jeremiah 25:34, Lamentations 1:7, Lamentations 1:10, Hosea 13:15, Joel 3:5, *marg.

Reciprocal: Exodus 9:18 - to morrow 1 Kings 12:13 - answered 2 Chronicles 10:13 - answered

Verse 7

all the elders: 1 Kings 8:1, 2 Kings 5:7, 1 Chronicles 13:1, 1 Chronicles 28:1, Proverbs 11:14

Mark: 2 Kings 5:7

seeketh mischief: Job 15:35, Psalms 7:14, Psalms 36:4, Psalms 62:3, Psalms 140:2, Proverbs 6:14, Proverbs 11:27, Proverbs 24:2, Daniel 11:27, Romans 3:13-18

denied him not: Heb. kept not back from him, 1 Kings 20:4

Reciprocal: 2 Kings 5:23 - Be content

Verse 10

The gods: 1 Kings 19:2, Acts 23:12

if the dust: 2 Samuel 17:12, 2 Samuel 17:13, 2 Kings 19:23, 2 Kings 19:24, Isaiah 10:13, Isaiah 10:14, Isaiah 37:24, Isaiah 37:25

follow me: Heb. are at my feet, Exodus 11:8, *marg. Judges 4:10

Reciprocal: Exodus 15:9 - I will pursue Judges 15:4 - caught three Ruth 1:17 - the lord 1 Samuel 17:44 - Come to me 1 Samuel 20:13 - The Lord do 2 Samuel 17:11 - as the sand 1 Kings 2:23 - God 1 Kings 20:30 - fled 2 Kings 18:23 - I will deliver Nehemiah 4:3 - Tobiah Psalms 10:5 - he puffeth Psalms 33:16 - no king Proverbs 14:16 - the fool Isaiah 36:8 - and I Jeremiah 9:23 - neither Jeremiah 46:17 - Pharaoh Daniel 3:19 - he spake 1 Corinthians 13:4 - vaunteth not itself

Verse 11

Let not him: etc. This was no doubt a proverbial mode of expression. Jonathan renders it: "Let not him who girds himself, and goes down to battle, boast as one who has conquered and returned from it." 1 Samuel 14:6, 1 Samuel 14:12, 1 Samuel 14:13, 1 Samuel 17:44-47, Proverbs 27:1, Ecclesiastes 9:11, Isaiah 10:15, Isaiah 10:16, Matthew 26:33-35, Matthew 26:75

harness: The word harness is an obsolete word for armour, derived from the French harnois. See note on Exodus 13:18.

Reciprocal: Judges 4:10 - at his Judges 8:6 - General Judges 8:24 - because Judges 9:29 - would to God 2 Samuel 2:31 - three hundred 1 Kings 20:16 - Benhadad 2 Kings 3:21 - put on armour Job 41:8 - General Psalms 10:5 - he puffeth Proverbs 14:16 - the fool Isaiah 8:9 - gird Jeremiah 9:23 - neither Daniel 3:19 - he spake Matthew 26:40 - What Luke 14:31 - General Romans 1:30 - boasters Romans 11:18 - Boast not 1 Corinthians 13:4 - vaunteth not itself

Verse 12

message: Heb. word

drinking: 1 Kings 20:16, 1 Kings 16:9, 1 Samuel 25:36, 2 Samuel 13:28, Proverbs 31:4, Proverbs 31:5, Daniel 5:2, Daniel 5:30, Luke 21:34, Ephesians 5:18

pavilions: or, tents, That persons of regal dignity regaled themselves in this manner, we may learn from Dr. Chandler, who, when he went to visit the Aga of Suki, after his return from hawking, found him vexed and tired; and "a couch was prepared from him beneath a shed made against a cottage, and covered with green boughs to keep off the sun. He entered as we were standing by, and fell down on it to sleep, without taking any notice of us." Jeremiah 43:10

Set yourselves in array, And they set: etc. or, Place the engines, And they placed engines

Reciprocal: Judges 16:25 - their hearts 1 Chronicles 19:19 - the servants

Verse 13

came: Heb. approached

Hast thou: 2 Kings 6:8-12, 2 Kings 7:1, 2 Kings 13:23, Isaiah 7:1-9, Ezekiel 20:14, Ezekiel 20:22

and thou shalt: 1 Kings 20:28, 1 Kings 18:37, Exodus 14:18, Exodus 16:12, Psalms 83:18, Isaiah 37:20, Ezekiel 6:7, Joel 3:17

Reciprocal: Exodus 23:31 - deliver the Numbers 21:34 - for I have 2 Samuel 10:13 - they fled 1 Kings 18:22 - I only 1 Kings 19:10 - I only 1 Kings 20:22 - the prophet 2 Kings 3:18 - he will 2 Kings 3:27 - they departed 2 Kings 6:9 - Beware 1 Chronicles 19:14 - they fled 2 Chronicles 28:9 - he went out Psalms 10:5 - he puffeth Ezekiel 22:16 - thou shalt know Daniel 11:11 - the multitude Amos 2:11 - I raised

Verse 14

young men: or, servants, Genesis 14:14-16, Judges 7:16-20, 1 Samuel 17:50, 1 Corinthians 1:27-29

order: Heb. bind, or tie, 1 Kings 18:44

Reciprocal: 1 Kings 20:17 - General 2 Kings 9:21 - Make ready 1 Corinthians 1:25 - the foolishness

Verse 15

two hundred: Judges 7:7, Judges 7:16, 1 Samuel 14:6, 2 Chronicles 14:11

seven thousand: 1 Kings 19:18, 1 Samuel 14:2, 2 Kings 13:7, Psalms 106:40-43

Reciprocal: 1 Kings 20:17 - General 2 Kings 6:10 - sent to the place

Verse 16

Benhadad: 1 Kings 20:11, 1 Kings 20:12, 1 Kings 16:7, Proverbs 23:29-32, Ecclesiastes 10:16, Ecclesiastes 10:17, Hosea 4:11

the thirty: Isaiah 54:15, The Syrians, the besiegers, had their directions from a drunken king, who gave orders over his cups, while he was drinking at noon. Drunkenness is a sin which is most detestable in all, but more so in a king than in a private individual, inasmuch as the greater weight a man's situation carries, whether from accumulated riches, family connections, hereditary authority, or invested command, so is the influence which his vices must have on those around him. Perhaps it may be said, from past experience, that drunkenness, which is a most heinous sin in the sight of God, may be charged on those who indulge only now and then in that which may eventually lead them into drunkenness; for they shut their eyes against the most palpable facts, and rather than give up the paltry gratification of a debauch, involve thousands by their example to positive harm. Benhadad's drunkenness was the forerunner of his fall. Belshazzar also, we read, drank wine with his princes, his wives, and his concubines, and praised the gods of gold, silver, brass, iron, wood, and stone, and in the same hour came forth the finger of a man's hand and wrote his doom on the plaster of the wall. Those who fancy themselves perfectly secure, and above the possibility of falling, are commonly nearest their destruction: there is always an Ahab read to take advantage of and improve the self-imposed imbecility.

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 25:36 - merry 2 Samuel 13:28 - heart is merry 1 Kings 16:9 - drinking 1 Kings 20:24 - Take the Proverbs 20:1 - General Proverbs 23:34 - thou Proverbs 31:4 - General Ecclesiastes 7:4 - the heart Jeremiah 43:10 - his royal Amos 6:7 - and the

Verse 17

1 Kings 20:14, 1 Kings 20:15, 1 Kings 20:19

Verse 18

1 Samuel 2:3, 1 Samuel 2:4, 1 Samuel 14:11, 1 Samuel 14:12, 1 Samuel 17:44, 2 Kings 14:8-12, Proverbs 18:12

Reciprocal: Judges 9:40 - he fled before 1 Samuel 17:42 - disdained 1 Kings 12:18 - flee to Jerusalem 2 Kings 10:14 - Take them alive 2 Kings 18:23 - I will deliver Nehemiah 4:3 - Tobiah Proverbs 14:16 - the fool Isaiah 36:8 - and I Jeremiah 46:17 - Pharaoh

Verse 19

Reciprocal: 1 Kings 20:17 - General 1 Chronicles 19:14 - they fled

Verse 20

they slew: 2 Samuel 2:16, Ecclesiastes 9:11

the Syrians: Leviticus 26:8, Judges 7:20-22, 1 Samuel 14:13-15, 2 Kings 7:6, 2 Kings 7:7, Psalms 33:16, Psalms 46:6

escaped: 1 Samuel 30:16, 1 Samuel 30:17, 2 Kings 19:36

Reciprocal: 1 Kings 20:30 - fled Jeremiah 41:15 - escaped

Verse 21

went out: Judges 3:28, Judges 7:23-25, 1 Samuel 14:20-22, 1 Samuel 17:52, 2 Kings 3:18, 2 Kings 3:24

Verse 22

the prophet: 1 Kings 20:13, 1 Kings 20:38, 1 Kings 19:10, 1 Kings 22:8, 2 Kings 6:12

strengthen: 2 Chronicles 25:8, 2 Chronicles 25:11, Psalms 27:14, Proverbs 18:10, Proverbs 20:18, Isaiah 8:9, Joel 3:9, Joel 3:10, Ephesians 6:10

at the return: 1 Kings 20:26, 2 Samuel 11:1, 1 Chronicles 20:1, Psalms 115:2, Psalms 115:3, Isaiah 26:11, Isaiah 42:8

Reciprocal: 2 Samuel 5:22 - came up 1 Kings 20:28 - there came 1 Chronicles 14:13 - yet again 2 Chronicles 24:23 - at the end 2 Chronicles 28:9 - he went out

Verse 23

Their gods: It was the general belief in the heathen world, that each district had its tutelary and protecting deity, who could do nothing out of his own province. 1 Kings 20:28, 1 Kings 14:23, 1 Samuel 4:8, 2 Kings 19:12, 2 Chronicles 32:13-19, Psalms 50:21, Psalms 50:22, Psalms 121:1, Psalms 121:2, Isaiah 42:8

Reciprocal: Numbers 23:13 - unto 1 Kings 20:31 - his servants 2 Kings 5:13 - his servants 2 Kings 6:8 - took Jeremiah 23:23 - General

Verse 24

Take the: 1 Kings 20:1, 1 Kings 20:16, 1 Kings 22:31, Proverbs 21:30

Reciprocal: 1 Chronicles 19:9 - the kings

Verse 25

thou hast lost: Heb. was fallen

and surely: Psalms 10:3

Verse 26

Aphek: Supposed to be the Aphek near the river Adonis, between Heliopolis and Biblos, and probably the same place that Paul Lucas mentions in his Voyage to the Levant. It was swallowed up by an earthquake, and formed a lake about nine miles in circumference, in which he says there were several houses still to be seen entire, under the water. 1 Kings 20:30, Joshua 13:4, Joshua 19:30, Judges 1:31, Aphik, 1 Samuel 4:1, 1 Samuel 29:1, 2 Kings 13:17

to fight against Israel: Heb. to the war with Israel

Reciprocal: 2 Samuel 11:1 - after the year 1 Kings 20:22 - at the return 1 Chronicles 20:1 - after the year was expired 2 Chronicles 24:23 - at the end

Verse 27

were all present: or, were victualled, Joshua 1:11, Judges 7:8

like two: Deuteronomy 32:30, Judges 6:5, 1 Samuel 13:5-8, 1 Samuel 14:2, 2 Chronicles 32:7, 2 Chronicles 32:8, Ecclesiastes 9:11

Reciprocal: 2 Kings 3:6 - numbered 2 Kings 13:7 - fifty horsemen 1 Chronicles 27:28 - the sycamore trees 2 Chronicles 14:11 - nothing Psalms 33:16 - no king Proverbs 14:28 - General

Verse 28

there came: 1 Kings 20:13, 1 Kings 20:22, 1 Kings 13:1, 1 Kings 17:18, 2 Chronicles 20:14-20

Because: 1 Kings 20:23, Isaiah 37:29-37

therefore will: 1 Kings 20:13, Deuteronomy 32:27, Joshua 7:8, Joshua 7:9, Job 12:16-19, Psalms 58:10, Psalms 58:11, Psalms 79:10, Isaiah 37:29, Isaiah 37:35, Jeremiah 14:7, Ezekiel 20:9, Ezekiel 20:14, Ezekiel 36:21-23, Ezekiel 36:32

ye shall know: 1 Kings 20:13, Exodus 6:7, Exodus 7:5, Exodus 8:22, Deuteronomy 29:6, Ezekiel 6:14, Ezekiel 11:12, Ezekiel 12:16, Ezekiel 36:22, Ezekiel 39:7

Reciprocal: Exodus 7:17 - thou shalt Numbers 21:34 - for I have Numbers 23:13 - unto 2 Samuel 10:13 - they fled 2 Kings 3:18 - he will 2 Kings 3:27 - they departed 2 Kings 6:9 - Beware 2 Kings 19:19 - O Lord 1 Chronicles 19:14 - they fled Jeremiah 23:23 - General Jeremiah 35:4 - a man Ezekiel 7:27 - and they Ezekiel 22:16 - thou shalt know Ezekiel 37:6 - ye shall Daniel 11:11 - the multitude 1 Timothy 6:11 - O man

Verse 29

seven days: Joshua 6:15, 1 Samuel 17:16, Psalms 10:16

an hundred thousand: 2 Samuel 10:18, 2 Chronicles 13:17, 2 Chronicles 20:23-25, 2 Chronicles 28:6, Isaiah 37:36

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 30:17 - and there Isaiah 24:18 - he who fleeth Amos 5:19 - As if

Verse 30

the rest: Psalms 18:25

a wall: Isaiah 24:18, Jeremiah 48:44, Amos 2:14, Amos 2:15, Amos 5:19, Amos 9:3, Luke 13:4

fled: 1 Kings 20:10, 1 Kings 20:20, Daniel 4:37

into an inner chamber: or, from chamber to chamber, Heb. into a chamber within a chamber. 1 Kings 22:25, 2 Chronicles 18:24

Reciprocal: Joshua 19:30 - Aphek Judges 9:40 - he fled before 1 Samuel 4:1 - Aphek 1 Samuel 15:8 - Agag 1 Samuel 29:1 - Aphek 1 Samuel 30:17 - and there 2 Samuel 18:8 - General 1 Kings 20:26 - Aphek 2 Kings 9:2 - inner chamber 2 Kings 10:24 - If any of the men Job 1:19 - it fell Job 20:24 - flee from Isaiah 30:13 - as a breach Ezekiel 21:14 - entereth Amos 3:12 - so shall Luke 15:18 - will arise

Verse 31

his servants: 1 Kings 20:23, 2 Kings 5:13

merciful kings: Proverbs 20:28, Isaiah 16:5, Ephesians 1:7, Ephesians 1:8

I pray thee: Six of the citizens of Calais are reported to have acted nearly in the same manner, when they surrendered their city to Edward the Third, king of England, in 1346. See the whole story circumstantially related by Sir John Froissart - who lived in that time with that simplicity and detail that give it every appearance of truth.

put sackcloth: 1 Kings 21:27-29, Genesis 37:34, 2 Samuel 3:31, 2 Samuel 14:2, 2 Kings 19:1, 2 Kings 19:2, Esther 4:1-3, Isaiah 22:12, Isaiah 37:1, Jonah 3:5, Jonah 3:6, Revelation 11:3

peradventure: 2 Kings 7:4, Esther 4:16, Job 2:4, Matthew 10:28

Reciprocal: Genesis 32:20 - peradventure Joshua 9:4 - work wilily Esther 7:3 - let my life Job 41:4 - Will he Amos 5:15 - it may Luke 14:32 - and desireth Luke 15:18 - will arise

Verse 32

Thy servant: 1 Kings 20:3-6, Job 12:17, Job 12:18, Job 40:11, Job 40:12, Isaiah 2:11, Isaiah 2:12, Isaiah 10:12, Daniel 5:20-23, Obadiah 1:3, Obadiah 1:4

he is my brother: 1 Kings 20:42, 1 Samuel 15:8-20

Reciprocal: Genesis 18:28 - wilt Genesis 32:4 - servant 1 Kings 18:22 - I only 2 Kings 10:5 - We are thy servants 2 Kings 16:7 - I am thy servant

Verse 33

the men: Proverbs 25:13, Luke 16:8

and he caused: 2 Kings 10:15, Acts 8:31

Reciprocal: Genesis 18:28 - wilt Genesis 44:5 - divineth 1 Kings 15:18 - Benhadad 1 Kings 22:31 - Fight 2 Kings 16:7 - I am thy servant 2 Chronicles 18:30 - Fight ye

Verse 34

The cities: 1 Kings 15:20, 2 Chronicles 16:4

So he made a covenant: One of the conditions of this covenant, we learn, was, that Ahab should have "streets (chutzoth) in Damascus;" a proposal better relished by Ahab then understood by the generality of commentators. This, however, is well illustrated by Mr. Harmer, from William of Tyre, the great historian of the Crusades; from whom it appears that it was customary to give those nations which were engaged in them, churches, streets, and great jurisdiction therein, in those places which they assisted to conquer. The Genoese and Venetians had each a street in Acon, or Acre, in which they had their own jurisdiction, with liberty to have an oven, mill, baths, weights, and measures, etc. 1 Kings 20:42, 1 Kings 22:31, 2 Chronicles 18:30, Isaiah 8:12, Isaiah 26:10

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 11:1 - Make 1 Samuel 15:8 - Agag 1 Kings 11:24 - to Damascus 1 Kings 15:18 - Benhadad 1 Kings 22:1 - General 2 Kings 6:8 - the king 2 Kings 8:7 - Benhadad Amos 3:12 - in Damascus in a couch

Verse 35

of the sons: 1 Kings 20:38, 1 Samuel 10:12, 2 Kings 2:3, 2 Kings 2:5, 2 Kings 2:7, 2 Kings 2:15, 2 Kings 4:1, 2 Kings 4:38, Amos 7:14

in the word: 1 Kings 13:1, 1 Kings 13:2, 1 Kings 13:17, 1 Kings 13:18

Smite me: 1 Kings 20:37, Isaiah 8:18, Isaiah 20:2, Isaiah 20:3, Jeremiah 27:2, Jeremiah 27:3, Ezekiel 4:3, Matthew 16:24

Reciprocal: 2 Samuel 12:1 - There were 1 Kings 18:22 - I only 1 Kings 19:10 - I only 1 Kings 21:1 - after 1 Kings 22:8 - concerning me 2 Kings 5:22 - the sons 2 Kings 6:1 - the sons 2 Kings 9:1 - General Amos 2:11 - I raised 1 Thessalonians 4:15 - by the

Verse 36

1 Kings 13:21-24, 1 Kings 13:26, 1 Samuel 15:22, 1 Samuel 15:23

Reciprocal: 1 Kings 13:24 - a lion 2 Kings 2:24 - children of them 2 Kings 17:25 - the Lord sent Isaiah 38:13 - as a lion Ezekiel 14:15 - noisome

Verse 37

Smite me: 1 Kings 20:35, Exodus 21:12

so that: etc. Heb. smiting and wounding

Verse 38

disguised: 1 Kings 14:2, 1 Kings 22:30, 2 Samuel 14:2, Matthew 6:16

Reciprocal: 1 Kings 18:22 - I only 1 Kings 20:22 - the prophet 1 Kings 20:35 - of the sons 1 Kings 20:41 - the ashes away 2 Chronicles 18:29 - I will disguise Mark 12:12 - knew

Verse 39

Thy servant: Judges 9:7-20, 2 Samuel 12:1-7, 2 Samuel 14:5-7, Mark 12:1-12

thy life: 1 Kings 20:42, 2 Kings 10:24

or else: Exodus 21:30, Job 36:18, Psalms 49:7, Proverbs 6:35, Proverbs 13:8, 1 Peter 1:18, 1 Peter 1:19

pay: Heb. weigh

Reciprocal: Joshua 2:14 - for yours 2 Kings 5:22 - a talent Jeremiah 32:9 - weighed

Verse 40

he was gone: Heb. he was not

So shall thy judgment be: 2 Samuel 12:5-7, Job 15:6, Matthew 21:41-43, Matthew 25:24-27, Luke 19:22

Reciprocal: 2 Samuel 14:13 - Wherefore Ecclesiastes 10:12 - but

Verse 41

the ashes away: 1 Kings 20:38, 2 Samuel 13:19, Job 2:8, Jeremiah 6:26

Reciprocal: 1 Kings 19:10 - I only 1 Kings 22:8 - yet one man Proverbs 28:4 - but Amos 2:11 - I raised

Verse 42

Because: 1 Kings 20:34, 1 Kings 22:31-37, 1 Samuel 15:9-11

thy life shall go: 1 Kings 22:31-37, 2 Kings 6:24, 2 Kings 8:12, 2 Chronicles 18:33, 2 Chronicles 18:34

Reciprocal: Leviticus 20:4 - and kill Numbers 31:14 - wroth Joshua 6:21 - utterly 1 Samuel 28:18 - obeyedst 1 Kings 14:6 - for I am 1 Kings 19:10 - I only 1 Kings 20:32 - he is my brother 1 Kings 20:39 - thy life 1 Kings 22:8 - yet one man 1 Kings 22:23 - and the Lord 1 Kings 22:35 - died at even 2 Kings 10:30 - according to all that 2 Chronicles 18:7 - I hate him 2 Chronicles 18:30 - Fight ye 2 Chronicles 28:9 - he went out Proverbs 19:3 - foolishness Proverbs 28:4 - but Proverbs 29:1 - General Jeremiah 48:10 - Cursed

Verse 43

went: 1 Kings 21:4, 1 Kings 22:8, Esther 5:13, Esther 6:12, Esther 6:13, Job 5:2, Proverbs 19:3

Reciprocal: 2 Kings 3:27 - they departed 2 Chronicles 18:7 - I hate him Acts 12:19 - he went

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Kings 20". "Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/tsk/1-kings-20.html.