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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

1 Samuel 20

Overview

1 Samuel 20:1, David consults with Jonathan for his safety; 1 Samuel 20:11, Jonathan and David renew their covenant by oath; 1 Samuel 20:18, Jonathan’s token to David; 1 Samuel 20:24, Saul, missing David, seeks to kill Jonathan; 1 Samuel 20:35, Jonathan affectionately takes his leave of David.

Verse 1

fled: 1 Samuel 19:19-24, 1 Samuel 23:26-28, Psalms 124:6-8, 2 Peter 2:9

What have: 1 Samuel 12:3, 1 Samuel 24:11, 1 Samuel 24:17, Psalms 7:3-5, Psalms 18:20-24, 2 Corinthians 1:12, 1 John 3:21

Reciprocal: Numbers 35:20 - by laying 2 Samuel 4:8 - sought Psalms 7:4 - without Hebrews 11:34 - escaped

Verse 2

God forbid: 1 Samuel 14:45, Genesis 44:7, Joshua 22:29, Joshua 24:16, Luke 20:16

show it me: Heb. uncover mine ear, 1 Samuel 20:12, 1 Samuel 9:15, *marg. Psalms 40:6, Isaiah 50:5, John 15:15, John 17:8

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 19:2 - Jonathan 1 Samuel 22:8 - showeth me 2 Samuel 1:23 - pleasant

Verse 3

sware: Deuteronomy 6:13, Jeremiah 4:2, Hebrews 6:16

but truly: 1 Samuel 25:26, 1 Samuel 27:1, 2 Samuel 15:21, 2 Kings 2:2, 2 Kings 2:4, 2 Kings 2:6

as thy soul: 1 Samuel 1:26, 1 Samuel 17:55, Jeremiah 38:16

but a step: 1 Samuel 27:1, Deuteronomy 28:66, Psalms 116:3, 1 Corinthians 15:30, 1 Corinthians 15:31, 2 Corinthians 1:9, 2 Corinthians 1:10

Reciprocal: Genesis 26:31 - sware Genesis 27:2 - I know not Genesis 33:10 - if now Genesis 42:15 - By the life Numbers 32:5 - if we have 1 Samuel 2:6 - he bringeth 1 Samuel 29:6 - the Lord 2 Samuel 11:11 - as thou livest 2 Samuel 14:19 - As thy soul 2 Samuel 14:22 - I have found 1 Kings 17:12 - As the Lord Psalms 118:13 - General Psalms 119:87 - almost Psalms 119:109 - My soul 2 Corinthians 1:8 - insomuch

Verse 4

Whatsoever: etc. or, Say what is thy mind, and I will do, etc

desireth: Heb. speaketh, or thinketh

Verse 5

the new moon: The months of the Hebrews were lunar months, and they reckoned from one new moon to another: and, as their feasts, particularly the passover, were reckoned according to this, they were very scrupulous in observing the first appearance of each new moon. On these new moons, they offered sacrifices, and feasted together, but the gathering together of all the families of a tribe on such occasions seems to have taken place only once in the year. 1 Samuel 20:6, Numbers 10:10, Numbers 28:11, 2 Kings 4:23, Psalms 81:3, Colossians 2:16

that I may: 1 Samuel 20:19, 1 Samuel 19:2, Psalms 55:12, Proverbs 22:3, John 8:59, Acts 17:14

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 20:18 - new moon

Verse 6

Bethlehem: 1 Samuel 17:58, John 7:42

sacrifice: or, feast, 1 Samuel 9:12, 1 Samuel 16:2-5

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 20:5 - the new moon 1 Samuel 20:28 - General Luke 2:4 - unto

Verse 7

It is well: Deuteronomy 1:23, 2 Samuel 17:4

evil: 1 Samuel 20:9, 1 Samuel 25:17, Esther 7:7

Reciprocal: Genesis 24:14 - thereby 1 Samuel 20:32 - what hath Psalms 56:5 - all

Verse 8

deal kindly: Genesis 24:49, Genesis 47:29, Joshua 2:14, Ruth 1:8, Proverbs 3:3

thou hast: 1 Samuel 20:16, 1 Samuel 18:3, 1 Samuel 23:18

if there be: Joshua 22:22, 2 Samuel 14:32, Psalms 7:4, Psalms 7:5, Acts 25:11

why shouldest: 1 Chronicles 12:17, Psalms 116:11

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 20:31 - send 1 Samuel 22:8 - that my son 1 Samuel 29:8 - But what have 2 Samuel 21:7 - because Psalms 7:3 - if I

Verse 9

then would: 1 Samuel 20:38, 1 Samuel 20:42, 1 Samuel 19:2

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 19:3 - what I see 1 Samuel 20:7 - evil 1 Samuel 25:17 - evil Esther 7:7 - for he saw

Verse 10

answer thee: 1 Samuel 20:30-34, 1 Samuel 25:10, 1 Samuel 25:14, 1 Samuel 25:17, Genesis 42:7, Genesis 42:30, 1 Kings 12:13, Proverbs 18:23

Verse 12

O Lord: This verse is evidently deficient. The LXX have ץסיןע ןוןעףסבחכ ןיהום, "The Lord God of Israel doth know;" the Syraic and Arabic, "The Lord God of Israel is witness;" either of which makes good sense. But two of Dr. Kennicott's manuscripts supply the word chai, "liveth;" and the text reads thus: "As the Lord God of Israel liveth, when I have sounded my father - if there be good unto David, and I then send not unto thee," etc.; which is a still better sense. Joshua 22:22, Job 31:4, Psalms 17:3, Psalms 139:1-4

sounded: Heb. searched, Proverbs 20:5, Proverbs 25:2, Proverbs 25:3

show it thee: Heb. uncover thine ear, 1 Samuel 20:2

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 23:18 - General

Verse 13

The Lord do: 1 Samuel 3:17, 1 Samuel 25:22, Ruth 1:17, 2 Samuel 3:35, 2 Samuel 19:13, 1 Kings 19:2, 1 Kings 20:10

the Lord be: 1 Samuel 17:37, Joshua 1:5, 1 Chronicles 22:11, 1 Chronicles 22:16, Matthew 28:20, Philippians 4:9

he hath been with my father: 1 Samuel 10:7, 1 Samuel 11:6-13, 1 Samuel 14:47, 2 Samuel 7:15

Reciprocal: Genesis 21:23 - swear Joshua 1:17 - only the Lord 1 Samuel 19:3 - what I see 1 Samuel 22:8 - that my son 1 Kings 1:37 - As the 2 Thessalonians 3:16 - The Lord be

Verse 14

the kindness: 2 Samuel 9:3, Ephesians 5:1, Ephesians 5:2

Reciprocal: Genesis 31:44 - let us Genesis 40:14 - show Joshua 2:12 - swear 1 Samuel 20:23 - the matter 1 Samuel 24:21 - Swear 2 Samuel 9:1 - show him

Verse 15

thou shalt: 1 Samuel 24:21, 2 Samuel 9:1-7, 2 Samuel 21:7

Reciprocal: Genesis 40:14 - show Joshua 2:12 - swear 1 Samuel 20:23 - the matter

Verse 16

made: Heb. cut, 1 Samuel 18:3, Genesis 15:18

Let the Lord: 1 Samuel 25:22, 1 Samuel 31:2, 2 Samuel 4:7, 2 Samuel 4:8, 2 Samuel 21:8

Reciprocal: Genesis 26:31 - sware Joshua 22:23 - let the Lord 1 Samuel 20:8 - thou hast Jeremiah 40:9 - sware

Verse 17

because he loved him: or, by his love toward him

for he loved: 1 Samuel 18:1, 1 Samuel 18:3, Deuteronomy 13:6, 2 Samuel 1:26, Proverbs 18:24

Reciprocal: Genesis 21:23 - swear Genesis 24:3 - swear Genesis 26:31 - sware Joshua 2:12 - swear 2 Samuel 21:7 - because Proverbs 17:17 - General Jeremiah 40:9 - sware

Verse 18

new moon: 1 Samuel 20:5

and thou shalt: Among the forms of salutation and compliment used in Persia, one was, according to my mode of notation in italics, Ja i shama khali bud pish yaran, signifying, Thy place or seat was empty among thy friends. This phrase, or the greater part of it, was frequently addressed to myself when coming into a circle of Persian acquaintances, after an absence of several days or weeks. It reminded me of a passage in the First book of Samuel - 1 Samuel 20:18. And thou shalt be missed, because thy seat will be empty. And again, David's place was empty." Sir W. Ouseley's Travels, vol i. preface, p.16.

empty: Heb. missed

Reciprocal: Colossians 2:16 - the new

Verse 19

quickly: or, diligently, Heb. greatly

hide thyself: 1 Samuel 20:5, 1 Samuel 19:2

when the business: Heb. in the day of the business

Ezel: or, that sheweth the way.

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 20:35 - at the time

Verse 20

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 20:36 - Run

Verse 21

no: Heb. not any thing

as the: Jeremiah 4:2, Jeremiah 5:2, Jeremiah 12:16, Amos 8:14

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 20:36 - Run 1 Kings 1:29 - As the 1 Kings 17:12 - As the Lord Job 27:2 - God liveth

Verse 22

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 20:36 - beyond him 1 Samuel 20:42 - Go in peace

Verse 23

the matter: 1 Samuel 20:14, 1 Samuel 20:15

the Lord: 1 Samuel 20:42, Genesis 16:5, Genesis 31:50

Reciprocal: 2 Corinthians 9:1 - touching

Verse 24

the king: Psalms 50:16-21, Proverbs 4:17, Proverbs 15:17, Proverbs 17:1, Proverbs 21:3, Proverbs 21:27, Isaiah 1:11-15, Zechariah 7:6, John 18:28

Reciprocal: Psalms 35:16 - hypocritical

Verse 25

as at other times: Judges 16:20

Verse 26

he is not clean: Leviticus 7:21, Leviticus 11:24, Leviticus 11:27, Leviticus 11:31, Leviticus 11:40, Leviticus 15:5, Leviticus 15:16, Leviticus 15:17, Leviticus 15:19-21, Numbers 19:16

Reciprocal: Numbers 11:26 - went not out Ecclesiastes 10:13 - beginning Zephaniah 1:7 - bid

Verse 27

Wherefore: 1 Samuel 18:11, 1 Samuel 19:9, 1 Samuel 19:10, 1 Samuel 19:15

the son: 1 Samuel 22:7-9, 1 Samuel 22:13, 1 Samuel 22:14, 1 Samuel 25:10, Isaiah 11:1, Isaiah 11:2, Matthew 13:55, 1 Peter 2:4

Reciprocal: 2 Chronicles 10:16 - the son

Verse 28

1 Samuel 20:6

Verse 29

my brother: 1 Samuel 17:28

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 6:14 - offered 1 Samuel 16:2 - I am come Esther 8:5 - if I

Verse 30

Saul's: Job 5:2, Proverbs 14:29, Proverbs 19:12, Proverbs 19:19, Proverbs 21:24, Proverbs 25:28, Proverbs 27:3, James 1:19, James 1:20

Thou: etc. or, Thou perverse rebel, Heb. Son of perverse rebellion, Proverbs 15:2, Proverbs 21:24, Matthew 5:22, Ephesians 4:31, Ephesians 6:4

and unto the: This reflection on the mother of Jonathan, by the passionate monarch, reflects more dishonour on himself than on his brave and noble minded son. Mungo Park gives an instance of the prevalence of the same principles in Africa; for he says, "Maternal affection is every where conspicuous among the Africans, and creates a correspondent return of tenderness in the child. Strike me,' said my attendant, but do not curse my mother.' I found the same sentiment to prevail universally in all parts of Africa." King Saul, unable to villify Jonathan to his own satisfaction by personal reproaches, outstepped the ordinary abuse of his day, and proceeded to that which was designed to produce unusual vexation, and vented the bitterness of his mind by maligning the character of his own wife and Jonathan's mother.

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 20:10 - answer thee 1 Samuel 22:7 - the son of Jesse 1 Samuel 22:8 - that my son 1 Samuel 24:20 - I know well 1 Samuel 25:10 - Who is David 1 Kings 12:13 - answered 2 Chronicles 10:16 - the son Psalms 120:6 - soul Psalms 124:3 - their wrath Proverbs 12:16 - fool's Proverbs 18:3 - General Daniel 3:13 - in his Matthew 1:6 - Jesse

Verse 31

send: 1 Samuel 20:8, 1 Samuel 19:6, 1 Samuel 19:11-15

shall surely die: Heb. is the son of death, 1 Samuel 26:16, 2 Samuel 19:28, Psalms 79:11, *marg.

Reciprocal: Genesis 2:17 - surely Genesis 23:2 - Kirjatharba 1 Samuel 14:39 - General 1 Samuel 18:8 - and what 1 Samuel 22:16 - Thou shalt 1 Samuel 23:17 - that also Saul 1 Samuel 24:20 - I know well 2 Samuel 12:5 - shall surely die 1 Kings 12:13 - answered 2 Chronicles 10:16 - the son Psalms 35:12 - spoiling Psalms 119:23 - Princes Proverbs 19:19 - man Proverbs 29:10 - The bloodthirsty Jonah 4:10 - came up in a night Matthew 1:6 - Jesse Matthew 27:23 - Why Luke 3:32 - was the son of Jesse

Verse 32

Wherefore: 1 Samuel 19:5, Proverbs 24:11, Proverbs 24:12, Proverbs 31:8, Proverbs 31:9, John 7:51

what hath: Matthew 27:23, Luke 23:22, cast, 1 Samuel 18:11, 1 Samuel 19:10, 1 Samuel 19:11, Proverbs 22:24, Ecclesiastes 9:3, Jeremiah 17:9, whereby, 1 Samuel 20:7, Ecclesiastes 7:9

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 19:4 - spake good 1 Samuel 22:14 - And who 1 Samuel 25:17 - that a man

Verse 33

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 18:11 - cast the javelin 1 Samuel 19:10 - he slipped 1 Samuel 22:6 - spear 1 Samuel 22:17 - slay the priests 1 Samuel 25:17 - evil Psalms 31:13 - while Psalms 56:5 - all

Verse 34

in fierce: Ecclesiastes 7:20, Ephesians 4:26

he was grieved: Mark 3:5

Verse 35

at the time: 1 Samuel 20:19, 2 Samuel 20:5

Verse 36

Run: 1 Samuel 20:20, 1 Samuel 20:21

beyond him: Heb. to pass over him, 1 Samuel 20:21, 1 Samuel 20:22

Reciprocal: 2 Samuel 1:18 - bow

Verse 38

Psalms 55:6-9, Proverbs 6:4, Proverbs 6:5, Matthew 24:16-18, Mark 13:14-16, Luke 17:31, Luke 17:32

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 9:27 - Bid the servant 1 Samuel 20:9 - then would 1 Samuel 23:26 - David made haste 2 Samuel 17:16 - but speedily Psalms 11:1 - how

Verse 39

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 9:27 - Bid the servant

Verse 40

artillery: Heb. instruments, Rather weapons, as the word kelim also denotes; and here means the bow, quiver, and arrows. This is probably the only place in our language in which the word artillery is not applied to cannon or ordinance, but simply to weapons of war.

his lad: Heb. the lad that was his

Verse 41

and fell: 1 Samuel 25:23, Genesis 43:28, 2 Samuel 9:6

and they kissed: 1 Samuel 10:1, Genesis 29:11, Genesis 29:13, Genesis 45:15, 2 Samuel 19:39, Acts 20:37

David exceeded: 1 Samuel 18:3, 2 Samuel 1:26

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 24:8 - David stooped 2 Samuel 14:4 - fell on her 1 Kings 1:16 - bowed 1 Kings 18:7 - fell on Acts 20:1 - embraced Acts 21:1 - we were

Verse 42

Go in peace: 1 Samuel 20:22, 1 Samuel 1:17, Numbers 6:26, Luke 7:50, Acts 16:36

forasmuch as: or, the Lord be witness of that which, etc. 1 Samuel 20:23

And he arose: 1 Samuel 23:18, The separation of two such faithful friends was equally grievous to them both, but David's case was the more deplorable: for when Jonathan was returning to his family and friends, David was leaving all his comforts, even those of God's sanctuary, and therefore his grief exceeded Jonathan's; or, perhaps it was because his temper was more tender and his passions stronger. They referred each other to the covenant of friendship that was between them, both of them being comforted thereby in this very mournful separation - "We have sworn both of us in the name of the Lord, for ourselves and our heirs, that we and they will be faithful and kind to each other from generation to generation.

Reciprocal: Genesis 21:23 - swear 1 Samuel 18:3 - made a covenant 1 Samuel 20:9 - then would 1 Samuel 22:8 - that my son 1 Samuel 25:35 - Go up 2 Samuel 9:1 - show him 2 Samuel 14:11 - let the king 2 Samuel 21:7 - because Jeremiah 42:5 - The Lord be Mark 5:34 - go Acts 17:10 - the brethren Acts 20:1 - embraced Acts 21:1 - we were

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 20". "Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/tsk/1-samuel-20.html.