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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Esther 1

Introduction

Overview

Esther 1:1, Ahasuerus makes royal feasts; Esther 1:10, Vashti, sent for, refuses to come; Esther 1:13, Ahasuerus, by the counsel of Memucan, puts away Vashti, and makes the decree of men’s sovereignty.

Verse 1

Ahasuerus: Prideaux has shewn satisfactorily that Ahasuerus was the Artaxerxes Longimanus of the Greeks, agreeably to the Septuagint and Josephus. See note on Ezra 6:14. Ezra 4:6, Daniel 9:1

from India: Esther 8:9, Isaiah 18:1, Isaiah 37:9

an hundred: Daniel 6:1

Reciprocal: Ezra 2:1 - the children Ezra 5:8 - the province Nehemiah 1:3 - the province Esther 2:3 - in all the provinces Esther 4:3 - in every province Esther 9:20 - in all the provinces Esther 9:30 - the hundred Esther 10:1 - laid a tribute Daniel 3:1 - in the province Acts 23:34 - he asked

Verse 2

sat: 2 Samuel 7:1, 1 Kings 1:46, Daniel 4:4

Shushan: Esther 2:3, Esther 3:15, Esther 4:16, Esther 9:12-Ezra :, Nehemiah 1:1, Daniel 8:2

Reciprocal: Exodus 1:1 - General Ezra 4:9 - Susanchites Esther 2:5 - Shushan Esther 8:14 - Shushan Matthew 14:6 - birthday

Verse 3

am 3542, bc 462

he made: Esther 2:18, Genesis 40:20, 1 Kings 3:15, Daniel 5:1, Mark 6:21

of Persia: Esther 1:14, Ezra 1:2, Isaiah 21:2, Jeremiah 51:11, Daniel 5:28, Daniel 8:20

the nobles: Daniel 3:2, Daniel 3:3, Daniel 6:1, Daniel 6:6, Daniel 6:7

Reciprocal: Genesis 21:8 - feast 1 Samuel 25:36 - a feast 2 Samuel 3:20 - David Ezra 2:1 - the children Esther 3:7 - in the twelfth Jeremiah 51:28 - the kings Daniel 8:3 - one Luke 7:25 - are in 1 John 2:16 - and the pride

Verse 4

When he: Isaiah 39:2, Ezekiel 28:5, Daniel 4:30

the riches: Psalms 76:1-Numbers :, Psalms 145:5, Psalms 145:12, Psalms 145:13, Daniel 2:37-Acts :, Daniel 7:9-2 Chronicles :, Matthew 4:8, Matthew 6:13, Romans 9:23, Ephesians 1:18, Colossians 1:27, Revelation 4:11

excellent: 1 Chronicles 29:11, 1 Chronicles 29:12, 1 Chronicles 29:25, Job 40:10, Psalms 21:5, Psalms 45:3, Psalms 93:1, Daniel 4:36, Daniel 5:18, 2 Peter 1:16, 2 Peter 1:17

Reciprocal: Esther 5:11 - the glory Acts 25:23 - with 1 Thessalonians 2:6 - of men

Verse 5

present: Heb. found

seven days: 2 Chronicles 7:8, 2 Chronicles 7:9, 2 Chronicles 30:21-Lamentations :

Reciprocal: 2 Kings 23:2 - both small and great Mark 6:39 - General

Verse 6

white: Exodus 26:1, Exodus 26:31, Exodus 26:32, Exodus 26:36, Exodus 26:37

blue: or, violet, Esther 8:15

the beds: These were couches, covered with gold and silver cloth, on which the guests reclined; for the Orientals do not sit, but recline at their meals. Esther 7:8, Ezekiel 23:41, Amos 2:8, Amos 6:4

red: etc. or, of porphyre, and marble, and alabaster, and stone of blue colour

Reciprocal: Mark 6:39 - General

Verse 7

vessels of gold: 1 Kings 10:21, 2 Chronicles 9:20, Daniel 5:2-Numbers :

royal wine: Heb. wine of the kingdom

state of the king: Heb. hand of the king.

Reciprocal: Judges 14:10 - made there 2 Kings 7:15 - vessels

Verse 8

none did compel: Every person drank what he pleased. Among the Greeks, however, each guest was obliged to keep the round, or leave the company: hence the proverb  &ניטי ח בניטי, Drink, or begone. Mr. Herbert, in his poem entitled "The Church Porch," has severely reprobated this vile custom. In Britain, however, this demoralizing custom is now almost destroyed, and a new era of social pleasure is arising, by temperate habits, increased domestic comforts, and the spread of gospel truths. Jeremiah 35:8, Jeremiah 51:7, Habakkuk 2:15, Habakkuk 2:16

the officers: John 2:8

Reciprocal: Ezra 2:1 - the children

Verse 9

the queen: Esther 5:4, Esther 5:8

Verse 10

the heart: Genesis 43:34, Judges 16:25, 1 Samuel 25:36, 1 Samuel 25:37, 2 Samuel 13:28, Proverbs 20:1, Ecclesiastes 7:2-Numbers :, Ecclesiastes 10:19, Ephesians 5:18, Ephesians 5:19

Harbona: Esther 7:9, Harbonah

chamberlains: or, eunuchs, Daniel 1:3-Deuteronomy :, Daniel 1:18, Daniel 1:19

Reciprocal: Genesis 37:36 - officer Judges 19:6 - let thine heart Ruth 3:7 - his heart 2 Kings 9:32 - eunuchs Esther 2:2 - king's servants Esther 4:5 - appointed to attend upon her Matthew 14:6 - danced Mark 6:22 - General

Verse 11

Vashti: Proverbs 16:9, Proverbs 23:29-Micah :, Mark 6:21, Mark 6:22

fair to look on: Heb. good of countenance, 1 Samuel 25:3, 2 Samuel 14:25, Proverbs 31:30

Reciprocal: Ezra 2:1 - the children Esther 2:7 - fair and beautiful Esther 5:1 - royal Luke 7:25 - are in

Verse 12

the queen: This refusal of Vashti's, to expose herself to the view of such a group of drunken Bacchanalians, was highly praiseworthy, and became the dignity of her rank and the modesty of her sex.

refused: Genesis 3:16, Ephesians 5:22, Ephesians 5:24, 1 Peter 3:1

by his chamberlains: Heb. which was by the hand of his eunuchs

was the king: Proverbs 19:12, Proverbs 20:2, Daniel 2:12, Daniel 3:13, Daniel 3:19, Nahum 1:6, Revelation 6:16, Revelation 6:17

burned: Exodus 32:19, Exodus 32:22, Deuteronomy 29:20, Psalms 74:1, Psalms 79:5

Reciprocal: Genesis 44:18 - anger 2 Samuel 14:29 - but he would Esther 2:1 - what was decreed Esther 3:5 - full of wrath Esther 4:4 - chamberlains Esther 4:5 - appointed to attend upon her Esther 7:7 - in his wrath Proverbs 31:30 - Favour

Verse 13

the wise: Jeremiah 10:7, Daniel 2:2, Daniel 2:12, Daniel 2:27, Daniel 4:6, Daniel 4:7, Daniel 5:7, Matthew 2:1

knew: 1 Chronicles 12:32, Matthew 16:3

Reciprocal: Daniel 2:21 - he changeth

Verse 14

the seven: Ezra 7:14

saw: 2 Kings 25:19, Matthew 18:10, Revelation 22:4

Reciprocal: Esther 1:3 - of Persia Esther 2:2 - king's servants Esther 3:1 - above all the princes Esther 8:1 - came before Jeremiah 52:25 - were near the king's person

Verse 15

What shall we do: Heb. What to do, Esther 6:6

Verse 16

Vashti: This reasoning was inconsequent and false. Vashti had not generally disobeyed the king, therefore she could be no precedent for the general conduct of the Persian women. She disobeyed only in one particular; and this, to serve a purpose, Memucan draws into a general consequence, and the rest came into the conclusion, being either too intoxicated to be able to discern right from wrong, or too intent on reducing women to a state of vassalage, to neglect the present favourable opportunity.

done wrong: Acts 18:14, Acts 25:10, 1 Corinthians 6:7, 1 Corinthians 6:8

Reciprocal: 1 Kings 12:14 - the counsel Ephesians 5:22 - submit 1 Peter 3:1 - ye

Verse 17

despise: 2 Samuel 6:16, Ephesians 5:33

Reciprocal: 1 Corinthians 14:34 - as

Verse 18

the ladies: Saroth, the princesses, but the meaning is well expressed by our term ladies. Judges 5:29, 1 Kings 11:3

Verse 19

it please the king: Heb. it be good with the king, Esther 1:21, Esther 3:9, Esther 8:5

from him: Heb. from before him

it be not altered: Heb. it pass not away, Esther 8:8, Daniel 6:8-Ezra :, Daniel 6:17, Let it be inserted among the permanent laws, and be made a part of the constitution of the empire. The Persians seem to have affected such a degree of wisdom in the construction of their laws, that they never could be amended, and should never be repealed; and this formed the ground of the saying, "The laws of the Medes and Persians that change not."

another: Heb. her companion

that is better: 1 Samuel 15:28, 1 Kings 3:28

Reciprocal: 1 Kings 2:32 - more righteous Nehemiah 2:5 - If it please Esther 4:11 - but I Daniel 6:12 - The thing

Verse 20

throughout: Deuteronomy 17:13, Deuteronomy 21:21

all the wives: Ephesians 5:33, Colossians 3:18, 1 Peter 3:1-Judges :

Reciprocal: Genesis 3:16 - rule Ephesians 5:22 - submit 1 Timothy 2:11 - General

Verse 21

pleased the king: Heb. was good in the eyes of the king, Esther 1:19, Esther 2:4, Genesis 41:37

Reciprocal: Genesis 45:16 - it pleased Pharaoh well Joshua 22:30 - it pleased them 2 Samuel 17:4 - pleased Absalom well

Verse 22

into every province: Esther 3:12, Esther 8:9, Daniel 3:29, Daniel 4:1

that every man: Both the law of God and common sense taught this from the foundation of the world; and this parade of enactment was only to deprive Vashti of her crown. Ephesians 5:22-Jeremiah :, 1 Timothy 2:12, Titus 2:4, Titus 2:5

it should: etc. Heb. one should publish it according to the language of his country, Esther 3:12

according: Luke 16:8, Acts 2:5-1 Kings :, 1 Corinthians 14:19, 1 Corinthians 14:20

Reciprocal: Ezra 5:8 - the province Esther 9:20 - in all the provinces

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Esther 1". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/tsk/esther-1.html.