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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Exodus 21

Introduction

Overview

Exodus 21:1, Laws for men servants; Exodus 21:5, For the servant whose ear is bored; Exodus 21:7, For women servants; Exodus 21:12, For manslaughter; Exodus 21:16, For stealers of men; Exodus 21:17, For cursers of parents; Exodus 21:18, For smiters; Exodus 21:22, For a hurt by chance; Exodus 21:28, For an ox that gores; Exodus 21:33, For him that is an occasion of harm.

Verse 1

the judgments: Leviticus 18:5, Leviticus 18:26, Leviticus 19:37, Leviticus 20:22, Numbers 35:24, Numbers 36:13, Deuteronomy 5:1, Deuteronomy 5:31, Deuteronomy 6:20, 1 Kings 6:12, 2 Chronicles 19:10, Nehemiah 9:13, Nehemiah 9:14, Nehemiah 10:29, Psalms 147:19, Ezekiel 20:11, Ezekiel 20:25, Malachi 4:4

which: Exodus 19:7, Exodus 24:3, Exodus 24:4, Deuteronomy 4:5, Deuteronomy 4:8, Deuteronomy 4:14, Deuteronomy 4:45, Deuteronomy 6:20, Matthew 28:20, 1 Thessalonians 4:1

Reciprocal: Exodus 34:32 - he gave Ezra 7:26 - whether it be Nehemiah 5:5 - we Psalms 19:9 - judgments Jeremiah 34:14 - At the Acts 7:38 - who

Verse 2

an Hebrew: Exodus 12:44, Exodus 22:3, Genesis 27:28, Genesis 27:36, Leviticus 25:39-Mark :, Leviticus 25:44, 2 Kings 4:1, Nehemiah 5:1-Deuteronomy :, Nehemiah 5:8, Matthew 18:25, 1 Corinthians 6:20

and in the: Leviticus 25:40-John :, Leviticus 25:45, Deuteronomy 15:1, Deuteronomy 15:12-Ezra :, Deuteronomy 15:18, Deuteronomy 31:10, Jeremiah 34:8-Esther :

Reciprocal: Genesis 17:13 - bought Exodus 21:7 - go out Exodus 21:11 - General Leviticus 25:54 - then Deuteronomy 15:13 - General Romans 7:14 - sold

Verse 3

by himself: Heb. with his body, Deuteronomy 15:12-2 Chronicles :

Reciprocal: Exodus 21:7 - go out Leviticus 25:40 - General Leviticus 25:41 - then shall Leviticus 25:54 - then

Verse 4

shall be her: Exodus 4:22, Genesis 14:14, Genesis 15:3, Genesis 17:13, Genesis 17:27, Genesis 18:19, Ecclesiastes 2:7, Jeremiah 2:14

Reciprocal: Genesis 16:2 - obtain children

Verse 5

And if: Deuteronomy 15:16, Deuteronomy 15:17, Isaiah 26:13, 2 Corinthians 5:14, 2 Corinthians 5:15

shall plainly say: Heb. saying shall say

Verse 6

the judges: Exodus 21:22, Exodus 12:12, Exodus 18:21-Ezekiel :, Exodus 22:8, Exodus 22:9, Exodus 22:28, Numbers 25:5-Ruth :, Deuteronomy 1:16, Deuteronomy 16:18, Deuteronomy 19:17, Deuteronomy 19:18, 1 Samuel 8:1, 1 Samuel 8:2, Isaiah 1:26, Zephaniah 3:3

bore his ear: This significant ceremony was intended as a mark of permanent servitude, and was calculated to impress the servant with the duty of hearing all his master's orders, and obeying them punctually. Psalms 40:6-Ruth :

for ever: Leviticus 25:23, Leviticus 25:40, Deuteronomy 15:17, 1 Samuel 1:22, 1 Samuel 27:12, 1 Samuel 28:2, 1 Kings 12:7

Reciprocal: Genesis 17:8 - everlasting Deuteronomy 15:16 - General Job 41:4 - a servant Psalms 82:1 - the gods

Verse 7

sell: Nehemiah 5:5

go out: Exodus 21:2, Exodus 21:3

Reciprocal: Genesis 31:15 - sold us Deuteronomy 21:14 - thou shalt Isaiah 50:1 - or which

Verse 8

please not: Heb. be evil in the eyes of, etc. Genesis 28:8, Judges 14:3, 1 Samuel 8:6, 1 Samuel 18:8, *marg.

who hath: Deuteronomy 20:7, Deuteronomy 21:11-2 Chronicles :

seeing: Exodus 8:29, Judges 9:19, Job 6:15, Malachi 2:11-Ezra :

Reciprocal: Ruth 4:2 - the elders

Verse 9

betrothed her unto: Exodus 22:17, Genesis 38:11, Leviticus 22:13

Verse 10

her food: Sheairah, "her flesh;" he shall not only afford her a sufficient quantity of food, as before, but of the same quality. She is not to be fed, like a common slave, with a sufficiency of bread, vegetables, milk, etc., but with her customary supply of flesh, and other agreeable articles of food. 1 Corinthians 7:1-Joshua :

Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 24:1 - hath taken 1 Corinthians 7:3 - General

Verse 11

Exodus 21:2

Verse 12

Exodus 20:13, Genesis 9:6, Leviticus 24:17, Numbers 35:16-Jeremiah :, Numbers 35:30, Numbers 35:31, Deuteronomy 19:11-1 Chronicles :, 2 Samuel 12:13, Matthew 26:52

Reciprocal: Genesis 9:5 - every Deuteronomy 17:8 - between blood Deuteronomy 27:24 - General 2 Samuel 3:28 - guiltless 2 Samuel 3:39 - I am 2 Samuel 4:11 - require 1 Kings 20:37 - Smite me 2 Kings 14:5 - that he slew Ezekiel 16:38 - shed Ezekiel 18:10 - a shedder Matthew 5:21 - and

Verse 13

lie not: Numbers 35:11, Numbers 35:22, Deuteronomy 19:4-Joshua :, Deuteronomy 19:11, Micah 7:2

God: 1 Samuel 24:4, 1 Samuel 24:10, 1 Samuel 24:18, 2 Samuel 16:10, Isaiah 10:7

I will appoint: Numbers 35:11, Deuteronomy 4:41-John :, Deuteronomy 19:1-Leviticus :, Deuteronomy 19:9, Joshua 20:2-1 Samuel :

Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 19:2 - separate three cities Judges 4:7 - deliver 2 Samuel 14:14 - he devise Daniel 3:14 - true

Verse 14

presumptuously: Numbers 15:30, Numbers 15:31, Deuteronomy 1:43, Deuteronomy 17:12, Deuteronomy 17:13, Deuteronomy 18:22, Deuteronomy 19:11-1 Chronicles :, 1 Kings 2:29-Nahum :, Psalms 19:13, Hebrews 10:26, 2 Peter 2:10

slay: Numbers 35:20, Numbers 35:21, Deuteronomy 27:24, 2 Samuel 3:27, 2 Samuel 20:9, 2 Samuel 20:10

take him: 1 Kings 1:50, 1 Kings 1:51, 1 Kings 2:28-Nahum :, 2 Kings 11:15

Reciprocal: Exodus 20:13 - General Numbers 35:31 - Moreover Joshua 20:2 - Appoint 1 Kings 2:31 - Do 2 Kings 11:8 - he that cometh 2 Chronicles 23:7 - whosoever 2 Chronicles 23:14 - Have her forth 2 Chronicles 25:3 - he slew Psalms 51:16 - desirest Proverbs 28:17 - General Daniel 3:14 - true 1 Timothy 1:9 - manslayers

Verse 15

To smite either father or mother, in a manner which indicated either contempt or malice, or left marks of violence, was deemed a proof of so ungrateful and unnatural a disposition, that no provocation was admitted as an excuse, but the offence was made capital: nay, he who cursed his father or mother, who uttered imprecations, ill wishes, or revilings, against a parent, was included in the same sense; though few crimes were made capital by the law of Moses. The law of God, as delegated to parents is honoured when they are honoured, and despised when they are despised, and to rebel against the lawful exercise of this authority is rebellion against God. - Rev. T. Scott Deuteronomy 21:18-Ecclesiastes :, Deuteronomy 27:24, Proverbs 30:11, Proverbs 30:17, 1 Timothy 1:9

Reciprocal: Exodus 20:12 - Honour Leviticus 19:3 - fear

Verse 16

stealeth: Genesis 40:15, Deuteronomy 24:7, 1 Timothy 1:10, Revelation 18:12

selleth him: Genesis 37:28

found in: Exodus 22:4

Reciprocal: Genesis 17:13 - bought Genesis 37:27 - sell him Exodus 20:15 - General Nehemiah 5:8 - sell your Ephesians 4:28 - him that Revelation 18:13 - slaves

Verse 17

curseth: or, revilteth, Leviticus 20:9, Deuteronomy 27:16, Proverbs 20:20, Proverbs 30:11, Proverbs 30:17, Matthew 15:3-Joshua :, Mark 7:10, Mark 7:11

Reciprocal: Exodus 20:12 - Honour Exodus 22:28 - nor curse Leviticus 19:3 - fear Deuteronomy 21:18 - obey the voice 2 Samuel 15:3 - there is Ezekiel 22:7 - set Matthew 15:4 - He

Verse 18

men: Exodus 21:22, Exodus 2:13, Deuteronomy 25:11, 2 Samuel 14:6

another: or, his neighbour

a stone: Exodus 21:20, Numbers 35:16-Jeremiah :

Reciprocal: Numbers 35:17 - throwing a stone

Verse 19

upon his staff: 2 Samuel 3:29, Zechariah 8:4

only he shall pay: This was a wise and excellent institution. The same provision is made in the civil law; and most courts of justice still regulate their decisions in such cases by this Mosaic precept.

the loss: Heb. his ceasing

Reciprocal: Exodus 21:27 - smite

Verse 20

smite: Exodus 21:26, Exodus 21:27, Deuteronomy 19:21, Proverbs 29:19, Isaiah 58:3, Isaiah 58:4

he shall: Genesis 9:6, Numbers 35:30-Micah :

punished: Heb. avenged, Genesis 4:15, Genesis 4:24, Numbers 35:19, Romans 13:4

Reciprocal: Exodus 20:13 - General Exodus 21:18 - a stone Leviticus 19:20 - she shall be scourged Deuteronomy 17:8 - between blood Job 31:13 - the cause

Verse 21

Leviticus 25:45, Leviticus 25:46

Reciprocal: Genesis 37:27 - sell him Exodus 23:9 - thou shalt not Leviticus 19:20 - she shall be scourged Job 31:13 - the cause

Verse 22

strive: Exodus 21:18

as the judges: Exodus 21:30, Deuteronomy 16:18, Deuteronomy 22:18, Deuteronomy 22:19

Reciprocal: Exodus 21:6 - the judges Deuteronomy 17:8 - between blood 2 Kings 23:33 - put Matthew 5:38 - An eye

Verse 23

life for life: Numbers 35:31

Reciprocal: Leviticus 24:20 - General Deuteronomy 19:21 - life shall Judges 1:7 - as I have Revelation 13:10 - that leadeth Revelation 18:6 - Reward

Verse 24

This is the earliest account we have of the פבץפןנבטויב, tautopatheia, Lex Talionis, law of like for like. Exodus 21:26, Exodus 21:27, Leviticus 24:19, Leviticus 24:20, Deuteronomy 19:21, Judges 1:6, Judges 1:7, 1 Samuel 15:33, Matthew 5:38-:, Matthew 7:2, Luke 6:38, Revelation 16:6

Verse 26

Exodus 21:20, Deuteronomy 16:19, Nehemiah 5:5, Job 31:13-Ezra :, Psalms 9:12, Psalms 10:14, Psalms 10:18, Psalms 72:12-2 Chronicles :, Proverbs 22:22, Proverbs 22:23, Ephesians 6:9, Colossians 4:1

Reciprocal: Exodus 21:24 - General

Verse 27

smite: Exodus 21:19

Reciprocal: Exodus 21:20 - smite Exodus 21:24 - General Job 31:13 - the cause

Verse 28

the ox: Exodus 21:32, Genesis 9:5, Genesis 9:6, Leviticus 20:15, Leviticus 20:16

Reciprocal: Genesis 3:14 - thou art Exodus 19:13 - whether Deuteronomy 17:8 - between blood Deuteronomy 22:8 - then thou shalt

Verse 29

his owner also: Deuteronomy 21:1-1 Samuel :

Reciprocal: Genesis 9:5 - every Exodus 19:13 - whether Exodus 20:13 - General Exodus 21:32 - and the ox Exodus 21:34 - General Exodus 21:36 - General

Verse 30

for the ransom: Exodus 21:22, Exodus 30:12, Numbers 35:31-Micah :, Proverbs 13:8

Reciprocal: Exodus 21:34 - General 1 Kings 20:39 - or else

Verse 31

judgment: or, sentence, Exodus 21:31

Reciprocal: Habakkuk 3:6 - and measured

Verse 32

Genesis 37:28, Zechariah 11:12, Zechariah 11:13, Matthew 26:15, Matthew 27:3-1 Samuel :, Philippians 2:7

and the ox: Exodus 21:28, Exodus 21:29

Reciprocal: Leviticus 20:16 - and the beast Matthew 27:9 - thirty

Verse 33

Psalms 9:15, Psalms 119:85, Proverbs 28:10, Ecclesiastes 10:8, Jeremiah 18:20, Jeremiah 18:22

Reciprocal: Exodus 22:6 - he that kindled the fire Leviticus 24:21 - a beast

Verse 34

Exodus 21:29, Exodus 21:30, Exodus 22:6, Exodus 22:14

Reciprocal: Exodus 22:5 - shall he make restitution Leviticus 24:18 - that killeth

Verse 36

Exodus 21:29

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Exodus 21". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/tsk/exodus-21.html.