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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Isaiah 36

Introduction

1Sennacherib invades Judah.
2Rabshakeh, sent by Sennacherib, by blasphemous persuasions solicits the people to revolt.
22His words are told to Hezekiah.

Verse 1

Now it came to pass in the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah, that Sennacherib king of Assyria came up against all the defenced cities of Judah, and took them.
it came
2 Kings 18:13,17; 2 Chronicles 32:1
that Sennacherib
1:7,8; 7:17; 8:7,8; 10:28-32; 33:7,8
Reciprocal: 2 Chronicles 12:4 - the fenced; 2 Chronicles 32:32 - in the vision; Nehemiah 9:32 - since the time; Isaiah 19:17 - the land; Isaiah 22:8 - he discovered; Isaiah 42:22 - a people; Isaiah 52:4 - the Assyrian; Jeremiah 50:17 - first; Hosea 1:7 - I will; Matthew 1:9 - Ezekias

Verse 2

And the king of Assyria sent Rabshakeh from Lachish to Jerusalem unto king Hezekiah with a great army. And he stood by the conduit of the upper pool in the highway of the fuller's field.
A. M. 3294. B.C. 710. sent
2 Kings 18:17-37; 2 Chronicles 32:9-23
the conduit
7:3; 22:9-11
Reciprocal: 2 Samuel 20:13 - the highway; 1 Kings 20:2 - General

Verse 3

Then came forth unto him Eliakim, Hilkiah's son, which was over the house, and Shebna the scribe, and Joah, Asaph's son, the recorder.
Eliakim
22:15-20
Shebna
2 Samuel 8:16,17; 20:24,25
scribe
or, secretary.
Reciprocal: 2 Kings 18:18 - Eliakim; Isaiah 22:20 - Eliakim; Isaiah 33:7 - the ambassadors; Isaiah 36:22 - Eliakim; Isaiah 37:2 - General

Verse 4

And Rabshakeh said unto them, Say ye now to Hezekiah, Thus saith the great king, the king of Assyria, What confidence is this wherein thou trustest?
Thus saith
10:8-14; 37:11-15; Proverbs 16:18; Ezekiel 31:3-18; Daniel 4:30; Acts 12:22,23; Jude 1:16
Assyria
Assyria proper, now Kourdistan, was bounded by Armenia on the north, Media and Persia on the east, Babylonia on the south, and the Tigris, which divides it from Mesopotamia, on the west, between 33 degrees and 38 degrees N. lat. and 42 degrees and 46 degrees E. long. But the Assyrian empire, the bounds of which were different at different times, in its most flourishing state, according to the descriptions of the Greek and Roman writers, comprehended all the countries and nations between the Mediterranean on the west, and the Indus on the east, and between the deserts of Scythia on the north, and the Indian ocean on the south.
What
2 Kings 18:5,19-37; 19:10; 2 Chronicles 32:7-10,14-16; Psalms 42:3,10; 71:10,11
Reciprocal: 2 Chronicles 32:10 - Thus saith; Isaiah 36:13 - Hear; Isaiah 37:10 - Let not; Isaiah 37:29 - rage; Jeremiah 48:14 - How; Ezekiel 29:16 - the confidence; Ezekiel 31:5 - his height; Ezekiel 31:8 - nor any; 2 Corinthians 5:6 - we are always

Verse 5

I say, sayest thou, (but they are but vain words) I have counsel and strength for war: now on whom dost thou trust, that thou rebellest against me?
vain words
Heb. a word of lips. I have counsel and strength for war. or, but counsel and strength are for the war.
Proverbs 21:30,31; 24:5,6
that
2 Kings 18:7; 24:1; Nehemiah 2:19,20; Jeremiah 52:3; Ezekiel 17:15
Reciprocal: Jeremiah 48:14 - How

Verse 6

Lo, thou trustest in the staff of this broken reed, on Egypt; whereon if a man lean, it will go into his hand, and pierce it: so is Pharaoh king of Egypt to all that trust in him.
20:5,6; 30:1-7; 31:3; 2 Kings 17:4; 18:21; Jeremiah 37:5-8; Ezekiel 29:6,7
Reciprocal: 2 Kings 18:24 - thy trust; Psalm 118:9 - than to put; Proverbs 25:19 - General; Song of Solomon 8:5 - leaning; Isaiah 30:2 - walk; Isaiah 31:1 - to them; Isaiah 36:9 - and put; Jeremiah 17:5 - Cursed; Ezekiel 17:15 - in; Ezekiel 17:17 - shall

Verse 7

But if thou say to me, We trust in the LORD our God: is it not he, whose high places and whose altars Hezekiah hath taken away, and said to Judah and to Jerusalem, Ye shall worship before this altar?
We trust
2 Kings 18:5,22; 1 Chronicles 5:20; 2 Chronicles 16:7-9; 32:7,8; Psalms 22:4,5; 42:5,10,11
is it not
Deuteronomy 12:2-6,13,14; 2 Kings 18:4; 2 Chronicles 30:14; 31:1; 32:12; 1 Corinthians 2:15
Reciprocal: 2 Kings 18:19 - What confidence; Psalm 118:9 - than to put; Isaiah 36:15 - General; Isaiah 36:18 - lest

Verse 8

Now therefore give pledges, I pray thee, to my master the king of Assyria, and I will give thee two thousand horses, if thou be able on thy part to set riders upon them.
pledges
or, hostages.
2 Kings 14:14
and I
10:13,14; 1 Samuel 17:40-43; 1 Kings 20:10,18; 2 Kings 18:23; Nehemiah 4:2-5; Psalms 20:7,8; 123:3,4
Reciprocal: Genesis 49:18 - General; Deuteronomy 17:16 - multiply horses; Judges 9:29 - Increase thine army; 1 Samuel 17:36 - seeing; 2 Kings 13:7 - fifty horsemen; Psalm 80:6 - our enemies; Isaiah 10:8 - General; Jeremiah 9:23 - neither; Hosea 14:3 - we will not

Verse 9

How then wilt thou turn away the face of one captain of the least of my master's servants, and put thy trust on Egypt for chariots and for horsemen?
the least
10:8; 2 Kings 18:24
and put
6; 30:16,17; Deuteronomy 17:16; Proverbs 21:31; Jeremiah 2:36
Reciprocal: Judges 9:29 - Increase thine army; 1 Kings 10:28 - horses brought; 2 Kings 7:6 - the kings of the Egyptians; 2 Kings 18:23 - I will deliver; 2 Chronicles 32:21 - the leaders; 2 Chronicles 33:11 - the captains; Isaiah 23:8 - merchants; Isaiah 31:1 - stay on horses; Isaiah 37:24 - By the; Jeremiah 9:23 - neither

Verse 10

And am I now come up without the LORD against this land to destroy it? the LORD said unto me, Go up against this land, and destroy it.
10:5-7; 37:28; 1 Kings 13:18; 2 Kings 18:25; 2 Chronicles 35:21; Amos 3:6
Reciprocal: Genesis 19:13 - Lord hath; Isaiah 36:18 - lest; Isaiah 37:29 - rage

Verse 11

Then said Eliakim and Shebna and Joah unto Rabshakeh, Speak, I pray thee, unto thy servants in the Syrian language; for we understand it: and speak not to us in the Jews' language, in the ears of the people that are on the wall.
in the Syrian
2 Kings 18:26,27; Ezra 4:7; Daniel 2:4
Reciprocal: Nehemiah 4:5 - before the builders; Isaiah 22:20 - Eliakim; Isaiah 36:22 - Eliakim

Verse 12

But Rabshakeh said, Hath my master sent me to thy master and to thee to speak these words? hath he not sent me to the men that sit upon the wall, that they may eat their own dung, and drink their own piss with you?
that they may
9:20; Leviticus 26:29; Deuteronomy 28:53-57; 2 Kings 6:25-29; 18:27; Jeremiah 19:9; Lamentations 4:9,10; Ezekiel 4:16
Reciprocal: 2 Kings 18:26 - in the Syrian language; 2 Chronicles 32:11 - to give over; Nehemiah 4:5 - before the builders; Psalm 80:6 - our enemies; Isaiah 3:1 - the Lord; Isaiah 37:25 - with the sole

Verse 13

Then Rabshakeh stood, and cried with a loud voice in the Jews' language, and said, Hear ye the words of the great king, the king of Assyria.
cried
1 Samuel 17:8-11; 2 Kings 18:28-32; 2 Chronicles 32:18; Psalms 17:10-13; 73:8,9; 82:6,7
Hear
4; 8:7; 10:8-13; Ezekiel 31:3-10; Daniel 4:37
Reciprocal: Hosea 8:10 - the king

Verse 14

Thus saith the king, Let not Hezekiah deceive you: for he shall not be able to deliver you.
37:10-13; 2 Kings 19:10-13,22; 2 Chronicles 32:11,13-19; Daniel 3:15-17; 6:20; Daniel 7:25; 2 Thessalonians 2:4; Revelation 13:5,6
Reciprocal: Psalm 25:2 - let not

Verse 15

Neither let Hezekiah make you trust in the LORD, saying, The LORD will surely deliver us: this city shall not be delivered into the hand of the king of Assyria.
7; 37:23,24; Psalms 4:2; 22:7,8; 71:9-11; Matthew 27:43
Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 17:36 - seeing; Isaiah 36:18 - lest; Isaiah 37:10 - Let not; Isaiah 37:38 - his god

Verse 16

Hearken not to Hezekiah: for thus saith the king of Assyria, Make an agreement with me by a present, and come out to me: and eat ye every one of his vine, and every one of his fig tree, and drink ye every one the waters of his own cistern;
Make an agreement with me by a present
or, Seek my favour by a present. Heb. Make with me a blessing.
Genesis 32:20; 33:11; 1 Samuel 25:27; 2 Samuel 8:6; 2 Kings 5:15; 18:31; 2 Corinthians 9:5; *marg:
come out
1 Samuel 11:3; 2 Kings 24:12-16
eat ye
1 Kings 4:20,25; Micah 4:4; Zechariah 3:10
Reciprocal: Judges 3:15 - sent a present; 1 Samuel 11:1 - Make; 2 Samuel 8:2 - brought gifts; 1 Kings 10:25 - every man

Verse 17

Until I come and take you away to a land like your own land, a land of corn and wine, a land of bread and vineyards.
I come
2 Kings 17:6-23; 18:9-12; 24:11; Proverbs 12:10
a land of corn
Exodus 3:8; Deuteronomy 8:7-9; 11:12; Job 20:17; The other copy in 2; 18:32,; that ye may live, and not die: and hearken not unto Hezekiah when he seduceth you."

Verse 18

Beware lest Hezekiah persuade you, saying, The LORD will deliver us. Hath any of the gods of the nations delivered his land out of the hand of the king of Assyria?
lest
7,10,15; 37:10; Psalms 12:4; 92:5-7
Hath
37:12,13,17,18; 2 Kings 18:33-35; 19:12,13,17,18; 2 Chronicles 32:13-17; Psalms 115:2-8; 135:5,6,15-18; Jeremiah 10:3-5,10-12; Daniel 3:15; Habakkuk 2:19,20
Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 17:36 - seeing; 2 Kings 18:34 - the gods; 2 Chronicles 32:8 - rested; 2 Chronicles 32:11 - to give over; 2 Chronicles 32:15 - persuade; Isaiah 10:7 - in his heart; Isaiah 37:11 - General; Isaiah 37:19 - And have; Isaiah 37:38 - his god; Isaiah 46:2 - they could; Ezekiel 25:8 - the house; Ezekiel 31:5 - his height; Amos 6:2 - better; Matthew 27:43 - trusted

Verse 19

Where are the gods of Hamath and Arphad? where are the gods of Sepharvaim? and have they delivered Samaria out of my hand?
Hamath
Numbers 34:8; 2 Samuel 8:9
Arphad
The variation of Arphad and Arpad exists only in the translation; the original being uniformly [ ()]
10:9; Jeremiah 49:23
Arpad
Sepharvaim
Calmet is of opinion that Sepharvaim was the capital of the Saspires, who, according to Herodotus, were the only people that inhabited between the Colchians and Medes; and probably the Sarapases, whom Strabo places in Armenia. Hiller considers the name as denoting Sephar of the Parvaim, i.e., Mount Sephar adjacent to the regions of Arabia called Parvaim. But it is more probable, as Wells and others suppose, that Sepharvaim is the [Sipphara] Sipphara, of Ptolemy, the [Sipparenon polis] the city of the Sippareni, mentioned by Abydenus, and probably the Hipparenum of Pliny, a city of Mesopotamia, situated upon the Euphrates, near where it is divided into two arms, by one of which, it is probable, it was divided into two parts.
2 Kings 17:24
and have
10:10,11; 2 Kings 17:5-7; 18:10-12
Reciprocal: 2 Kings 18:34 - the gods; Isaiah 37:13 - Hamath; Isaiah 44:17 - Deliver me; Isaiah 46:2 - they could; Jeremiah 16:20 - General; Ezekiel 31:5 - his height; Amos 6:2 - better

Verse 20

Who are they among all the gods of these lands, that have delivered their land out of my hand, that the LORD should deliver Jerusalem out of my hand?
that the Lord
37:18,19,23-29; 45:16,17; Exodus 5:2; 2 Kings 19:22-37; 2 Chronicles 32:15,19; Job 15:25,26; 40:9-12; Psalms 50:21; 73:9; Daniel 3:15
Reciprocal: Exodus 15:9 - I will pursue; Psalm 55:19 - no changes; Isaiah 10:11 - as I have; Isaiah 37:4 - to reproach; Isaiah 37:10 - Let not; Isaiah 37:12 - the gods; Isaiah 44:17 - Deliver me; Isaiah 50:2 - have I; Ezekiel 35:13 - with

Verse 21

But they held their peace, and answered him not a word: for the king's commandment was, saying, Answer him not.
2 Kings 18:26,37; Psalms 38:13-15; 39:1; Proverbs 9:7; 26:4; Amos 5:13; Matthew 7:6
Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 10:27 - he held his peace; 1 Samuel 25:12 - came; Proverbs 23:9 - Speak; Ecclesiastes 3:7 - time to keep

Verse 22

Then came Eliakim, the son of Hilkiah, that was over the household, and Shebna the scribe, and Joah, the son of Asaph, the recorder, to Hezekiah with their clothes rent, and told him the words of Rabshakeh.
Eliakim
3,11
with their
33:7; 37:1,2; 2 Kings 5:7; Ezra 9:3; Matthew 26:65; The history of the invasion of Sennacherib, observes Bp. Lowth, and the miraculous destruction of his army, which makes the subject of so many of Isaiah's prophecies, is very properly inserted here, as affording the best light to many parts of these prophecies; and as almost necessary to introduce the prophecy in the 37th chapter, being the answer of God to Hezekiah's prayer, which could not be properly understood without it. Sennacherib succeeded his father Shalmaneser on the throne of Assyria, A.M. 3290, B.C. 714, and reigned only about eight years. Reciprocal: Genesis 37:34 - General; 1 Samuel 25:12 - came; 2 Kings 18:18 - Eliakim; 2 Kings 18:37 - with their clothes rent; Proverbs 25:1 - which; Isaiah 22:20 - Eliakim; Isaiah 28:19 - and it; Isaiah 29:2 - I will; Jeremiah 18:13 - virgin; Jeremiah 36:24 - nor rent; Lamentations 2:10 - they have girded; Mark 14:63 - his

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Isaiah 36". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/tsk/isaiah-36.html.