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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Judges 18

Overview

Judges 18:1, The Danites send five men to seek out an inheritance; Judges 18:3, At the house of Micah they consult with Jonathan, and are encouraged on their way; Judges 18:7, They search Laish, and bring back news of good hope; Judges 18:11, Six hundred men are sent to surprise it; Judges 18:14, In their way they rob Micah of his priest and his consecrated things; Judges 18:27, They win Laish, and call it Dan; Judges 18:30, They set up idolatry, wherein Jonathan inherits the priesthood.

Verse 1

no king: The word mailech, which generally means a king, is sometimes taken for a supreme ruler, governor, or judge - see note on Genesis 36:31, and see note on Deuteronomy 33:5, and it is probable it should be so understood here, and in the parallel passages. Judges 17:6, Judges 19:1, Judges 21:25

the tribe: Joshua 19:40-48

for unto: Judges 1:34

Reciprocal: Genesis 49:16 - General Joshua 19:47 - the coast Judges 18:28 - far from Mark 14:26 - hymn

Verse 2

men: Heb. sons

Zorah: Judges 18:8, Judges 18:11, Judges 13:2, Judges 13:25, Judges 16:31, Genesis 42:9, Joshua 19:41

to spy: Numbers 13:17, Joshua 2:1, Proverbs 20:18, Luke 14:31

mount: Judges 17:1, Judges 19:1, Judges 19:18, Joshua 17:15-18

Reciprocal: Genesis 49:16 - General Judges 1:23 - sent Judges 18:13 - mount Ephraim Judges 18:17 - five men 1 Chronicles 19:3 - to search

Verse 3

they knew: They knew by his dialect or mode of pronunciation, that he was not an Ephraimite - see the parallel texts. Judges 12:6, Genesis 27:22, Matthew 26:73

and what hast: Isaiah 22:16

Reciprocal: Judges 18:13 - mount Ephraim Judges 18:14 - in these Isaiah 52:5 - what

Verse 4

hired me: Judges 17:10, Proverbs 28:21, Isaiah 56:11, Ezekiel 13:19, Hosea 4:8, Hosea 4:9, Malachi 1:10, John 10:12, John 10:13, Acts 8:18-21, Acts 20:33, 1 Timothy 3:3, Titus 1:11, 2 Peter 2:3, 2 Peter 2:14, 2 Peter 2:15

Reciprocal: Judges 18:14 - in these 2 Samuel 20:21 - his head

Verse 5

Ask counsel: 1 Kings 22:5, 2 Kings 16:15, Isaiah 30:1, Ezekiel 21:21, Hosea 4:12, Acts 8:10

of God: Judges 18:14, Judges 17:5, Judges 17:13

Reciprocal: Genesis 24:14 - thereby Judges 17:3 - I had wholly

Verse 6

Go in peace: 1 Kings 22:6, 1 Kings 22:12, 1 Kings 22:15, Jeremiah 23:21, Jeremiah 23:22, Jeremiah 23:32

before: Deuteronomy 11:12, Psalms 33:18, 1 Thessalonians 3:11

the Lord: As the Levite uses the word Jehovah, and as the Danites succeeded according to the oracle delivered by him, some learned men are of opinion, that the worship established by Micah was not of an idolatrous kind.

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 1:17 - Go Acts 16:36 - and go

Verse 7

Laish: Joshua 19:47, called Leshem

how they: Judges 18:27, Judges 18:28, Revelation 18:7

magistrate: Heb. possessor, or, heir of restraint, 1 Samuel 3:13, 1 Kings 1:6, Romans 13:3, 1 Peter 2:14

and had no: In the most correct copies of the LXX this clause stands thus; ךבי כןדןע ןץך חם בץפןיע לופבץסיבע; "and they had no transactions with Syria;" evidently reading instead of אדם [Strong's H120], adam, man, ארם [Strong's H758], aram, Syria; words so nearly similar that the only difference between them is in the ר, raish, and ד, daleth, which in both manuscripts and printed books is sometimes indiscernible. Laish was situated on the frontiers of Syria.

Reciprocal: Judges 3:3 - Sidonians Judges 18:10 - secure Judges 21:25 - right 1 Kings 16:31 - the Zidonians 1 Chronicles 4:40 - the land Isaiah 10:30 - Laish Isaiah 47:8 - given Jeremiah 49:31 - that Ezekiel 30:9 - careless Ezekiel 38:11 - go to Ezekiel 39:6 - carelessly Amos 6:1 - to them

Verse 8

Zorah and Eshtaol: Judges 18:2, Judges 18:11, Judges 13:2, Judges 16:31

Reciprocal: 1 Chronicles 19:3 - to search

Verse 9

Arise: Numbers 13:30, Numbers 14:7-9, Joshua 2:23, Joshua 2:24

are ye still: 1 Kings 22:23

be not: Joshua 18:3, 1 Samuel 4:9, 2 Samuel 10:12, John 6:27, Hebrews 6:11, Hebrews 6:12, 2 Peter 1:10, 2 Peter 1:11

Reciprocal: 2 Samuel 19:10 - speak ye not a word 1 Chronicles 22:16 - Arise

Verse 10

secure: Judges 18:7, Judges 18:27

God hath: Deuteronomy 2:29, Deuteronomy 4:1, Joshua 6:16

where there: Exodus 3:8, Deuteronomy 8:7-9, Deuteronomy 11:11, Deuteronomy 11:12, Ezekiel 20:6, 1 Timothy 6:17

Reciprocal: 1 Chronicles 22:16 - Arise Ecclesiastes 6:2 - so

Verse 11

appointed: Heb. girded, Judges 18:11

Reciprocal: Judges 13:25 - between Judges 18:2 - Zorah Judges 18:8 - Zorah and Eshtaol Judges 18:16 - six hundred

Verse 12

Kirjathjearim: A city of Judah, on the confines of Benjamin; distant nine miles from Alia or Jerusalem, in going towards Diospolis or Lydda, according to Eusebius. Joshua 15:60, 1 Samuel 7:1, 1 Chronicles 13:5, 1 Chronicles 13:6, 2 Chronicles 1:4

Mahanehdan: Judges 13:25, *marg.

Reciprocal: Joshua 15:9 - Kirjathjearim 1 Samuel 6:21 - Kirjathjearim Nehemiah 7:29 - Kirjathjearim

Verse 13

mount Ephraim: Judges 18:2, Judges 18:3, Judges 17:1, Judges 19:1, Joshua 24:30, Joshua 24:33

Verse 14

Then: 1 Samuel 14:28

in these: Judges 18:3, Judges 18:4, Judges 17:5

now therefore: Proverbs 19:27, Isaiah 8:19, Isaiah 8:20

Reciprocal: Genesis 31:19 - images Joshua 2:1 - to spy secretly Judges 8:27 - an ephod Judges 18:5 - of God Judges 18:17 - five men 1 Samuel 19:13 - an image Job 3:2 - spake Ezekiel 21:21 - images Zechariah 10:2 - the idols

Verse 15

saluted him: Heb. asked him of peace, Genesis 37:14, Genesis 43:27, 1 Samuel 17:22, *marg. 2 Kings 4:26, Matthew 10:12, Matthew 10:13, Luke 10:4-6, John 14:27

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 10:4 - salute thee Jeremiah 15:5 - how thou doest

Verse 16

six hundred: Judges 18:11

Verse 17

five men: Judges 18:2, Judges 18:14

the graven: Judges 6:31, Judges 17:4, Judges 17:5, Exodus 32:20, 1 Samuel 4:11, 1 Samuel 6:2-9, 2 Kings 19:18, 2 Kings 19:19, Isaiah 46:1, Isaiah 46:2, Isaiah 46:7

Reciprocal: Joshua 2:1 - to spy secretly Judges 8:27 - an ephod 1 Samuel 19:13 - an image 2 Kings 23:24 - images Isaiah 41:7 - goldsmith Hosea 3:4 - without teraphim

Verse 18

Reciprocal: 2 Kings 23:24 - images Isaiah 41:7 - goldsmith Isaiah 46:2 - but Ezekiel 21:21 - images

Verse 19

lay thine: This was the token of silence. These men were evidently very ignorant; and absurdly concluded that they should, by taking Micah's gods, secure the presence and favour of the God of Israel, in their expedition and settlement. They perhaps supposed the piety of their motives, and the goodness of their end, would justify the means. But it was a base robbery of Micah, aggravated by the Levite's ingratitude, and their menaces. Job 21:5, Job 29:9, Job 40:4, Job 40:5, Proverbs 30:32, Micah 7:16

a father: Judges 17:10, 2 Kings 6:21, 2 Kings 8:8, 2 Kings 8:9, 2 Kings 13:14, Matthew 23:9

Reciprocal: Matthew 26:15 - What 1 Timothy 6:10 - the love

Verse 20

heart: Judges 17:10, Proverbs 30:15, Isaiah 56:11, Ezekiel 13:19, Hosea 4:3, Acts 20:33, Philippians 3:19, 2 Peter 2:3, 2 Peter 2:15, 2 Peter 2:16

went: He was glad of his preferment among the Danites; and went into the crowd, that he might not be discovered by Micah or his family.

Reciprocal: Judges 16:25 - their hearts Ezekiel 21:21 - images Matthew 26:15 - What 1 Timothy 6:10 - the love

Verse 21

and put: These men were so confident of success, that they removed their whole families, household goods, cattle, and all.

the carriage: Kevoodah, from kavad, to be heavy, denotes the luggage or baggage. Judges 18:21

Reciprocal: Joshua 21:31 - Rehob

Verse 22

Reciprocal: Genesis 49:17 - shall be

Verse 23

What aileth: Genesis 21:17, 1 Samuel 11:5, 2 Samuel 14:5, 2 Kings 6:28, Psalms 114:5, Isaiah 22:1

comest: Heb. art gathered together

Reciprocal: Matthew 19:22 - he went Luke 18:23 - he was very sorrowful Revelation 18:15 - shall

Verse 24

what have: Judges 17:13, Psalms 115:8, Isaiah 44:18-20, Jeremiah 50:38, Jeremiah 51:17, Ezekiel 23:5, Habakkuk 2:18, Habakkuk 2:19, Acts 19:26, Revelation 17:2

Reciprocal: Genesis 31:30 - my gods Genesis 40:7 - Wherefore Judges 17:5 - an house of gods Isaiah 41:7 - goldsmith Isaiah 44:13 - that it may Isaiah 46:2 - but Ezekiel 21:21 - images Daniel 11:8 - their gods Hosea 10:5 - for the people Matthew 19:22 - he went Luke 18:23 - he was very sorrowful Revelation 18:15 - shall

Verse 25

angry: Heb. bitter of soul, 1 Samuel 30:6, 2 Samuel 17:8, Job 3:5, Job 27:2, *marg.

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 2:16 - I will take 1 Samuel 22:2 - discontented

Verse 26

Reciprocal: Ezekiel 48:1 - Dan

Verse 27

Laish: Judges 18:7, Judges 18:10

they smote: Deuteronomy 33:22, Joshua 19:47

burnt: Joshua 11:11

Reciprocal: Judges 8:11 - secure Isaiah 47:8 - given Jeremiah 49:31 - that Ezekiel 38:11 - go to 1 Thessalonians 5:3 - Peace

Verse 28

And there: 2 Samuel 14:6, *marg. Psalms 7:2, Psalms 50:22, Daniel 3:15-17

far from: Probably the people of Laish were originally a colony of the Zidonians; who being an opulent people, and in possession of a strong city, lived in a state of security, not being afraid of their neighbours. In this the Leshemites imitated them, though they appear not to have had the same reason for their confidence; and though they might naturally expect help from their countrymen, yet as they lived at a considerable distance from Sidon, the Danites saw they could strike the blow before the news of the invasion could reach that city. Judges 18:1, Judges 18:7, Joshua 11:8, Isaiah 23:4, Isaiah 23:12

Bethrehob: Numbers 13:21, Rehob, 2 Samuel 10:6

Reciprocal: 2 Samuel 24:6 - Zidon 2 Chronicles 16:4 - Dan Jeremiah 49:31 - which dwell 1 Thessalonians 5:3 - Peace

Verse 29

Dan: Judges 20:1, Genesis 14:14, Joshua 19:47, 2 Samuel 17:11, 1 Kings 12:29, 1 Kings 12:30, 1 Kings 15:20

who was: Genesis 30:6, Genesis 32:28, Laish, or Dan, was situated at the northern extremity of the land of Canaan, in a beautiful and fertile plain, at the foot of mount Lebanon, on the springs of Jordan, and, according to Eusebius, four miles from Cesarea Philippi, or Paneas, now Banias - with which some have confounded it towards Tyre. Burckhardt says, that the source of the river El Dhan, or Jordan, is at an hour's distance from Banias, which agrees with Eusebius.

Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 34:1 - Dan 2 Samuel 24:6 - land of Tahtimhodshi 2 Chronicles 16:4 - Dan Isaiah 10:30 - Laish Jeremiah 4:15 - a voice Jeremiah 8:16 - was heard Ezekiel 27:19 - Dan 1 Timothy 6:10 - the love

Verse 30

set up: Exodus 20:4, Leviticus 26:1, Deuteronomy 17:2-7, Deuteronomy 27:15, Deuteronomy 31:16, Deuteronomy 31:29, Joshua 19:40-48, Psalms 78:58-61, God had graciously performed his promise, in putting these Danites in possession of that which fell to their lot, obliging them thereby to be faithful to him who had been so to them; they inherited the labour of the people, that they might observe his statues. Psalms 105:44, Psalms 105:45. But the first thing they do after they are settled is to break his laws, by setting up the graven image, attributing their success to that idol, which, if God had not been infinitely patient, would have been their ruin. Thus a prosperous idolater goes on to offend, imputing this his power unto his God. Instead of Manasseh, some would read Moses; as it is found in some manuscripts, in the Vulgate and in the concessions of the most intelligent Jews. But Bp. Patrick takes this to be an idle conceit of the Rabbins, and supposes this Jonathan to be of some other family of the Levites. Yet Kimchi acknowledges, that the Jews, deeply concerned for the honour of their lawgiver, to whom they thought it would be a great dishonour to have a grandson who was an idolater, suspended the letter, נ, noon, over the word מש [Strong's H4872], [Strong's H4873], Moses, thus מנשה [Strong's H4519], as it is found in the Hebrew Bibles; which, by means of the points, they have changed into Manasseh.

until: Judges 13:1; 1 Samuel 4:2-3, 1 Samuel 4:10-11; Psalms 78:60-62

the land: Houbigant contends, that, instead of haaretz, "the land," we should read haaron, "the ark;" for the ו, wav, and ן, noon final, might easily be mistaken for ץ, tzadday final; which is the only difference between the two words. This conjecture is the more likely, as the next verse tells us, that Micah's graven image continued at Dan "all the time that the house of God was at Shiloh;" which was till the ark was taken by the Philistines.

Reciprocal: Judges 17:12 - his priest Psalms 78:61 - his strength

Verse 31

all the time: Judges 19:18, Judges 21:21, Joshua 18:1, 1 Samuel 1:3, 1 Samuel 4:4, Jeremiah 7:12

Reciprocal: Genesis 31:19 - images Judges 20:18 - house of Acts 7:45 - Which

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Judges 18". "Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/tsk/judges-18.html.