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Bible Commentaries

Vincent's Word Studies

1 John 4

Verse 1

Beloved. Again the recognition of danger from false spirits prompts this affectionate address. Compare 1 John 3:21.

Try [δοκιμαζετε] . Better, as Rev., prove. See on 1 Peter 1:7; Luke 12:55. Compare the phrase discerning of spirits, 1 Corinthians 12:10.

Of God [εκ] . Out of : proceeding from.

False prophets [ψευδοπροφηται] . The term is applied in the New Testament to rivals of true prophets under the old dispensation (Luke 6:26; 2 Peter 2:1), and to rivals of the apostles under the gospel economy (Matthew 7:15; Matthew 24:11, Matthew 24:24; Mark 13:22). In Revelation to "the embodied power of spiritual falsehood" (xvi. 13; Mr 19:20; Mr 20:10). The false prophet supports his claims by signs and portents (Matthew 24:24; Acts 13:6; Revelation 19:20) and is thus distinguished from the false teacher. See 2 Peter 2:1, where the two terms occur together.

Are gone out [εξαληλυθασιν] . The perfect tense indicates that the influence of their going out on their false mission is in operation at the present.

Verse 2

Hereby [εν τουτω] . See on 2 3.

Know ye [γινωσκετε] . Perceive. See on John 2:24.

Confesseth [ομολογει] . See on Matthew 7:23; Matthew 10:32.

That Jesus Christ is come in the flesh [ιησουν χριστον εν σαρκι εληλυθοτα] . Lit., Jesus Christ having come, etc. The whole phrase forms the direct object of the verb confesseth.

Of God. Compare 1 Corinthians 12:3.

Verse 3

Is come in the flesh. Omit. Render, confesseth not Jesus. So Rev. An ancient reading is luei ton Ihsoun annulleth or destroyeth Jesus. " The simple Jesus emphasizes the humanity of our Lord considered in itself. See Romans 3:26; Romans 10:9; 2 Corinthians 11:4; Ephesians 4:21; Hebrews 2:9. This [τουτο] . Not this spirit, but this non - confession, summed up in all its manifestations.

Cometh. See on 2 18.

Verse 4

Have overcome. See on 2 13.

Greater. Compare 1 John 3:20.

In you. The Christian society. Compare John 6:56; John 14:20; John 14:4-10; John 17:23, John 17:26; Galatians 2:20 (of the individual).

He that is in the world. In 1 John 5:19, the world is said to be in the evil one. Compare Ephesians 2:2.

Verse 5

Of the world [εκ του κοσμου] . Proceeding from, as their source [εκ] . Different from ejk thv ghv from the earth (John 3:31), as marking the whole worldly economy morally considered.

Speak they of the world (ejk tou kosmou lalousin) An ambiguous rendering, which might readily be interpreted "they speak concerning the world." Literally it is : "they speak out of the world; i e., the character of their utterances corresponds to their origin. Rev.," speak they as of the world. "The position of the world in the sentence is emphatic :" it is out of the world that they speak. "

Verse 6

He that knoweth [ο γινωσκων] . Lit., the one knowing : he who is habitually and ever more clearly perceiving and recognizing God as his Christian life unfolds. The knowledge is regarded as progressive and not complete. Compare Philippians 3:12, and He who is calling (oJ kalwn, 1 Thessalonians 5:24) also oJ ajgapwn he that loves (ver. 7).

Hereby [εκ τουτου] . Not the same as the common ejn toutw (ver. 2). It occurs only here in the Epistle. En toutw is in this : ejk toutou from this. The former marks the residing or consisting of the essence or truth of a thing in something the apprehension of which conveys to us the essential nature of the thing itself. The latter marks the inference or deduction of the truth from something, as contrasted with its immediate perception in that something. Rev., by this.

The spirit of error [το πνευμα της πλανης] . The phrase occurs nowhere else in the New Testament. Compare pneumasi planoiv misleading spirits, 1 Timothy 4:1.

Verse 7

Of God [εκ του θεου] . Flows from God.

Verse 8

Knoweth not [ουκ εγνω] . The aroist tense : did not know, from the beginning. He never knew.

Is love [αγαπη εστι. ν] . See on God is light (i. 5), and the truth (i. 6); also God is spirit (John 4:24). Spirit and light are expressions of God 's essential nature. Love is the expression of His personality corresponding to His nature. See on love of God (ii. 5). Truth and love stand related to each other. Loving is the condition of knowing.

Verse 9

Was manifested. See on John 21:1; 1 John 3:5.

Toward us [εν ημιν] . Wrong. Not "among us," as John 1:14, nor "in us;" but as Rev., in margin, in our case. 67 Sent [απεσταλκεν] . John describes the incarnation as a sending, more frequently than in any other way. Apostellw is to send under commission, as an envoy. The perfect tense, hath sent, points to the abiding results of the sending. See on 3 5.

His only - begotten Son [τον υιον αυτου τον μονογενη] . Lit., His Son, the only - begotten (Son). A mode of expression common in John, enlarging upon the meaning of a noun by the addition of an adjective or a participle with the article. See 1 John 1:2; 1 John 2:7, 1 John 2:8, 1 John 2:25; 1 John 5:4; John 6:41, John 6:44, John 6:50, John 6:51; John 14:1, etc. On only - begotten, see on John 1:14.

Verse 10

Propitiation. See on 2 2.

Verse 11

So [ουτως] . Emphatic.

We ought. See on 2 6.

Verse 12

God. Beginning the sentence emphatically, and without the article : God as God. "God hath no man ever yet seen." Compare John 1:18.

His love. Not our love to Him, nor His love to us, but the love which is peculiarly His; which answers to His nature.

Verse 14

We have seen [πεθεαμεθα] . Have deliberately and steadfastly contemplated. Compare 1 John 1:1, and see on John 1:14.

Do testify [μαρτυρουμεν] . Rev., bear witness. See on John 1:7. Sent. See on ver. 9.

The Savior of the world. See the same phrase, John 4:42, and compare John 3:17. Swth. r Savior, occurs in John only here and John 4:42. Elsewhere it is applied both to God (1 Timothy 1:1; 1 Timothy 2:3; Titus 1:3; Titus 2:10; Titus 3:4; Jude 1:25), and to Christ (Luke 2:11; Acts 5:31; Acts 13:23; 2 Timothy 1:10; Titus 1:4, etc.). The title is found in Paul 's Epistles of the Captivity (Ephesians 5:23; Philippians 3:20), and in the Pastorals (see above), but not in Corinthians, Romans, Galatians, or Thessalonians. In classical writings the term is applied to many deities, especially to Zeus (Jupiter); also to Hermes [μερχυρψ] , Apollo, Hercules, and even to female deities, as Fortune and Aphrodite (Venus). "Zeus Soter" (Zeus Savior) was used as a formula in drinking at banquets. The third cup was dedicated to him. Compare Plato : "Then, by way of a third libation to the savior Zeus, let us sum up and reassert what has been said" (" Philebus, "66). The drinking of this cup was a symbol of good fortune, and the third time came to mean the lucky time." Twice then has the just man overthrown the unjust; and now comes the third trial, which, after Olympic fashion, is sacred to Zeus the savior,... and surely this will prove the greatest and most decisive of falls "(Plato," Republic, " 583). Hence the proverb, to triton tw swthri, lit., the third to the savior; i e., the third or lucky time. The name was also given later to princes or public benefactors. The kindred noun swthria salvation, does not occur in John's Epistles, and appears only once in the Gospel (iv. 22). It is found thrice in Revelation 7:10; Revelation 12:10; Revelation 19:1). Swzein to save occurs six times in John's Gospel, and once in Revelation (xxi. 24). It does not appear in the Epistles.

Verse 15

Whosoever [ος εαν] . Lit., who if there be any.

Shall confess. See on 1 9.

Son of God. See on 1 7.

Verse 16

The love which God hath. On this use of ecein to have, see on John 16:22. Compare John 8:35.

To us [εν ημιν] . Rev., in us. Compare God abideth in Him.

Dwelleth in love, etc. See John 14:9, John 14:10. Rev., abideth.

Verse 17

Herein [εν τουτω] . To what does this refer? Two explanations are given. (1.) To the following that we may have boldness. So Huther, who argues thus on the ground that ver. 18 shows that the drift of the writer's thought is toward the fearlessness of love. According to this, therefore, love has its fulfillment in freeing us from fear, and inspiring us with boldness even in view of the final judgment. (2.) To what precedes, viz., our dwelling in God and He in us. So Westcott : "The fellowship of God with man and of man with God, carries with it the consummation of love." I prefer the latter, principally on the ground that in such phrases as ejn toutw in this, dia touto on this account, therefore, the pronoun usually refers to something preceding, though more fully developed in what follows. See John 5:16, John 5:18; John 6:65; John 8:47; John 10:17; John 12:18; John 16:1 John 16:5. Our love [η αγαπη μεθ ημων] . The A. V. construes meq' hJmwn with us, with love, making with us equivalent to our. In that case it might mean either the love which is between Christians, or the love which is between God and Christians. The Rev. construes with us with the verb : love is made perfect with us. The latter is preferable. I do not think it would be easy to point out a parallel in the New Testament to the expression ajgaph meq' love that with us = our love. The true idea is that love is perfected in fellowship. The love of God is perfected with us, in communion with us, through our abiding in Him and He in us. "Love is not simply perfected in man, but in fulfilling this issue God works with man" (Westcott). Compare 2 John 1:3, "grace shall be with us" (true reading); and Acts 25:4, "what things God had done with them." See also Matthew 1:23; 1Co 26:24; Galatians 6:18. Meta with, is used constantly in the New Testament of ethical relations. See Matthew 20:2; Matthew 2:3; Luke 23:12; Acts 7:9; Romans 12:15; 1 John 1:6.

Boldness [παρρησιαν] . See on 2 28.

The day of judgment [τη ημερα της κρισεως] . Lit., the day of judgment. The exact phrase occurs here only. Hmera krisewv day of judgment, without the articles, is found Matthew 10:15; Matthew 11:22, Matthew 11:24; Matthew 12:36; 2 Peter 2:9; 2 Peter 3:7. The day is called the great day of their wrath (Revelation 6:17); the day of wrath and of revelation of the righteous judgement of God (Romans 2:5); the day of visitation (1 Peter 2:12); the last day (John 6:39, John 6:40, John 6:44, John 6:54); that day (Matthew 7:22; Luke 6:23; Luke 10:12). The judgment is found Matthew 12:41, Matthew 12:42; Luke 10:14; Luke 11:31, Luke 11:32.

Because. Likeness to Christ is the ground of boldness.

As [καθως] . Not absolutely, but according to our measure, as men in this world.

He is. The present tense is very significant. Compare 1 John 3:7, "is righteous even as He is righteous." The essence of out being as He is lies in perfected love; and Christ is eternally love. "He that abideth in love abideth in God and God in him." Compare 1 John 3:2.

In this world. This present economy, physical and moral. The phrase limits the conception of likeness.

Verse 18

There is no fear in love [φοβος ουκ εστιν εν τη αγαπη] . Lit., fear is not. It has no existence. The fear is that spoken of in 1 Peter 1:17; Hebrews 12:28; godly fear; filial reverence; not slavish fear, as Romans 8:15. In love, lit., the love, that perfected love of which John has been speaking.

Perfect [τελεια] . Not perfected, as ver. 17 but perfect as the result of having been perfected. Compare Hebrews 5:14; James 1:4; James 3:2. Casteth out [εξω βαλλει] . A strong expression : turneth out of doors. Fear is cast out of the sphere of the fellowship of love. See the phrase in John 6:37; John 9:34, John 9:35; John 12:31; John 14:6.

Hath torment [κολασιν εχει] . Torment is a faulty translation. The word means punishment, penalty. It occurs in the New Testament only here and Matthew 25:46. The kindred verb, kolazomai to punish, is found Acts 4:21; 2 Peter 2:9. Note the present tense, hath. The punishment is present. Fear by anticipating punishment has it even now. The phrase hath punishment (see on John 16:22) indicates that the punishment is inherent in the fear. Fear carries its own punishment. Augustine, commenting on the expulsion of fear by love, says : "As in sewing, we see the thread passed through by the needle. The needle is first pushed in, but the thread cannot be introduced until the needle is brought out. So fear first occupies the mind, but does not remain permanently, because it entered for the purpose of introducing love." The words because fear hath punishment are parenthetical.

He that feareth The A. V. omits and [δε] , which is important as closely connecting this clause with there is no fear in love, etc. That is an abstract statement; this is personal; two modes of stating the same truth. Rev. "and he that feareth."

Is not made perfect. "Men's condition is varied; without fear and love; with fear without love; with fear and love; without fear with love" (Bengel).

Verse 19

We love Him [ημεις αγαπωμεν αυτον] . The best texts omit Him. Some render let us love, as ver. 7. The statement is general, relating to the entire operation of the principle of love. All human love is preceded and generated by the love of God.

Verse 20

He that loveth not his brother, etc. Note the striking inversion of the clauses : He that loveth not his brother whom he hath seen, God whom he hath not seen cannot love.

How. The best tests omit, and give the direct statement cannot love. So Rev.

Verse 21

That [ινα] . Not defining the contents of the commandment, but expressing intent. Compare John 13:34, and see on John 14:13. His brother. "To the persecutor Saul, Christ said, 'Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou Me? I have ascended into heaven, yet still I lie upon earth. Here I sit at the right hand of the Father; there I still hunger, thirst, and am a stranger '" (Augustine).

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Bibliographical Information
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on 1 John 4". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/vnt/1-john-4.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.