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1 Timothy 1

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Verse 1

An apostle of Jesus Christ. This title appears in the salutations of Romans, 1st and 2nd Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Colossians. In Philippians, Paul and Timothy the servants of Jesus Christ. Philemon a prisoner. This formal announcement of apostleship is strange in a private letter.

By the commandment of God [κατ επιταγην θεου] . The phrase in Romans 16:26. Kat' ejpitaghn absolutely, by commandment, 1 Corinthians 7:6, 2 Corinthians 8:8. Paul uses dia qelhmatov qeou by the will of God. See 1 Corinthians 1:1; 2 Corinthians 1:1; Ephesians 1:1; Colossians 1:1. Comp. 2 Timothy 1:1.

Our Savior [σωτηρος ημων] . Comp. Luke 1:47; Jude 1:25. o P. Six times in the Pastorals. Used of both God and Christ (see Titus 1:3, Titus 1:4; Titus 2:10, Titus 2:13; Titus 3:4, Titus 3:6). The saving of men appears as God 's direct will and act, 1 Timothy 2:4; Titus 3:5; 2 Timothy 1:9 as Christ 's work, 1 Timothy 1:15, comp. 2 Timothy 2:10. In LXX swthr hope is predicated of Christ by Ignatius, Ephesians 21; Philad 5 The salutation as a whole has no parallel in Paul. Jesus Christ which is our hope. The phrase is unique in N. T. Comp. Colossians 1:27, where, however, the construction is doubtful. Elpiv hope is predicated of Christ by Ignatius, Ephesians 21; Philad. 5 The Salutation as a whole has no parallel in Paul.

Verse 2

My own son in the faith [γνησιω τεκνω εν πιστει] . More correctly, "my true child in faith." Comp. Titus 1:4. With these two exceptions, teknon or uiJov ejn pistei does not occur in N. T. En pistei or th pistei is not come on Paul; see 1 Corinthians 16:13; 2 Corinthians 8:7; 2 Corinthians 13:5; Galatians 2:20; 2 Thessalonians 2:13. In the Pastorals, nine times. In Paul joined with zhn to live, einai to be, sthkein to stand, bebaiousqai to be established. For gnhsiov true, see 2 Corinthians 8:8; Philippians 2:20; Philippians 4:3. It means natural by birth - relation, therefore true or genuine. Mercy [ελεος] . This addition to the usual form of salutation is peculiar to the Pastorals.

Verse 3

Even as [καθως] . An awkward construction, there being nothing to answer to kaqwv.

To abide [προσμειναι] . To continue on. The compound does not occur in Paul, but is found in Acts 11:23; Acts 13:43; Acts 18:18.

When I went [πορευομενος] . Better, was going, or was on my way. The participle cannot refer to Timothy.

Might'st charge [παραγγειλης] See on Acts 1:4. Very common in Luke and Acts, but not in Paul. In 1st Timothy alone five times.

Some [τισιν] Note the indefinite designation of the errorists, and comp. verse 6; 1 Timothy 4:1; 1 Timothy 5:15, 1 Timothy 5:24; 1 Timothy 6:21. The expression is contemptuous. It is assumed that Timothy knows who they are. This is after the Pauline manner. See Galatians 1:7; Galatians 2:12; 1 Corinthians 4:18; 1 Corinthians 14:12; 2 Corinthians 3:1; Colossians 2:4, Colossians 2:8.

That they teach no other doctrine [μη ετεροδιδασκαλειν] . Better, not to teach a different doctrine. For eterov different, see on Galatians 1:6. The verb Past o. o LXX o Class. The charge is not to teach anything contrary to the sound teaching (verse 10) or irreconcilable with it. Comp. Galatians 1:6; 2 Corinthians 11:4; Romans 16:17.

Verse 4

Give heed [προσεχειν] . o P. Frequent in LXX and Class. Lit. To hold to. Often with ton noun the mind, which must be supplied here. It means here not merely to give attention to, but to give assent to. So Acts 8:6; Acts 16:14; Hebrews 2:1; 2 Peter 1:19.

Fables [μυθοις] . Muqov, in its widest sense, means word, speech, conversaton or its subject. Hence the talk of men, rumour, report, a saying, a story, true or false; later, a fiction as distinguished from logov a historic tale. In Attic prose, commonly a legend of prehistoric Greek times. Thus Plato, Repub. 330 D, oiJ legomenoi muqoi peri twn ejn %Aidou what are called myths concerning those in Hades. Only once in LXX, Sir. 20 19, in the sense of a saying or story. In N. T. Only in Pastorals, and 2 Peter 1:16. As to its exact reference here, it is impossible to speak with certainty. Expositors are hopelessly disagreed, some referring it to Jewish, others to Gnostic fancies. It is explained as meaning traditional supplements to the law, allegorical interpretations, Jewish stories of miracles, Rabbinical fabrications, whether in history or doctrine, false doctrines generally, etc. It is to be observed that muqoi are called Jewish in Titus 1:14. In 1 Timothy 4:7, they are described as profane and characteristic of old wives. In 2 Timothy 4:4, the word is used absolutely, as here.

Endless genealogies [γενεαλογιαις απεραντοις] . Both words Past o For genealogia (o LXX) comp. Titus 3:9. Genealogeisqai to trace ancestry, only Hebrews 7:6; comp. 1 Chronicles 5:1, the only instance in LXX Aperantov endless, N. T. o. Twice in LXX By some the genealogies are referred to the Gnostic aeons or series of emanations from the divine unity; by others to the O. T. Genealogies as interpreted allegorically by Philo, and made the basis of a psychological system, or O. T. Genealogies adorned with fables : by others again to genealogical registers proper, used to foster the religious and national pride of the Jews against Gentiles, or to ascertain the descent of the Messiah. Aperantov from aj not, and perav limit or Terminus. Perav may be taken in the sense of object or aim, so that the adjective here may mean without object, useless. (So Chrysostom, Holtzmann, and von Soden.) Others take it in a popular sense, as describing the tedious length of the genealogies (Alford); and others that these matters furnish an inexhaustible subject of study (Weiss). "Fables and endless genealogies" form a single conception, the kai and being explanatory, that is to say, and the "endless genealogies" indicating in what the peculiarity of the fables consists.

Which [αιτινες] . Rather the which : inasmuch as they.

Minister (parecousin). Afford, furnish, give occasion for. Only twice in Paul. Elsewhere mainly in Luke and Acts.

Questions [εκζητησεις] Better, questionings. N. T. o. o LXX o Class. The simple zhthseiv in Pastorals, John and Acts. The preposition ejk gives the sense of subtle, laborious investigation : inquiring out.

Godly edifying. According to the reading oijkodomian edification. So Vulg. Aedificationem. But the correct reading is oijkonomian ordering or dispensation : the scheme or order of salvation devised and administered by God : God 's household economy. Oikonomia is a Pauline word. With the exception of this instance, only in Paul and Luke. See Ephesians 1:10; Ephesians 3:2, Ephesians 3:9; Colossians 1:25.

Which is in faith [την εν πιστει] . See on verse 2. Faith is the sphere or clement of its operation.

Verse 5

The end of the commandment [τελος της παραγγελιας] . The article with "Commandment" points back to might'st charge, ver. 3. Rend. Therefore, of the charge. Telov end, aim, that which the charge contemplates.

Love [αγαπη] . See on Gal. ver. 22. The questionings, on the contrary, engendered strifes (2 Timothy 2:23). Love to men is meant, as meant as N. T. When the word is used absolutely. See Romans 13:10.

Out of a pure heart [εκ καθαρας καρδιας] . Comp. Luke 10:27, "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God out of they whole heart [εξ ολης καρδιας σου] , and in or with [εν] thy whole soul," etc. For a pure heart, comp. 2 Timothy 2:22. Kaqarov pure in Paul only Romans 14:20. The phrase a pure heart occurs, outside of the Pastorals only in 2 Peter 1:22. For kardia heart see on Romans 1:21.

A good conscience [συνειδησεως αγαθης] . Comp 2 Timothy 1:3. Suneidhsiv conscience is common in Paul. See on 1 Peter 3:16.

Faith unfeigned [πιστεως ανυποκριτου] . Anupokritov unfeigned twice in Paul, Romans 12:9; 2 Corinthians 6:6, both times as an attribute of love. In James 3:17, it is an attribute of wisdom, and in 1 Peter 1:22, of brotherly love. Notice the triad, love, conscience, faith. There is nothing un - Pauline in the association of conscience and faith, although, as a fact, Paul does not formally associate them. In 1 Corinthians 8:7, 1 Corinthians 8:10, 1 Corinthians 8:12, conscience is associated with knowledge.

Verse 6

Having swerved [αστοχησαντες] . Past o. In LXX, Sir. 7 19; 1 Corinthians 7:9. It means to miss the mark.

Have turned aside [εξετραπησαν] . o P. Comp. 1 Timothy 5:15; 1 Timothy 6:20; 2 Timothy 4:4; Hebrews 12:13.

Vain Jangling [ματαιολογιαν] . N. T. o. o LXX o Class. The word Illustrates the writer's fondness for unusual compounds. Jangling is an early English word from the old French jangler, comp. Jongleur a teller of tales. Hence jangling is empty chatter So Chaucer, "Them that jangle of love." Troil, and Cress 2 800.

And Piers Ploughman, "And al day to drynken At diverse tavernes And there to jangle and jape." Vision, Pasc. 2 1069.

Shakespeare, "This their jangling I esteem a sport." Mids. Night 's D. 3 2.

Wiclif, Exodus 17:7 (earlier version), uses jangling for wrangling. "And he clepide the name of the place Temptynge for the jangling of the sons of Israel."

Verse 7

Desiring [θελοντες] . The participle is explanatory and confirmatory of the preceding statement : since they desire.

Teachers of the law [νομοδιδασκαλοι] . o P. It occurs in Luke 5:17 and Acts 5:34. Nomov is, apparently, the Mosaic law. These teachers may have been arbitrary interpreters of that law, but in what way, cannot be shown.

Understanding [νοουντες] . Better, though they understand.

What they say - whereof they affirm [α λεγουσιν - περι τινων διαβεβαιουνται] . The latter expression is an advance on the former, as appears not only from the verbs themselves, but from the different pronominal expressions. They know not what they say, nor what kind of things they are of which they speak so confidently. The compound diabebaiouswai to affirm, Past o. Comp. Titus 3:8. The false teachers announce their errors with assurance.

Verse 8

Good [καλος] . Comp. Romans 7:16. Morally excellent and salutary. See on Jas 10:11. This is the only instance of crasqai to use with nomov law.

Lawfully [νομιμως] . Past o. o LXX The nature of the proper use of the law - is indicated by the next clause.

Verse 9

Knowing [ειδως] . The participle is connected with tiv one, a man, in the preceding clause.

Is not made [ου κειται] . Lit. Is not laid down, set, appointed. Comp. 1 Thessalonians 3:3. This is the only instance of its use with nomov law. That usage is frequent in Class. See, for instance, Thucyd. 2 37. Righteous [δικαιω] . Morally upright. Not in the Pauline sense of justified by faith. Comp. 2 Timothy 2:22; 2 Timothy 3:16. This appears from the way in which the opposite of righteous is described in the next clause. Lawless [ανομοις] . Recognizing no law; a sense which accords better with the following context than not having a law, as 1 Corinthians 9:21. Disobedient [ανυποτακτοις] . Only in Pastorals and Hebrews. Better unruly. Disobedient is too specific. It means those who will not come into subjection. It is closely allied with lawless. In the one case no legal obligation is recognized; in the other, subjection to law is refused. Ungodly - sinners [ασεβεσι - αμαρτωλοις] . The same collocation in 1 Peter 4:18; Jude 1:15. See on godliness, 2 Peter 1:3.

Unholy - profane [ανοσιοις - βεβηλοις] . Anosiov unholy, Past o See on holiness, Luke 1:75. Bebhlov profane, comp. ch. 1 Timothy 4:7; 1 Timothy 6:20; 2 Timothy 2:16; Hebrews 12:16. The verb bebhloun to profane, Matthew 12:5; Acts 24:6, and often in LXX Derived from bhlov threshold (comp. bainein to go). Hence the primary sense is that may be trodden. Comp. Lat. Profanus before the temple, on the ground outside. What is permitted to be trodden by people at large is unhallowed, profane. Esau is called bebhlov in Hebrews 12:16, as one who did not regard his birthright as sacred, but as something to be sold in order to supply a common need.

Murderers of fathers - murders of mothers [πατρολωαις - μητρολωαις] . Both words Past o and o LXX Both in Class. More literally, smiters of fathers and mothers, though used in Class. Of parricides and matricides. Derived from ajloan to smite or thresh. The simple verb, 1 Corinthians 9:9, 1 Corinthians 9:10.

Manslayers [ανδροφονοις] . N. T. o. Once in LXX, 2 Macc. 9 28.

Verse 10

Them that defile themselves with mankind [αρσενοκοιταις] . Only here and 1 Corinthians 6:9. o LXX, o Class.

Menstealers [ανδραποδισταις] . N. T. o. Once in LXX Ellicott remarks that this is a repulsive and exaggerated violation of the eighth commandment, as ajrsenokoitein is of the seventh. The penalty of death is attached to it, Exodus 21:16.

Perjured persons [επιορκοις] . N. T. o. Once in LXX, Zechariah 5:3. See Leviticus 19:12.

Is contrary to [αντικειται] . Lit. Lies opposite to. Used by Paul and Luke. See Luke 13:17; Galatians 5:17.

The sound doctrine [τη υγιαινουση διδασκαλια] . A phrase peculiar to the Pastorals. Ugiainein to be in good health, Luke 5:31; Luke 7:10; Luke 3:0 James

1 Timothy 1:0:2o P. Quite frequent in LXX, and invariably in the literal sense. Often in salutations or dismissals. See 2 Macc 110; 9 19; 2 Samuel 14:8; Exodus 4:18. In the Pastorals, the verb, which occurs eight times, is six times associated with didaskalia teaching, or logoi words, and twice with ejn th pistei or th pistei in the faith. The sound teaching (comp. didach teaching, 2 Timothy 4:2; Titus 1:9) which is thus commended is Paul 's, who teaches in Christ 's name and by his authority (2 Timothy 1:13; 2 Timothy 2:2, 2 Timothy 2:8). In all the three letters it is called ajlh. qeia or hJ ajlhqeia the truth, the knowledge [επιγνωσις] of which is bound up with salvation. See 1 Timothy 2:4; 2 Timothy 2:25; 2 Timothy 3:7; Titus 1:1. As truth it is sound or healthful. It is the object of faith. To be sound in the faith is, practically, to follow [παρακολουθειν] sound teaching or the truth. The subjective characteristic of Christians is eujsebeia or qeosebeia godliness or piety 1 Timothy 2:2, 1 Timothy 2:10; 1 Timothy 3:16; 1 Timothy 4:7, 1 Timothy 4:8; 1 Timothy 6:6, 1 Timothy 6:11); and the teaching and knowledge of the truth are represented as kat' eujsebeian according to godliness 1 Timothy 6:3; Titus 1:1). Comp. eujsebein to show piety, 1 Timothy 5:4. eujsebwv zhn to live godly, 2 Timothy 3:12; Titus 2:12; and bion diagein ejn pash eujsebeia to lead a life in all godliness, 1 Timothy 2:2. The contents of this sound teaching which is according to godliness are not theoretical or dogmatic truth, but Christian ethics, with faith and love. See 1 Timothy 1:14; 1 Timothy 2:15; 1 Timothy 4:12; 1 Timothy 6:11; 2 Timothy 1:13; 2 Timothy 3:10; Titus 2:2. Alhqeia truth is used of moral things, rather than in the high religious sense of Paul. Comp., for instance, Romans 3:7; Romans 9:1; 1 Corinthians 5:8; 2 Corinthians 4:2; 2 Corinthians 11:10; Galatians 2:5; Ephesians 4:21, Ephesians 4:24; and 2 Timothy 2:25, 2 Timothy 2:26; 2 Timothy 3:7 (comp. 2Ti 5:1 - xciv. 3, 4; Titus 1:12 (comp. Tit 5:11, 15); Titus 2:4 (comp. 5 1, 3); Titus 3:1. Whoever grasps the truth has faith 2 Timothy 1:13; 2 Timothy 2:18; 2 Timothy 3:8; Titus 1:3 f.). That the ethical character of faith is emphasized, appears from the numerous expressions regarding the false teachers, as 1 Timothy 1:19; 1 Timothy 4:1; 1 Timothy 5:8, 1 Timothy 5:12; 1 Timothy 6:10, 1 Timothy 6:21. There is a tendency to objectify faith, regarding it as something believed rather than as the act of believing. See 1 Timothy 1:19; 1 Timothy 4:1; 1 Timothy 6:10, 1 Timothy 6:21; Titus 1:4. In comparing the ideal of righteousness ver. 9) with that of Paul, note that it is not denied that Christ is the source of true righteousness; but according to Paul, the man who is not under the law is the man who lives by faith in Christ. Paul emphasizes this. It is faith in Christ which sets one free from the law. Here, the man for whom the law is not made (ver. 9) is the man who is ethically conformed to the norm of sound teaching. The two conceptions do not exclude each other : the sound teaching is according to the gospel (ver. 11), but the point of emphasis is shifted.

Verse 11

According to. The connection is with the whole foregoing statement about the law and its application, ver. 9 ff. The writer substantiates what he has just said about the law, by a reference to the gospel. Comp. Romans 2:16.

The glorious gospel of the blessed God (to eujaggelion thv doxhv tou makariou qeou). More correctly, the gospel of the glory, etc. The phrase as a whole has no parallel in N. T. The nearest approach to it is 2 Corinthians 4:4. Gospel of God is a Pauline phrase; but makariov blessed is not used of God by Paul, is not used of God by paul, nor elsewhere outside of the pastorals, where it occurs twice, here and ch. 6 15. For blessed is not used of God by Paul, nor elsewhere outside of the Pastorals, where it occurs twice, here and ch. 6 15. For blessed see on Matthew 5:3. The appearing of the glory of God in Jesus Christ is the contents of the gospel. Comp. Titus 2:13.

Which was committed to my trust [ο επιστευθην εγω] . Or, with which I was intrusted. Comp Titus 1:3; Romans 3:2; 1 Corinthians 9:17; Galatians 2:7; 1 Thessalonians 2:4, The ejgw I emphatically asserts the authority of paul against the " teachers of the law) (ver. 7).

Verse 12

Hath enabled [ενδυναμωσαντι] . An unclassical word, found in Paul and Acts. See Acts 9:22; Philippians 4:13. Three times in the Pastorals. Counted [ηγησατο] . A common Pauline word.

Putting [θεμενος] . Better appointing. The participle defines counted me faithful. He counted me faithful in that he appointed, etc.

Into the ministry [εις διακονιαν] . Better, appointing me to his service. The conventional phrase "the ministry" gives a wrong impression. The term is general, covering every mode of service, either to God or to men. Diakonoi ministers is used of the secular ruler, Romans 13:4. See also 1 Corinthians 12:5; 1 Corinthians 16:15; 2 Corinthians 3:7, 2 Corinthians 3:8; Ephesians 4:12, and on minister, Matthew 20:26.

Verse 13

Blasphemer - persecutor - injurious [βλασφημον - διωκτην - υβριστην] . Neither blasfhmov nor diwkthv is used by Paul. Blasfhmov in Acts 7:11; 2 Peter 2:11; diwkthv N. T. o.; uJbristhv in Romans 1:30 only; often in LXX See on blasphemym Mark 7:22, and comp. 1 Corinthians 10:30. Ubristhv is one whose insolence and contempt of others break forth in wanton and outrageous acts. Paul was uJbristhv when he persecuted the church. He was uJbrisqeiv shamefully entreated at philippi (1 Thessalonians 2:2). Christ prophesies that the Son of man shall be shamefully entreted (uJbrisqhsetai, Luke 18:32). Similar regretful references of paul to his former career appear in Acts 22:4; Galatians 1:13, Galatians 1:23. Such a passage may have occurred in some Pauline letters to which this writer had access, or it may be an imitation. I obtained mercy [ηλεηθην] . Comp. Ver. 16. In speaking of his conversin, Paul uses cariv grace. See ver. 14, and the apostleship he speaks of himself as one who has obtained mercy [ηλεημενος] of the Lord to be faithful. 1 Corinthians 7:25; comp. 2 Corinthians 4:1.

Verse 14

Was exceeding abundant [υπερεπλεονασεν] . Or abounded exceedingly. N. T. o. o LXX o Class. Paul is fond of compounds with uJper, which, with a few exceptions, are found only in his writings. In the pastorals there are only three. See 1 Timothy 2:2; 2 Timothy 3:2. With faith. For faith as treated in the Pastorals, see Introduction, and sound doctrine, ver. 10.

Verse 15

This is a faithful saying [πιστος ο λογος] . Better, faithful is the saying. A favorite phrase in these Epistles. o P. See 1 Timothy 3:1; 1 Timothy 4:9; 2 Timothy 2:11; Titus 3:8.

Worthy of all acceptation [πασης αποδοχης αξιος] . The phrase only here and ch. 4 9. Apodoch Past o o LXX Comp. Acts 2:41, ajpodexamenoi ton logon received his word. Pashv all or every describes the reception of which the saying is worthy as complete and excluding all doubt.

Came into the world [ηλθεν εις τον κοσμον] . The phrase is unique in the Pastorals, and does not appear in Paul. It is Johannine. See James 1:9; James 3:19; Jas 21:27; Jas 12:46.

To save sinners [αναρτωλους σωσαι] . The thought is Pauline, but not the phrase. See Luke 9:56; Luke 19:10.

Chief [πρωτος] . Or foremost. Comp. 1 Corinthians 14:9, and Ephesians 3:8. This expression is an advance on those.

Verse 16

First [πρωτω] Not the chief sinner, but the representative instance of God 's longsuffering applied to a high - handed transgressor. It is explained by pattern.

All longsuffering [την απασαν μακροθυμιαν] . More correctly, "all his longsuffering." The A. V. misses the possessive force of the article. For longsuffering see on be patient, James 5:7. The form apav occurs as an undisputed reading only once in Paul, Ephesians 6:13, and not there as an adjective. Often in Acts and Luke. This use of the article with the adjective pav or apav is without parallel in Paul.

Pattern [υποτυπωσιν] . Or, ensample. Only here and 2 Timothy 1:13. o LXX o Class. An example of the writer's fondness for high - sounding compounds. Paul uses tupov.

To them. The A. V. conveys the sense more clearly than Rev. "Of them," which is ambiguous. The genitive has a possessive sense. He would be their ensample, or an ensample for their benefit.

Believe [πιστευ. ειν] . This verb, so frequent in Paul, occurs six times in the pastorals. In two instances, 1 Timothy 1:11; Titus 1:3, it is passive, in the sense of to be intrusted with. Here in the Pauline sense of believing on Christ. In 1 Timothy 3:16, passive, of Christ believe d on in the world. In 2 Timothy 1:12, of God the Father, in whom the writer confides to keep the trust committed to him. In Titus 3:8, of belief in God. With ejpi upon and the dative, Romans 9:33; Romans 10:11; 1 Peter 2:6 (all citations), and Romans 4:18; Luke 24:25.

Unto life everlasting [εις ζωην αιωνιον] . Better, eternal life. See additional not on 2 Thessalonians 1:9. The conception of life eternal is not limited to the future life (as von Soden). Godliness has promise of the life which now is, as well as of that which is to come (1 Timothy 4:8). The promise of eteral life (2 Timothy 1:1) and the words who brought life and immortality to light through the gospel (2 Timothy 1:10) may fairly be taken to cover the present life.

Verse 17

King eternal [βασιλει των αιωνων] . Lit. the king of the ages. Only here and Revelation 14:3. Comp. Hebrews 1:2; Hebrews 11:3. In LXX, Tob. 6 10. For kindred expressions in LXX, see Exodus 14:18; 1 Samuel 13:13; Psalms 9:7; Psalms 28:10; Psalms 73:12; Psalms 144:13; Psalms 145:0. See also additional note on 2 Thessalonians 1:9.

Immortal [αφθαρτω] . Lit. Incorruptible. In Paul, applied to God only, Romans 1:23.

Invisible [αορτω] . Applied to God, Colossians 1:15; Hebrews 11:27. The only wise God [μονω θεω] . Wise should be omitted. Rend. The only God. Sofw wise was interpolated from Rom 16:27 - the only instance in which Paul applies the term to God. Comp. Jude 1:4, Jude 1:25; Luke 5:21; James 5:4 James 5:4.

Honor and glory [τιμη και δοξα] . This combination in doxology only here and Revelation 5:12, Revelation 5:13. Comp. Revelation 4:9. In doxologies Paul uses only doxa glory, with the article, the glory, and with to whom or to him. (Be).

Forever and ever [εις τους αιωνας των αιωνων] . Lit unto the aeons of the aeons. The formula in Paul, Romans 16:26; Galatians 1:5; Philippians 4:20. Also in Hebrews and 1 Peter, and often in Revelation The doxology as a whole is unique in N. T.

Verse 18

This charge [ταυτην την παραγγελιαν] . See on ver. T It refers to what follows, that thou might'st war, etc.

I commit [παρατιθεμαι] . The verb in the active voice means to place beside. In the middle, to deposit or intrust. Only once in Paul, 1 Corinthians 10:27. Comp. 1 Peter 4:19.

According to the prophecies which went before on thee [κατα τας προαγουσας επι σε προφητειας] . Const, according to with I commit : which went before is to be taken absolutely, and not with on thee : const. prophecies with on these. On thee means concerning thee. The sense of the whole passage is : "I commit this charge unto thee in accordance with prophetic intimations which I formerly received concerning thee." Prophecy is ranked among the foremost of the special spiritual endowments enumerated by Paul. See Romans 12:6; 1 Corinthians 12:10; 1 Corinthians 13:2, 1 Corinthians 13:8; xiv. 6, 21 Corinthians 12:28; Ephesians 4:11, prophets come next after apostles in the list of those whom God has appointed in the church. In Ephesians 2:20, believers, Jew and Gentile, are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets. According to 1 Timothy 4:14, prophecy has previously designated Timothy as the recipient of a special spiritual gift; and the prophecies in our passage are the single expressions or detailed contents of the prophecy mentioned there. Proagein to go before is not used by Paul. In the Pastorals and Heb. it appears only as an intransitive verb, and so in the only instance in Luke 18:39. In Acts always transitive, to bring forth. See Acts 12:6; Acts 16:30; Acts 17:5; Acts 25:26. That by them [ινα εν αυταις] . %Ina that denoting the purport of the charge. By them [εν] , lit. in them; in their sphere, or, possibly, in the power of these.

Thou mightiest war a good warfare [στρατευη - την καλην στρατειαν] . More correctly, the good warfare. Strateia war - fare once by Paul, 2 Corinthians 10:4. Not flight [μαχην] , but covering all the particulars of a soldier 's service.

Verse 19

Holding [εχων] . Not merely having, but holding fast, as in 2 Timothy 1:13.

Faith and a good conscience [πιστιν και αγαθην συνειδησιν] . The phrase good conscience is not in Paul, although suneidhsiv is a Pauline word. The phrase appears once in Acts 23:1), and twice in 1 Peter 2:16, 1 Peter 2:21). In Hebrews evil [πονηρας] conscience and fair [καλην] conscience; Acts 10:22; Acts 13:18. The combination faith and good conscience is peculiar to the Pastorals. Comp. 1 Timothy 3:9.

Which [ην] . Referring to God conscience.

Having put away [απωσαμενοι] . The A. V. is not strong enough. Better, having thrust from them. It implies willful violence against conscience. Twice in Paul, Romans 11:1, Romans 11:2, and three times in Acts.

Concerning faith have made shipwreck [περι την πιστιν εναυαγησαν] . Better, "concerning the faith made shipwreck." For a similar use of peri concerning, see Acts 19:25; Luke 10:40; 1 Timothy 6:21; 2 Timothy 2:18; 2 Timothy 3:8. It is noteworthy that peri with the accusative occurs only once in Paul (Philippians 2:23). Nauagein to make shipwreck only here and 2 Corinthians 11:25. Nautical metaphors are rare in Paul 's writings.

Verse 20

Hymenaeus and Alexander. Comp. 2 Timothy 2:17; 2 Timothy 4:14.

Have delivered unto Satan [παρεδωκα τω σατανα] . See on 1 Corinthians 5:5.

They may learn [παιδευθωσι] . Neither A. V. nor Rev. Gives the true force of the word, which is, may be taught by punishment or disciplined. See on Ephesians 6:4.

Bibliographical Information
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on 1 Timothy 1". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/vnt/1-timothy-1.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.
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