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In this chapter we have a record of the divisions of the sons of Aaron. Among the descendants of Eleazar and Ithamar there were found twenty-four heads of father’s houses, sixteen descended from Eleazar and eight from Ithamar. These were accordingly distributed by lot into twenty-four courses, to serve by turn in the holy service. Each course seems to have served a week at a time, the term commencing and ending on the Sabbath. Compare 2 Kings 11:5-7; 2 Chronicles 23:8. Probably the outgoing course officiated at the morning service, and their successors commenced their week’s work with the evening service of the Sabbath day.
20. The rest of the sons of Levi That is, those besides the priests just enumerated. These were connected more especially with the service in the temple, and were immediate assistants to the priests. A comparison of this list with that in 1 Chronicles 23:7-23, will show a number of differences. Of the Gershonites none are here named, and among the Kohathites and Merarites several names appear which are not found in chap. 23. The difference between the two lists seems to lie chiefly in this, that the former tabulates all the chief Levitical fathers, the latter only such as had some special relation to the priests in the temple service. The latter list has also some additional names, probably of “younger brethren,” (1 Chronicles 24:31,) of the Levitical houses, selected by lot to represent, like the priests, twenty-four courses. They may be tabulated as follows:
26. The sons of Jaaziah This Jaaziah is not to be regarded as a third son of Merari, of the same generation with Mahli and Mushi, but probably a younger descendant, selected by lot to complete the list of twenty-four principal assistants of the priests. The word Beno in this verse and the next is not a proper name, but simply the Hebrew for his son, and should have been so translated.
31. The principal fathers over against their younger brethren These courses were decided by lot, so that in the present classification the older houses had no advantage over the younger. Hence the differences between this list and that of chapter 23.
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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 1 Chronicles 24". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 22 / Ordinary 27