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Bible Commentaries

Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures
Amos 1

 

 

Verse 1-2

Amos 1:1-2 — Prologue- Amos 1:1-2 serves as a prologue introducing the author and date of his prophecies and a brief summary of his message of divine judgment upon Israel.

Amos 1:1 The words of Amos , who was among the herdmen of Tekoa, which he saw concerning Israel in the days of Uzziah king of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joash king of Israel, two years before the earthquake.

Amos 1:1 — "The words of Amos" - Word Study on "Amos" - The Hebrew name "Amos" "Amowc" ( עָמֹוס) (H 5986) is found 7 times in the Old Testament, being limited to the book of Amos ( Amos 1:1; Amos 7:8; Amos 7:10-12; Amos 7:14; Amos 8:2) and translated " Amos 7." No other individual by this name occurs in the Old Testament. His name means, "burden" Gesenius), "burdensome," (Strong), or "burden-bearer, burdensome" (PTW). The reference to an individual named Amos in Jesus' genealogy ( Luke 3:25) finds no biblical or historical support to identify him as the same Old Testament prophet.

Luke 3:25, "Which was the son of Mattathias, which was the son of Amos , which was the son of Naum, which was the son of Esli, which was the son of Nagge,"

Amos 1:1 — "who was among the herdmen of Tekoa" - Word Study on "Tekoa" - The Hebrew word "Tekoa" "tekoah" ( תְּקֹועַ) (H 8620) means, "pitching" (Gesenius), or "that is confirmed" (PTW). The name Tekoah is found seven times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as Tekoa 6, Tekoah 1 ( 2 Samuel 14:2, 1 Chronicles 2:24; 1 Chronicles 4:5; 1 Chronicles 11:6; 1 Chronicles 20:20, Jeremiah 6:1, Amos 1:1)

Comments - The Town of Tekoah - The town of Tekoah is of little renown in Israel's history. From there Joab fetched a wise woman to help him reconcile King David with Absalom ( 2 Samuel 14:2). It became a city of fortification under the reign of Rehoboam ( 2 Chronicles 11:6, Josephus, Antiquities 891), for which reason Jeremiah would later prophecy concerning this southern outpost, "blow the trumpet in Tekoa" as a warning of approaching danger to Israel ( Jeremiah 6:1). In the wilderness of Tekoa Jehoshaphat stopped to encourage the children of Israel before their battle with the Moabites and Ammonites, and where he appointed singers to lead in battle array ( 2 Chronicles 20:20). There on the plains of Tekoah the prophet Amos herded his flocks until his call to prophecy to Israel.

The Office of the Prophet- Most, if not all, of the Old Testament was written by men who are called prophets. Prophecy became most prominent during the period of the kings, as they moved the people to an inward relationship to God during the times when the kings had forsaken Jehovah as their God. They also prophesied of the coming of the Messiah and of future events. God would have spoken through the priests, but Israel wanted a king. God would have spoken through the kings, as He did with David and Song of Solomon , but most of the kings forsook the God of Israel. Corruption spoiled this ordained means of delivering God's message to His people. It was the lineage of prophets whom God raised up a various times from various cities and from various genealogies and in various ways to deliver His messages and prophecies. God found men who would not fear the face of men to speak His Word. God literally raised up a lineage of prophets from Enoch until Malachi. There were periods when there were no prophets to prophesy ( 1 Samuel 3:1), but God was always faithful to search for men would represent Him.

1 Samuel 3:1, "And the child Samuel ministered unto the LORD before Eli. And the word of the LORD was precious in those days; there was no open vision."

The Background of Amos - God found a simple herdsman named Amos to speak His Word because there was not a king or priest willing to obey the Lord with such a task. In Amos 7:14-15 this prophet distinguishes himself from the lineage and school of the prophets which Israel had looked to for centuries for a word from God. He described himself as a herdman, whom the Lord took from following the flock.

Amos 7:14-15, "Then answered Amos , and said to Amaziah, I was no prophet, neither was I a prophet"s son; but I was an herdman, and a gatherer of sycomore fruit: And the LORD took me as I followed the flock, and the LORD said unto me, Go, prophesy unto my people Israel."

The town of Tekoa was located six miles south of Bethlehem, which is six miles from Jerusalem. The hill on which its ruins can be found today rises out of the edge of the Judean plateau.

Amos 1:1 — "which he saw concerning Israel in the days of Uzziah king of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joash king of Israel" - Comments- According to Amos 1:1 the prophet Amos traveled to Israel and delivered his oracles during the reigns of Uzziah (791-740 B.C.), king of Judah, and Jeroboam II (793-753 B.C.), king of Israel.

Comments - The biblical chronology in the prophetic books of the Old Testament are not dated in terms of years, but in terms of the reigns of kings, similar to Luke 3:1-2. This is because many ancient cultures did not go by calendar dates, but rather by events, such as the reigns of kings. In Africa, people are not time conscience. Rather, they are event conscience. For example, many of them do not know the day and year of their birth. But they know what major events took place during the year of their birth. These major events usually centered around the events of their king. However, we see Amos making reference to an addition event, which was an apparently large earthquake that shook this region during his prophetic ministry.

Amos 1:1 — "two years before the earthquake" - Comments- The earthquake mentioned in Amos 1:1 is mentioned in one other place in the Scriptures. The prophet Zechariah makes reference to it as an example of how the people will flee again in fear.

Zechariah 14:5, "And ye shall flee to the valley of the mountains; for the valley of the mountains shall reach unto Azal: yea, ye shall flee, like as ye fled from before the earthquake in the days of Uzziah king of Judah: and the LORD my God shall come, and all the saints with thee."

George Smith suggests another possible reference to this earthquake in Isaiah 9:8-10. 11]

11] George A. Smith, Amos, in The Expositor's Bible, ed. William R. Nicoll and Oscar L. Joseph (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1956), in Ages Digital Library, v 10 [CD-ROM] (Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc, 2001), "Introduction."

Isaiah 9:8-10, "The Lord sent a word into Jacob, and it hath lighted upon Israel. And all the people shall know, even Ephraim and the inhabitant of Samaria, that say in the pride and stoutness of heart, The bricks are fallen down, but we will build with hewn stones: the sycomores are cut down, but we will change them into cedars."

Amos 1:1Comments - The Manner in which Divine Oracles were Delivered unto the Prophets- God spoke through the Old Testament prophets in various ways, as the author of the epistle of Hebrews says, "God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets…" ( Hebrews 1:1). The Lord spoke divine oracles ( מַשָּׂא) through the Old Testament prophets in three general ways, as recorded in the book of Hosea , "I have also spoken by the prophets, and have multiplied visions; I have given symbols through the witness of the prophets." ( Hosea 12:10) (NKJV) In other words, the prophets spoke to Israel through the words they received, they described divine visions to the people, and they acted out as divine drama an oracle from the Lord.

(1) The Word of the Lord Came to the Prophets- God gave the prophets divine pronouncements to deliver to the people, as with Hosea 1:1. The opening verses of a number of prophetic books say, "the word of the Lord came to the prophet…" Thus, these prophets received a divine utterance from the Lord.

(2) The Prophets Received Divine Visions- God gave the prophets divine visions ( חָזוֹן), so they prophesied what they saw ( חזה) (to see). Thus, these two Hebrew words are found in Isaiah 1:1, Obadiah 1:1, Nahum 1:1, and Habakkuk 1:1. Ezekiel saw visions ( מַרְאָה) of God.

(3) God Told the Prophets to Deliver Visual Aids as Symbols of Divine Oracles- God asked the prophets to demonstrate divine oracles to the people through symbolic language. For example, Isaiah walked naked for three years as a symbol of Assyria's dominion over Egypt and Ethiopia ( Isaiah 20:1-6). Ezekiel demonstrated the siege of Jerusalem using clay tiles ( Ezekiel 4:1-3), then he laid on his left side for many days, then on his right side, to demonstrate that God will require Israel to bear its iniquities.

Amos 1:2 And he said, The LORD will roar from Zion, and utter his voice from Jerusalem; and the habitations of the shepherds shall mourn, and the top of Carmel shall wither.

Amos 1:2 — "The LORD will roar from Zion, and utter his voice from Jerusalem" - The prophet Amos opens his prophecy by using a metaphor of God as a roaring lion upon His people Israel, whom he describes as a shepherd's pasture, or habitations. Obviously, a shepherd's pasture would be filled with flocks feeding themselves. This shepherd, turned prophet ( Amos 7:14), probably had experienced an attack from lions upon his own flocks of sheep. This frightening event would have been embedded in his mind as the Lord gave Amos a prophetic message for Israel, who was in a similar frightening situation because of their sins. Amos will refer to lions numerous times throughout his prophecy ( Amos 3:4; Amos 3:8; Amos 3:12).

Stuart notes that the Lord's roar originates from Jerusalem upon the northern kingdom of Israel as a condemnation of the fact that they had set up a cultic religion in their kingdom and forsaken the holy Temple in Zion.

Amos 1:2 — "and the habitations of the shepherds shall mourn, and the top of Carmel shall wither" - Stuart tells us that the Targum translates the word "shepherds" as kings who ruled over Israel. In Ezekiel 34:2 the word "shepherds" clearly refers to the leaders of Israel, and is translated as "leaders" in the Targum. 12]

12] Pinkhos Churgin, Targum of Jonathan to the Prophets, in Yale Oriental Series: Researches, vol. xvi (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1907), 90.

Ezekiel 34:2, "Son of Prayer of Manasseh , prophesy against the shepherds of Israel, prophesy, and say unto them, Thus saith the Lord GOD unto the shepherds; Woe be to the shepherds of Israel that do feed themselves! should not the shepherds feed the flocks?"

Amos 1:2Comments- Amos 1:2 serves as an announcement that God's judgment in accordance with Mosaic Law is about to fall upon the nation of Israel. This verse serves as an introduction to the book of Amos. Stuart notes three aspects of the Mosaic curse, reflects as (1) attacks from wild beasts, (2) distress upon the people, and (3) drought and famine. 13]

13] Douglas Stuart, Hosea -Jonah, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD- Romans , vol 31, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), comments on Amos 2:1.


Verses 3-5

Prophecy Against Damascus - Amos 1:3-5 is a prophecy against the people of Syria, with Damascus as its leading city. We read in 1 Kings 11:23-25 about Syria's rebellion against Israel since the time of King David. During the reign of Hazael, king of Damascus, Israel seems to have suffered its worst aggression from these hostile neighbours. Syria's hostility was so wicked against Israel that Elisha wept when the Lord showed him this brutality coming to pass ( 2 Kings 8:7-13).

1 Kings 11:23-25, "And God stirred him up another adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah, which fled from his lord Hadadezer king of Zobah: And he gathered men unto him, and became captain over a band, when David slew them of Zobah: and they went to Damascus, and dwelt therein, and reigned in Damascus. And he was an adversary to Israel all the days of Song of Solomon , beside the mischief that Hadad did: and he abhorred Israel, and reigned over Syria."

Amos 1:3 Thus saith the LORD For three transgressions of Damascus, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because they have threshed Gilead with threshing instruments of iron:

Amos 1:3Word Study on "transgressions" - Strong says the Hebrew word "transgression" "pesha`" ( פֶּשַׁע) (H 6588) means, "a revolt, rebellion, sin, transgression." The Enhanced Strong says it is found in the Old Testament 93times, being translated in the KJV as "transgression 84, trespass 5, sin 3, rebellion 1." This Hebrew word is used frequently in the book of Amos ( Amos 1:3; Amos 1:6; Amos 1:9; Amos 1:11; Amos 1:13; Amos 2:1; Amos 2:4; Amos 2:6; Amos 3:14; Amos 5:12).

Amos 1:3Comments- Gilead was the north-eastern most region of Israel, located to the immediate south of Damascus. There was nothing to stop Syria from invading this part of Israel. Stuart notes how the descriptive language of the Syrians using threshing instruments against the inhabitants of Gilead is intended to bring to mind the brutality of this nation against helpless people. On this passage G. A. Smith describes these threshing instruments as curved slabs of basalt, rather than iron, drawn swiftly by horses over the fields of grain, studded with sharp basalt teeth so that the grain is thoroughly threshed when trampled in this manner. 17] 2 Kings 13:7 describes Syria's threshing of Jehoahaz's army, who "made them like the dust by threshing".

17] George A. Smith, Amos, in The Expositor's Bible, ed. William R. Nicoll and Oscar L. Joseph (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1956), in Ages Digital Library, v 10 [CD-ROM] (Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc, 2001), comments on Amos 1:3.

2 Kings 13:7, "Neither did he leave of the people to Jehoahaz but fifty horsemen, and ten chariots, and ten thousand footmen; for the king of Syria had destroyed them, and had made them like the dust by threshing."

Amos 1:4 But I will send a fire into the house of Hazael, which shall devour the palaces of Benhadad.

Amos 1:4 — "But I will send a fire" - Comments- Judgment by fire will be mentioned in the first seven of these eight oracles.

Amos 1:4 — "into the house of Hazael" - Comments- Hazael's rise to power as king over Syria is recorded in 2 Kings 8:7-15. This king's rule was significant in relation to Israel because his reign was prophesied by Elijah and Elisha ( 1 Kings 19:15-18, 2 Kings 8:7-13). He took power by assassinating King Ben-Hadad. Evidently, Hazael, and his son who was also named Benhadad, were raised up to be used by God as an instrument to judge Israel for her sins ( 1 Kings 19:17, 2 Kings 8:12; 2 Kings 10:32; 2 Kings 13:3). Under his reign Syria warred against Israel and wounded King Joram the son of Ahab, who was then murdered by Jehu ( 2 Kings 8:25-29, 2 Chronicles 22:1-6). When King Hazael had strengthened himself he went up against Jerusalem, and King Jehoash gave him the royal treasures as an offering to appease him, thus saving the city from a Syrian attack ( 2 Kings 12:17-21). Hazael oppressed Israel all the days of his reign, and his son Benhadad extended this reign of oppression ( 2 Kings 13:22-25).

Amos 1:4 — "which shall devour the palaces of Benhadad" - Comments- Stuart notes that this oracle's focus upon the palaces of these Syrian kings implies that God's judgment will be complete, bringing to ruin the fortified palaces that were the pride of the Syrian kingdom. 18]

18] Douglas Stuart, Hosea -Jonah, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD- Romans , vol 31, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), comments on Amos 1:4.

Amos 1:4Comments- G. A. Smith notes that Hazael and Benhadad were the two Syrian kings that oppressed Israel the most, thus their names were chosen for judgment. 19]

19] George A. Smith, Amos, in The Expositor's Bible, ed. William R. Nicoll and Oscar L. Joseph (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1956), in Ages Digital Library, v 10 [CD-ROM] (Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc, 2001), comments on Amos 1:4.

Amos 1:4Comments- Of the eight oracles in Amos 1:1 to Amos 2:16, the first seven oracles contain a similar statement about God sending fire upon the walls of the major city and devouring the palaces ( Amos 1:4; Amos 1:7; Amos 1:10; Amos 1:12; Amos 1:14 a; Amos 2:2 a, 5).

Amos 1:5 I will break also the bar of Damascus, and cut off the inhabitant from the plain of Aven, and him that holdeth the sceptre from the house of Eden: and the people of Syria shall go into captivity unto Kir, saith the LORD.

Amos 1:5 — "I will break also the bar of Damascus" - Comments- The city of Damascus was the leading city of the Arameans, or Syrians. The breaking of the bar refers to the enemy breaking into city through the main city gate by breaking the heavy gate bar made of strong timber or metal.

Amos 1:5 — "and cut off the inhabitant from the plain of Aven" - Comments- The location of the plain of Aven, or valley of Aven, in Syria is uncertain. The name "Aven" is found only one other time in Ezekiel 30:17, where the context of the passage lists various cities in Egypt. Hosea refers to a place called "Bethaven" ( Hosea 4:15; Hosea 10:5), in which is thought to be used as a term of contempt for Beth-el in Israel. 20]

20] "Aven," in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939), in The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).

Ezekiel 30:17, "The young men of Aven and of Pibeseth shall fall by the sword: and these cities shall go into captivity."

Hosea 4:15, "Though thou, Israel, play the harlot, yet let not Judah offend; and come not ye unto Gilgal, neither go ye up to Bethaven, nor swear, The LORD liveth."

Hosea 10:5, "The inhabitants of Samaria shall fear because of the calves of Bethaven: for the people thereof shall mourn over it, and the priests thereof that rejoiced on it, for the glory thereof, because it is departed from it."

G. A. Smith believes valley of Aven refers to "the valley between the Lebanons, still called the Bek'a, in which lay Heliopolis." 21]

21] George A. Smith, Amos, in The Expositor's Bible, ed. William R. Nicoll and Oscar L. Joseph (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1956), in Ages Digital Library, v 10 [CD-ROM] (Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc, 2001), comments on Amos 1:5.

Amos 1:5 — "and him that holdeth the sceptre from the house of Eden" - Comments- The name "Eden" is generally understood as Beth-Eden, which is the name of a historical place in ancient Assyrian records. Stuart says it was "a city-state area located between the Euphrates and the Balikh rivers, to the north of Aram proper". Stuart says it is also called Eden ( 2 Kings 19:12, Ezekiel 27:23). 22]

22] Douglas Stuart, Hosea -Jonah, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD- Romans , vol 31, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), 31.

Amos 1:5 — "and the people of Syria shall go into captivity unto Kir, saith the LORD" - Comments- The Syrians evidently originated from Kir ( Amos 9:7).

Amos 9:7, "Are ye not as children of the Ethiopians unto me, O children of Israel? saith the LORD. Have not I brought up Israel out of the land of Egypt? and the Philistines from Caphtor, and the Syrians from Kir?"

Amos 1:5Comments- Syria's divine punishment will be by war, suggested by the statement, "I will break also the bar of Damascus, and cut off the inhabitant from the plain of Aven." The destruction from this war will make its way to the king himself. The punishment will extend to exile for those who survive the war, suggested in the statement, "and the people of Syria shall go into captivity unto Kir." Thus, the conquest by Syria's enemy will be complete, ending the dynasty of King Hazael.

The ISBE says that the prophecy of Amos 1:5 came to pass when the king of Assyria (named Tiglath-pileser IV) took Damascus and carried its people off to Kir ( 2 Kings 16:9). 23]

23] "Aven," in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939), in The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).

2 Kings 16:9, "And the king of Assyria hearkened unto him: for the king of Assyria went up against Damascus, and took it, and carried the people of it captive to Kir, and slew Rezin."


Verses 3-16

Oracles Against Eight Nations - Amos 1:3 to Amos 2:6 makes up a series of similar eight oracles against Judah, Israel and six adjacent Syro-Palestinian nations. Amos included all of Israel's bordering neighbours in this list, leaving none out. There appears to be no geographical order to the list of eight oracles found in this opening passage. Several suggestions have been made to identify a logical order. (1) The Degree of Aggression Against Israel- Perhaps it can be said that Syria, which heads this list, was Israel's worst enemy during the time of the northern kingdom, while Judah, which ends the list of Israel's neighbours, was least aggressive against the northern kingdom of Israel. However, Stuart says there is no historical documentation that mentions the attacks that these pagan nations inflicted upon Judah and Israel, suggesting they were primarily border skirmishes that took place after Solomon's reign. (2) The Degree of Blood Kin to Israel- More obvious is the fact that the first three countries (Syria, Philistia, Tyre) are the most distant relatives of the Jews, while Edom, Ammon, and Moab are more closely related by blood. (3) Israel's Sins are the Climax to a List of Testimonies of Divine Judgment Against All Nations - The most logical order suggests that the sins of Israel are deliberately placed at the end of a list of testimonies of divine judgment against all nations, meaning that God's people are not excluded. Stuart notes that final oracle against Israel is longer, serving as a climax to this collection of oracles. G. A. Smith suggests Amos uses the strategy of declaring the sins of Israel's surrounding nations before declaring to them similar sins, thus proving their guilt through the prophetic testimonies of divine judgment preceding her list of sins. Smith notes that although the nations have sinned in the areas of war and broken treaties, while Israel's sins were internal civic violations of the Law, Amos declares a worse doom upon Israel than upon her neighbours. As barbaric as are the sins of the nations, Israel's sin of pride and backsliding just as evil in God's eyes. Thus, God judges the nations for violating their conscience, where the law of God is written ( Romans 2:12; Romans 2:14-16), but He judges His people for violating their covenant with Him. 14]

14] George A. Smith, Amos, in The Expositor's Bible, ed. William R. Nicoll and Oscar L. Joseph (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1956), in Ages Digital Library, v 10 [CD-ROM] (Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc, 2001), "Introduction."

Amos 1:3-5 — Oracle against Syria

Amos 1:6-8 — Oracle against Philistia

Amos 1:9-10 — Oracle against Tyre

Amos 1:11-12 — Oracle against Edom

Amos 1:13-15 — Oracle against Ammon

Amos 2:1-3 — Oracle against Moab

Amos 2:4-5 — Oracle against Judah

Amos 2:6-16 — Oracle against Israel

These oracles contain similar content. The prophet Amos introduces his message as a word from the Lord, reveals the sins of the nation, pronounces an appropriate judgment, and confirms its certainty with the closing phrase "says the (Sovereign) Lord."

Stuart says one theological insight to these eight oracles is the fact that God rules over all nations, whether they acknowledge it or not, and He does not put up with sinful deeds from any of them without penalty. He holds each one accountable for their deeds. 15] In Romans 2:12-16 Paul explains that God judges the deeds of the nations by their conscience, in which God has written His divine law. Stuart calls this "a basic sort of international law".

15] Douglas Stuart, Hosea -Jonah, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD- Romans , vol 31, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), 308.

Romans 2:12-16, "For as many as have sinned without law shall also perish without law: and as many as have sinned in the law shall be judged by the law; (For not the hearers of the law are just before God, but the doers of the law shall be justified. For when the Gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto themselves: Which shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts the mean while accusing or else excusing one another;) In the day when God shall judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ according to my gospel."

G. A. Smith notes that although Assyria is not mentioned in these eight oracles, these divine judgments reflect this empire's style of destroying cities and conquering nations. Thus, God will use Assyria to punish these nations in the second half of the eighth century. 16]

16] George A. Smith, Amos, in The Expositor's Bible, ed. William R. Nicoll and Oscar L. Joseph (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1956), in Ages Digital Library, v 10 [CD-ROM] (Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc, 2001), "Introduction."


Verses 6-8

Prophecy Against Gaza- Amos 1:6-8 is a prophecy against the people of Philistia, with Gaza as its leading city. These prophecies contain similar judgments in that the cities, the leaders and the people are identified for destruction.

Amos 1:6 Thus saith the LORD For three transgressions of Gaza, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because they carried away captive the whole captivity, to deliver them up to Edom:

Amos 1:6Comments- God describes the sin of the Philistine as taking captive the entire populations of certain towns, and selling them in slavery to Edom. Although these events were not recorded in the books of Kings or Chronicles, Stuart suggests that these were "border raids" in Israel's vulnerable areas during times of oppression when they were not able to defend themselves. He notes that the Edomites most likely used these Israelite slaves in the local commerce of mining, shipping and farming, as well as selling them to other foreign nations. 24] We have a reference in 2 Kings 6:23 about these Syrian bands of raiders in the time of Elisha.

24] Douglas Stuart, Hosea -Jonah, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD- Romans , vol 31, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), comments on Amos 1:6.

2 Kings 6:23, "And he prepared great provision for them: and when they had eaten and drunk, he sent them away, and they went to their master. So the bands of Syria came no more into the land of Israel."

Amos 1:7 But I will send a fire on the wall of Gaza, which shall devour the palaces thereof:

Amos 1:7Comments- Of the eight oracles in Amos 1:1 to Amos 2:16, the first seven oracles contain a similar statement about God sending fire upon the walls of the major city and devouring the palaces ( Amos 1:4; Amos 1:7; Amos 1:10; Amos 1:12; Amos 1:14 a; Amos 2:2 a, 5).

Amos 1:8 And I will cut off the inhabitant from Ashdod, and him that holdeth the sceptre from Ashkelon, and I will turn mine hand against Ekron: and the remnant of the Philistines shall perish, saith the Lord GOD.

Amos 1:8Comments- Amos ,, Jeremiah , Zephaniah and Zechariah list only four of the five renowned Philistine cities in their prophecies: Gaza, Ashdod, Ashkelon, and Ekron. Stuart suggests the fifth leading city of Gath, the city farthest inland and renown as the home of Goliath, may not have been mentioned because of being weakened by the conquests of Hazael, king of Syria. He supports this statement by noting how Gath is omitted from later prophecies against Philistia, perhaps because it lost its independence ( Amos 1:8, Jeremiah 25:20, Zephaniah 2:4, Zechariah 9:5-7). 25] However, it may be possible that King David contributed to the demise of Gath during his conquests mentioned in 2 Samuel 21:18-22 when the brothers of Goliath were killed. Uzziah later warred against Gath and other Philistine cities ( 2 Chronicles 26:6). It appears Gath had been overthrown by the time of Amos , the earliest of these prophets ( Amos 6:2).

25] Douglas Stuart, Hosea -Jonah, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD- Romans , vol 31, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), comments on Amos 1:6-8.

Amos 1:8, "And I will cut off the inhabitant from Ashdod, and him that holdeth the sceptre from Ashkelon, and I will turn mine hand against Ekron: and the remnant of the Philistines shall perish, saith the Lord GOD."

Jeremiah 25:20, "And all the mingled people, and all the kings of the land of Uz, and all the kings of the land of the Philistines, and Ashkelon, and Azzah, and Ekron, and the remnant of Ashdod,"

Zephaniah 2:4, "For Gaza shall be forsaken, and Ashkelon a desolation: they shall drive out Ashdod at the noon day, and Ekron shall be rooted up."

Zechariah 9:5-7, "Ashkelon shall see it, and fear; Gaza also shall see it, and be very sorrowful, and Ekron; for her expectation shall be ashamed; and the king shall perish from Gaza, and Ashkelon shall not be inhabited. And a bastard shall dwell in Ashdod, and I will cut off the pride of the Philistines. And I will take away his blood out of his mouth, and his abominations from between his teeth: but he that remaineth, even Hebrews , shall be for our God, and he shall be as a governor in Judah, and Ekron as a Jebusite."

2 Chronicles 26:6, "And he went forth and warred against the Philistines, and brake down the wall of Gath, and the wall of Jabneh, and the wall of Ashdod, and built cities about Ashdod, and among the Philistines."

Amos 6:2, "Pass ye unto Calneh, and see; and from thence go ye to Hamath the great: then go down to Gath of the Philistines: be they better than these kingdoms? or their border greater than your border?"


Verses 9-12

Prophecy Against Tyrus- Amos 1:9-12 is a prophecy against the people of Tyre. The Hebrew proper noun ( צר) is translated as both Tyrus and Tyre in the KJV.

Amos 1:9 Thus saith the LORD For three transgressions of Tyrus, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because they delivered up the whole captivity to Edom, and remembered not the brotherly covenant:

Amos 1:10 But I will send a fire on the wall of Tyrus, which shall devour the palaces thereof.

Amos 1:10Comments- Of the eight oracles in Amos 1:1 to Amos 2:16, the first seven oracles contain a similar statement about God sending fire upon the walls of the major city and devouring the palaces ( Amos 1:4; Amos 1:7; Amos 1:10; Amos 1:12; Amos 1:14 a; Amos 2:2 a, 5).

Amos 1:11 Thus saith the LORD For three transgressions of Edom, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because he did pursue his brother with the sword, and did cast off all pity, and his anger did tear perpetually, and he kept his wrath for ever:

Amos 1:12 But I will send a fire upon Teman, which shall devour the palaces of Bozrah.

Amos 1:12Comments- Of the eight oracles in Amos 1:1 to Amos 2:16, the first seven oracles contain a similar statement about God sending fire upon the walls of the major city and devouring the palaces ( Amos 1:4; Amos 1:7; Amos 1:10; Amos 1:12; Amos 1:14 a; Amos 2:2 a, 5).


Verses 13-15

Prophecy Against Ammon- Amos 1:13-15 is a prophecy against the people of Ammon.

Amos 1:13 Thus saith the LORD For three transgressions of the children of Ammon, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because they have ripped up the women with child of Gilead, that they might enlarge their border:

Amos 1:14 But I will kindle a fire in the wall of Rabbah, and it shall devour the palaces thereof, with shouting in the day of battle, with a tempest in the day of the whirlwind:

Amos 1:14 — "But I will kindle a fire in the wall of Rabbah, and it shall devour the palaces thereof" - Comments- Of the eight oracles in Amos 1:1 to Amos 2:16, the first seven oracles contain a similar statement about God sending fire upon the walls of the major city and devouring the palaces ( Amos 1:4; Amos 1:7; Amos 1:10; Amos 1:12; Amos 1:14 a; Amos 2:2 a, 5).

Amos 1:15 And their king shall go into captivity, he and his princes together, saith the LORD.

 


Copyright Statement
These files are copyrighted by the author, Gary Everett. Used by Permission.
No distribution beyond personal use without permission.

Bibliography Information
Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on Amos 1:4". Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ghe/amos-1.html. 2013.

Lectionary Calendar
Monday, May 25th, 2020
the Seventh Week after Easter
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