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Bible Commentaries

Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures
Luke 16

 

 

Verses 1-13

The Parable of the Unjust Steward - In Luke 16:1-13 Jesus turns to His disciples and teaches them the Parable of the Unjust Steward, which addresses the dangers of covetousness. He tells the parable proper in Luke 16:1-8, then elaborates on the moral truth taught in this parable in Luke 16:9-13. Jesus concludes this parable with a moral truth in Luke 16:9. He then elaborates on this truth in Luke 16:10-13. We are taught to be wise stewards of this world's goods so that we can enter the Kingdom of Heaven. Jesus contrasts faithfulness to unfaithfulness regarding this world's goods. Jesus describes this world's goods as least in importance, while God's riches are described as the most important.

This world's goods are described as (1) least [ Luke 16:10], (2) unrighteous mammon [ Luke 16:11], and (3) another man's (God's) [ Luke 16:12]. In contrast, Heaven's riches are (1) much [ Luke 16:10], (2) true riches [ Luke 16:11], and (3) that which is our own [ Luke 16:12].

Being faithful with what God has entrusted us with on earth is small when compared to what God will entrust us with in eternity regarding spiritual riches. While the world measures success by the amount of financial gain, God measures success by a person's degree of faithfulness.

He then rebukes the Pharisees because of their covetousness ( Luke 16:14-18). Within the context of the Travel Narrative ( Luke 9:51 to Luke 21:38), Jesus is teaching the disciples how to enter into the narrow gate that leads to Heaven by keeping their hearts pure.

Interpretation- In the Parable of the Unjust Steward the sins of this steward were made known to his master; in response, he takes the money due to his master and gives it to his debtors in order to be able to ask them in the future for their favor and grace when he was fired. The steward was commended by his master because he used money, unrighteous mammon, to obtain a future place to rest. Jesus then tells his audience to use money likewise in this life to help others so that they, too, will be welcomed into their eternal home in Heaven.

Luke 16:1 — "And he said also unto his disciples" - Comments - Jesus had been addressing the Pharisees in his previous parables of the Lost Sheep, the Lost Coin and the Prodigal Son (see Luke 15:3). He now turns to His disciples and gives them a parable in order to instruct them on the Kingdom of Heaven.

Luke 16:1 — "There was a certain rich Prayer of Manasseh , which had a steward; and the same was accused unto him that he had wasted his goods" - Comments - The office of a steward can be seen in the Old Testament. McGee notes that Abraham had an elder servant that ruled over his entire house ( Genesis 24:1), and King David had a number of stewards ( 1 Chronicles 28:1). 239]

239] J. Vernon McGee, Thru the BibleCommentary, based on the Thru the Bible radio program, (electronic ed.) (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1997, c 1981), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), comments on Luke 16:1.

Someone told the rich man that his steward had wasted that which had been put under his authority. He may have wasted it through stealing and embezzlement, or through simple laziness. The point is that the steward was not being a good manager of that which belonged to another man.

Luke 16:2 — "And he called him, and said unto him, How is it that I hear this of thee?" - Comments - Matthew Henry notes the tone of sorrow in the master's voice. 240] Anyone who has dealt in management understands that grief that is felt when learning about an employee's abuses of his job. The process of confronting the person and terminating him or her is not an enjoyable one.

240] Matthew Henry, Luke , in Matthew Henry"s Commentary on the Whole Bible, New Modern Edition, Electronic Database (Seattle, WA: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc, 1991), in P.C. Study Bible, v 31 [CD-ROM] (Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc, 1993-2000), comments on Luke 16:2.

Luke 16:2 — "give an account of thy stewardship; for thou mayest be no longer steward" - Comments - Perhaps the master asked the steward to prepare a financial statement for him as a part of the handover before termination. This allotment of time may have allowed the steward to go out and collect reduced payments from his master's debtors. Or, the steward may have been fired prior to him visiting his master's debtors.

Luke 16:3 — "Then the steward said within himself, What shall I do? for my lord taketh away from me the stewardship" - Comments - The steward has now lost his job. He begins to think of what he must do.

"I cannot dig; to beg I am ashamed" - Comments - It is my experience in underdeveloped countries that the issue of saving one's face is the most important concern in times of humiliating accusations of wrongdoing. This "face-saving" issue is a big issue in many cultures and hinders a person from making good decisions in humility. The main concern of the steward was to save his face while taking care of his future financial needs. He could have dug (unless he was too old), but he did not want to feel humiliated when his friends heard about his termination and humble job. Digging represents the lowliest of jobs in most any society. This steward had become an important man in society, and he was not willing to step down from this position of influence.

Luke 16:4Comments - McGee notes that there is no indication of repentance from the steward. 241] With a clever mind the steward comes up with a plan that will benefit him by saving his face, at the financial cost of his former boss. This type of planning reflects a culture in which people expected someone to return a favor when given one.

241] J. Vernon McGee, Thru the BibleCommentary, based on the Thru the Bible radio program, (electronic ed.) (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1997, c 1981), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), comments on Luke 16:4.

Illustration- I once had an accountant, who had recently been fired because I reported him to the pastor, come to me to borrow money. He did not tell me that he no longer worked for the church. He was probably visiting all of his church's tithers before they found out that he had been fired. Song of Solomon , it would not be unusual for this clever steward to visit these clients after he had been fired.

Luke 16:5 — "So he called every one of his lord"s debtors unto him" - Comments - The Greek phrase ἕνα ἕκαστον is best translated "each one" or "every single one", (Nolland, Hultgren) although it is sometimes translated "one by one." 242]

242] John Nolland, Luke 9:21-18:34, in Word Biblical Commentary, vol 35B (Dallas, Texas: Word, Incorporated, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), explanation on Luke 16:5; Arland J. Hultgren, The Parables of Jesus: A Commentary (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans Publishing Co, 2000), 146.

Luke 16:5Comments - The steward goes to his former boss' clients and negotiates a quick pay-off plan for them. This steward figures out how to gain friendship from his boss' clients so that he can find favor with them to meet his needs.

Luke 16:6 — "And he said, An hundred measures of oil" - Comments - The Greek word βάτος "measure" is used in Luke 16:6, which is derived from the Hebrew ( בַּת) "bath," which is "a liquid measure of approximately ten gallons (39384liters)." 243] This adds up to one thousand gallons of olive oil, which would be considered a large debt.

243] Arland J. Hultgren, The Parables of Jesus: A Commentary (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans Publishing Co, 2000), 150.

Luke 16:6 — "And he said unto him, Take thy bill… and write fifty" - Comments - Hultgren notes that the bill has been in the possession of the steward. These "promissory notes" are now edited by the handwriting of the two parties to reflect a reduced debt. 244]

244] Arland J. Hultgren, The Parables of Jesus: A Commentary (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans Publishing Co, 2000), 150.

Luke 16:6 — "and sit down quickly" - Comments - The unjust steward makes this transaction, and we assume the second in Luke 16:7, in haste. Perhaps the stewards feels the urgency because he has been fired, or is about to be, and does not want these creditors to find out what he is doing to his master.

Luke 16:7Word Study on "measure" - The Greek word κόρος (G 2884) (measure) is derived from the Hebrew ( כֹּר) "kor." 245] It refers to "a dry measure of approximately 11bushels (393liters)." As with the oil, this would be a large debt amounting to 1 ,100 bushels of wheat.

245] Arland J. Hultgren, The Parables of Jesus: A Commentary (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans Publishing Co, 2000), 151.

Luke 16:6-7Comments - Negotiating Debt- When we read Luke 16:6-7, we immediately pick up on the discrepancy regarding different amounts of reductions on the two debts. It would make better sense for the unjust steward to give everyone an equal discount, which is what we would do. This is because we are reading the story as born-again believers with a mindset of integrity. However, the parable is being told in a culture where cleverness, and not integrity, is more common. In such cultures where corruption is systemic, negotiations determine the rules, and not fairness. What one negotiates is what one gets, whether it is fair or not. For example, in Uganda I enter a store to buy a produce, and there are no price tags on any merchandise. Everything is negotiated. In contrast, I shop in the United States or London, and every item has a fixed price, which is generally the market price, the fair price. Thus, the unjust steward is negotiating these discounted debts in the same manner he negotiated their loan.

Luke 16:8 And the lord commended the unjust steward, because he had done wisely: for the children of this world are in their generation wiser than the children of light.

Luke 16:8 — "And the lord commended the unjust steward, because he had done wisely" - Comments - Jesus' parables usually have a "shocking" statement that He makes in order to drive home His point of truth. This means that His parables have a twist of events that is unusual in that it does not normally occur in real life. It is generally understood that the shocking point of the Parable of the Unjust Steward is when Jesus says the lord commended the unjust steward because of his Wisdom of Solomon , rather than expressing anger and vengeance. The rich man offered words of commendation for the servant's behaviour, although these actions incurred financial loss to his business. Since the main point of this parable is the proper use of mammon, this twist of events was necessary in order to drive home this point. God's children are to use mammon in a righteous way that prepares for them an eternal place in Heaven. They are to be faithful with what God has entrusted them with, rather than covetousness, which is characteristic of the world's behaviour.

The rich man's reaction is so typical of the African society in which I live as a missionary. When I am angered by corruption, many local people just go about their way without concerning themselves with the issue, simply because they have grown up around it for so long. It no longer shocks them. In fact, cleverness is a characteristic that is highly esteemed in a society where corruption is systemic. While the Christian nations value integrity, corrupt societies value cleverness. This rich man acknowledges the steward's cleverness as something that was commendable.

Hultgren notes that the rich man was put in a position of having to accept the situation that he had been placed by the shrewd steward. 246] He could not go to these debtors and void these revised promissory notes, since this would discredit him in society, and turn his clients into enemies. Besides, this dispute could have gone to court in favor of the debtor.

246] Arland J. Hultgren, The Parables of Jesus: A Commentary (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans Publishing Co, 2000), 151.

Luke 16:8 — "for the children of this world are in their generation wiser than the children of light" - Comments - The children of this world are not wiser in the things of God, but wiser in the sense of knowing how to use worldly riches to give them benefits during their life on earth. In a similar manner, Christians should use this world's goods to prepare for them an everlasting habitation, that Isaiah , to please God that He might receive them into Heaven. Jesus calls those who believe in Him "children of light," a phrase used elsewhere in the New Testament (see John 12:36, Ephesians 5:8, 1 Thessalonians 5:5)

John 12:36, "While ye have light, believe in the light, that ye may be the children of light. These things spake Jesus, and departed, and did hide himself from them."

Ephesians 5:8, "For ye were sometimes darkness, but now are ye light in the Lord: walk as children of light:"

1 Thessalonians 5:5, "Ye are all the children of light, and the children of the day: we are not of the night, nor of darkness."

Luke 16:9 And I say unto you, Make to yourselves friends of the mammon of unrighteousness; that, when ye fail, they may receive you into everlasting habitations.

Luke 16:9 — "Make to yourselves friends of the mammon of unrighteousness" - Word Study on "mammon" - F. F. Bruce tells us that the word "mammon" is an Aramaic word that comes from the same root as "Amen". Thus, it originally meant, "that in which one puts his trust." Strong confirms that this word is of Aramaic origin. It literally means, "confidence," but it is used in a figurative since in Luke 16:9 to refer to "earthly wealth." 247]

247] F. F. Bruce, The Books and the Parchments (Old Tappan, New Jersey: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1963), 57.

Luke 16:9 "that, when ye fail" - Comments - That Isaiah , "when you come to the end of your life."

Luke 16:9Comments - Money in itself is not an evil thing. It is the love for money, or covetousness, which is an act of evil. Jesus teaches us to use material wealth in a way that honors God and blesses others. More specifically, when we use our wealth to prosper the Kingdom of Heaven, we will have an abundance of people in Heaven to receive us into our eternal home, simply because we were an instrument in their salvation.

Luke 16:10 He that is faithful in that which is least is faithful also in much: and he that is unjust in the least is unjust also in much.

Luke 16:10Comments- Andrew Wommack says the Parable of the Unjust Steward deals with financial stewardship. Thus, Luke 16:10 teaches us that our financial stewardship is the least, or most basic, aspect of the Christian life. If a man cannot be trusted in this area, God will not call him to greater responsibilities in the Kingdom of Heaven. However, when a believer experiences God's divine provision through financial stewardship, he is able to trust God in greater areas of ministry. Andrew Wommack says, "If you are not a faithful giver, you are an immature Christian." 248]

248] Andrew Wommack, "Sermon," Andrew Wommack Bible Conference, Kampala, Uganda, 3June 2010.

He that is faithful with that which is least (unrighteous mammon), will be faithful in much (eternal riches). Earthly possessions are "least," while spiritual things are "much," and called "true riches" in the following verse ( Luke 16:11).

Scripture References- Just as Luke 16:10 contrasts poor stewardship against good, so does this comparison take place in Proverbs 12:27, "The slothful man roasteth not that which he took in hunting: but the substance of a diligent man is precious."

Luke 16:11 If therefore ye have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon, who will commit to your trust the true riches?

Luke 16:11Comments- Luke 16:11 reveals that fact that God will reward His children according to the manner in which they have handled material wealth in this life. If "unrighteous mammon" is material wealth, then what are "true riches"? They must be something other than physical wealth. Within the context of this parable it probably refers to our eternal rewards and positions in Heaven. We will live for eternity with these heavenly riches, while earthly riches, which belong to the Lord, are temporal.

It is also possible to interpret "true riches" as spiritual gifts, those things that God gives faithful believes on earth, such as anointings and offices of ministry. For example, Creflo Dollar refers to the phrase "the riches" in Colossians 1:27 and defines true riches as "Christ in us," which he explains as the anointing that abides within us. 249] It could mean that God rewards us in this life by promoting us in the ministry and giving us greater financial responsibility as we are faithful in the beginning with little things. These spiritual gifts and anointings are determined by how we handle God's material gifts given unto us.

249] Creflo Dollar, "Sermon," (Kampala, Uganda: Miracle Center Cathedral), 14June 2007.

Colossians 1:27, "To whom God would make known what is the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles; which is Christ in you, the hope of glory:"

Luke 16:13Comments- We gain insight into Luke 16:13 by reading a parallel passage in Matthew's Gospel. A person cannot serve God by storing up earthly treasures ( Matthew 6:19-21), simply because his heart will become covetous and evil towards God. God has created our spirit to be the light by which God guides us through life ( Matthew 6:22). But when a heart becomes evil towards God he begins to walk in darkness ( Matthew 6:23). Jesus sums up Matthew 6:19-23 by telling us that we cannot serve both earthly things and God. We must choose between the two where we will direct our affections. Once we make the decision to serve the Lord, we have to learn how to trust Him, which will be the theme of the next passage in Matthew 6:25-34.

Matthew 6:19-24, "Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth, where moth and rust doth corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal: But lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, and where thieves do not break through nor steal: For where your treasure Isaiah , there will your heart be also. The light of the body is the eye: if therefore thine eye be single, thy whole body shall be full of light. But if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness! No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon."

The next verse in Luke 16:14 tells us the reaction of the Pharisees, who were covetousness. In other words, they were serving unrighteous mammon, rather than God.


Verses 14-31

Jesus Rebukes the Pharisees on Covetousness ( Matthew 11:12-13) - In Luke 16:14-18 Jesus addresses the Pharisees who were covetous. When the Pharisees heard the Parable of the Unjust Steward they scoffed Jesus and He then turned to rebuke them ( Luke 16:14-18) and told them the Story of the Rich Man and Lazarus ( Luke 16:19-31). In this passage He teaches them about the dangers of earthly riches. The emphasis of this passage is found within the context of its narrative material where Jesus is teaching us how to enter into the narrow gate that leads to Heaven by keeping our hearts pure. The need to avoid covetousness is another virtue that leads us towards a pure heart after humility ( Luke 14:7-11), benevolence ( Luke 14:12-14), forsaking the cares of this world ( Luke 14:15-24), forsaking family bonds ( Luke 14:25-25), loving others as God loves ( Luke 15:1-32) and being faithful stewards of God's material blessings ( Luke 16:1-13).

Outline - Here is a proposed outline:

1. Jesus Rebukes the Pharisees on Covetousness — Luke 16:14-18

2. The Story of the Rich Man and Lazarus — Luke 16:19-31

Luke 16:14-18 — Jesus Rebukes the Pharisees on Covetousness - After teaching on stewardship, the Pharisees criticized Jesus because they themselves were guilty of being poor stewards because of covetousness. Jesus Now rebukes the Pharisees because of their covetousness.

Luke 16:15Comments- Under the fading dispensation of the Mosaic Law, the Pharisees had become the highly esteemed among the Jewish society. However, in the new dispensation of the grace of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, such esteem from men is abomination with God. The Pharisees had justified their wicked ways with the praise of men, but their hearts were corrupt. On another occasions Jesus had told the Pharisees that they were "whited sepulchers." They looked religious on the outside, but were evil on the inside.

Matthew 23:27, "Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye are like unto whited sepulchres, which indeed appear beautiful outward, but are within full of dead men"s bones, and of all uncleanness."

Luke 16:16 — "The law and the prophets were until John" - Comments - The books of the Old Testament were written by the office of the prophet, while the New Testament was written by the office of an apostle. Thus, Jesus refers to the Old Testament books as "the prophets." When John the Baptist was cast into prison, his ministry came to an end and the dispensation of the Law was over.

"since that time the kingdom of God is preached" - Comments- At this time Jesus stepped into His public ministry according to the Synoptic Gospels ( Matthew 4:12, Mark 1:14, Luke 3:20) and He began to proclaim that a new Kingdom of God had come.

"and every man presseth into it" - Comments- The general population of Jews were accepting the message of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. In the phrase that they were "pressing into it," the Jews were coming from their homes and villages far away to hear and be healed. This reflects upon the immediate occasion in which the publicans and sinners had come to hear Jesus ( Luke 15:1). In contrast, the Pharisees were rejecting this transition into a new dispensation.

Luke 16:17Comments- In the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus said, "Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil." ( Matthew 5:17). This new dispensation would not do away with the Law. Rather, it was a fulfillment of the Law. This is why Jesus said, "For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled." ( Matthew 5:18)

The moral elements of the Law would remain intact under this new dispensation. The command to love the Lord God with all of one's heart, mind and strength, and his neighbour as himself, would still be the golden rule of the Kingdom of Heaven. Although Christ would do away with the priestly duties of the earthly sanctuary, which were a shadow of heavenly things, the Church would perform parallel, but spiritual, duties in the Kingdom, and that from the heart.

Luke 16:18Comments- In Luke 16:18 Jesus gives the Pharisees one clear example of how the moral elements of the Mosaic Law would apply to the Kingdom of Heaven. John Nolland explains that many Jews of the first century were loose in their practice of divorce according to Deuteronomy 24:1, while some devout Jews were more rigid by limiting divorce only on the grounds of adultery. Although the man was allowed to divorce his wife under the Law with a bill of divorcement ( Deuteronomy 24:1), Nolland says the Jewish woman could not legally initiate a divorce. 250] This explains why Jesus' statement describes the men initiating the actions, rather than the women. In the Kingdom of Heaven the rules are not as flexible as they were in this first century Jewish society. Jesus clarifies the rules of adultery in the Kingdom for the Pharisees following the stricter view, stating that putting away one's wife and remarrying another, or marrying a wife who has been divorced, constituted adultery. In other words, Jesus made it clear to the Pharisees that the Law was still of utmost importance in the Kingdom of Heaven. However, it is important to note that in the Sermon on the Mount, when addressing the multitudes, Jesus allowed divorce on the unique grounds of adultery ( Matthew 5:31-32).

250] John Nolland, Luke 9:21-18:34, in Word Biblical Commentary, vol 35B (Dallas, Texas: Word, Incorporated, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), explanation on Luke 16:18.

Deuteronomy 24:1, "When a man hath taken a wife, and married her, and it come to pass that she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some uncleanness in her: then let him write her a bill of divorcement, and give it in her hand, and send her out of his house."

Matthew 5:31-32, "It hath been said, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorcement: But I say unto you, That whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery: and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced committeth adultery."

Luke 16:19-31 — The Story of the Rich Man and Lazarus - In Luke 16:19-31 Jesus tells the story of the rich man and Lazarus. We should understand this story to be a true event rather than just a parable. When the Pharisees heard this story of the unfaithful steward ( Luke 16:1-13) they scoffed Jesus and He then turned to rebuke them ( Luke 16:14-18) and told them the Story of the Rich Man and Lazarus ( Luke 16:19-31).

Scripture References to Hell- In this parable, we find a number of aspects of Hell revealed. 251]

251] Most of the verses listed in this description of Hell hae been taken from Bill Wiese, 23Minutes in Hell (Lake Mary, Florida: Charis House, c 2006), 137-155.

1. Hell is experienced immediately after death for the sinner.

Psalm 55:15,"Let death seize upon them, and let them go down quick into hell: for wickedness is in their dwellings, and among them."

Psalm 88:3, "For my soul is full of troubles: and my life draweth nigh unto the grave."

Psalm 139:8, "If I ascend up into heaven, thou art there: if I make my bed in hell, behold, thou art there."

Proverbs 5:5,"Her feet go down to death; her steps take hold on hell."

Proverbs 9:18,"But he knoweth not that the dead are there; and that her guests are in the depths of hell."

Proverbs 27:20,"Hell and destruction are never full; so the eyes of man are never satisfied."

Isaiah 5:14,"Therefore hell hath enlarged herself, and opened her mouth without measure: and their glory, and their multitude, and their pomp, and he that rejoiceth, shall descend into it."

Habakkuk 2:5, "Yea also, because he transgresseth by wine, he is a proud Prayer of Manasseh , neither keepeth at home, who enlargeth his desire as hell, and is as death, and cannot be satisfied, but gathereth unto him all nations and heapth unto him all people."

Matthew 16:18,"And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it."

Matthew 23:33,"Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell."

Luke 12:5,"But I will forewarn you whom ye shall fear: Fear him, which after he hath killed hath power to cast into hell; yea, I say unto you, Fear him."

Luke 16:23; Luke 16:28, "And in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom…..For I have five brethren; that he may testify unto them, lest they also come into this place of torment."

2 Peter 2:4,"For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment."

Revelation 1:18, "I am he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death."

Revelation 6:8, "And I looked, and behold a pale horse: and his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him. And power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword, and with hunger, and with death, and with the beasts of the earth."

Revelation 20:13-14, "And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works. And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death."

2. Hell is down below the earth.

Deuteronomy 32:22, "For a fire is kindled in mine anger, and shall burn unto the lowest hell, and shall consume the earth with her increase, and set on fire the foundations of the mountains."

Job 11:8, "It is as high as heaven; what canst thou do? deeper than hell; what canst thou know."

Job 33:24,"Then he is gracious unto him, and saith, Deliver him from going down to the pit: I have found a ransom."

Job 33:28, "He will deliver his soul from going into the pit, and his life shall see the light."

Psalm 9:15, "The heathen are sunk down in the pit that they made: in the net which they hid is their own foot taken."

Psalm 28:1, "Unto thee will I cry, O LORD my rock; be not silent to me: lest, if thou be silent to me, I become like them that go down into the pit."

Psalm 30:3,"O LORD, thou hast brought up my soul from the grave: thou hast kept me alive, that I should not go down to the pit."

Psalm 30:9, "What profit is there in my blood, when I go down to the pit? Shall the dust praise thee? shall it declare thy truth."

Psalm 40:2, "He brought me up also out of an horrible pit, out of the miry clay, and set my feet upon a rock, and established my goings."

Psalm 49:17, "For when he dieth he shall carry nothing away: his glory shall not descend after him."

Psalm 55:15, "Let death seize upon them, and let them go down quick into hell: for wickedness is in their dwellings, and among them."

Psalm 55:23,"But thou, O God, shalt bring them down into the pit of destruction: bloody and deceitful men shall not live out half their days; but I will trust in thee."

Psalm 73:18,"Surely thou didst set them in slippery places: thou castedst them down into destruction."

Psalm 86:6,"Give ear, O LORD, unto my prayer; and attend to the voice of my supplications."

Psalm 139:15, "My substance was not hid from thee, when I was made in secret, and curiously wrought in the lowest parts of the earth."

Psalm 143:7,"Hear me speedily, O LORD: my spirit faileth: hide not thy face from me, lest I be like unto them that go down into the pit."

Proverbs 9:18, "But he knoweth not that the dead are there; and that her guests are in the depths of hell."

Isaiah 14:9, "Hell from beneath is moved for thee to meet thee at thy coming: it stirreth up the dead for thee, even all the chief ones of the earth; it hath raised up from their thrones all the kings of the nations."

Isaiah 14:19,"But thou art cast out of thy grave like an abominable branch, and as the raiment of those that are slain, thrust through with a sword, that go down to the stones of the pit; as a carcase trodden under feet"

Isaiah 38:18,"For the grave cannot praise thee, death can not celebrate thee: they that go down into the pit cannot hope for thy truth."

Isaiah 44:23, "Sing, O ye heavens; for the LORD hath done it: shout, ye lower parts of the earth: break forth into singing, ye mountains, O forest, and every tree therein: for the LORD hath redeemed Jacob, and glorified himself in Israel."

Isaiah 57:9, "And thou wentest to the king with ointment, and didst increase thy perfumes, and didst send thy messengers far off, and didst debase thyself even unto hell"

Lamentations 3:55,"I called upon thy name, O LORD, out of the low dungeon."

Ezekiel 26:20,"When I shall bring thee down with them that descend into the pit, with the people of old time, and shall set thee in the low parts of the earth, in places desolate of old, with them that go down to the pit, that thou be not inhabited; and I shall set glory in the land of the living."

Ezekiel 28:8, "They shall bring thee down to the pit, and thou shalt die the deaths of them that are slain in the midst of the seas."

Ezekiel 31:14,"To the end that none of all the trees by the waters exalt themselves for their height, neither shoot up their top among the thick boughs, neither their trees stand up in their height, all that drink water: for they are all delivered unto death, to the nether parts of the earth, in the midst of the children of men, with them that go down to the pit."

Ezekiel 31:16, "I made the nations to shake at the sound of his fall, when I cast him down to hell with them that descend into the pit: and all the trees of Eden, the choice and best of Lebanon, all that drink water, shall be comforted in the nether parts of the earth."

Ezekiel 31:17, "They also went down into hell with him unto them that be slain with the sword; and they that were his arm, that dwelt under his shadow in the midst of the heathen."

Ezekiel 31:18, "To whom art thou thus like in glory and in greatness among the trees of Eden? yet shalt thou be brought down with the trees of Eden unto the nether parts of the earth: thou shalt lie in the midst of the uncircumcised with them that be slain by the sword. This is Pharaoh and all his multitude, saith the Lord GOD."

Ezekiel 32:18, "Son of Prayer of Manasseh , wail for the multitude of Egypt, and cast them down, even her, and the daughters of the famous nations, unto the nether parts of the earth, with them that go down into the pit."

Ezekiel 32:21, "The strong among the mighty shall speak to him out of the midst of hell with them that help him: they are gone down, they lie uncircumcised, slain by the sword."

Ezekiel 32:23, "Whose graves are set in the sides of the pit, and her company is round about her grave: all of them slain, fallen by the sword, which caused terror in the land of the living."

Ezekiel 32:24, "There is Elam and all her multitude round about her grave, all of them slain, fallen by the sword, which are gone down uncircumcised into the nether parts of the earth, which caused their terror in the land of the living; yet have they borne their shame with them that go down to the pit."

Ezekiel 32:25, "They have set her a bed in the midst of the slain with all her multitude: her graves are round about him: all of them uncircumcised, slain by the sword: though their terror was caused in the land of the living, yet have they borne their shame with them that go down to the pit: he is put in the midst of them that be slain."

Ezekiel 32:27, "And they shall not lie with the mighty that are fallen of the uncircumcised, which are gone down to hell with their weapons of war: and they have laid their swords under their heads, but their iniquities shall be upon their bones, though they were the terror of the mighty in the land of the living."

Ezekiel 32:29, "There is Edom, her kings, and all her princes, which with their might are laid by them that were slain by the sword: they shall lie with the uncircumcised, and with them that go down to the pit."

Ezekiel 32:29, "There is Edom, her kings, and all her princes, which with their might are laid by them that were slain by the sword: they shall lie with the uncircumcised, and with them that go down to the pit."

Amos 9:2, "Though they dig into hell, thence shall mine hand take them; though they climb up to heaven, thence will I bring them down."

Matthew 11:23, "And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted unto heaven, shalt be brought down to hell: for if the mighty works, which have been done in thee, had been done in Sodom, it would have remained until this day."

Matthew 12:40,"For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale"s belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth."

Luke 10:15, "And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted to heaven, shalt be thrust down to hell."

Luke 16:23, "And in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom."

2 Peter 2:4,"For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment."

Revelation 9:1,"And the fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth: and to him was given the key of the bottomless pit."

Revelation 20:1,"And I saw an angel come down from heaven, having the key of the bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand."

Revelation 20:3,"And cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years should be fulfilled: and after that he must be loosed a little season."

Revelation 9:1-2, "And the fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth: and to him was given the key of the bottomless pit.

2And he opened the bottomless pit; and there arose a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace; and the sun and the air were darkened by reason of the smoke of the pit."

Revelation 17:8, "The beast that thou sawest was, and is not; and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit, and go into perdition: and they that dwell on the earth shall wonder, whose names were not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, when they behold the beast that was, and is not, and yet is."

3. Hell is described as a pit, reflecting the fact that there is a great pit of fire and sulfur burning in hell. Also, those who have visited hell and come back testify that many people are bound in small pits in the ground.

Job 33:24, "Then he is gracious unto him, and saith, Deliver him from going down to the pit: I have found a ransom."

Job 33:28, "He will deliver his soul from going into the pit, and his life shall see the light."

Job 33:30, "To bring back his soul from the pit, to be enlightened with the light of the living."

Job 33:18,"He keepeth back his soul from the pit, and his life from perishing by the sword."

Psalm 30:3, "O LORD, thou hast brought up my soul from the grave: thou hast kept me alive, that I should not go down to the pit."

Psalm 30:9, "What profit is there in my blood, when I go down to the pit? Shall the dust praise thee? shall it declare thy truth."

Psalm 40:2,"He brought me up also out of an horrible pit, out of the miry clay, and set my feet upon a rock, and established my goings."

Psalm 55:23, "But thou, O God, shalt bring them down into the pit of destruction: bloody and deceitful men shall not live out half their days; but I will trust in thee."

Psalm 143:7, "Hear me speedily, O LORD: my spirit faileth: hide not thy face from me, lest I be like unto them that go down into the pit."

Isaiah 38:17, "Behold, for peace I had great bitterness: but thou hast in love to my soul delivered it from the pit of corruption: for thou hast cast all my sins behind thy back."

Isaiah 38:18, "For the grave cannot praise thee, death can not celebrate thee: they that go down into the pit cannot hope for thy truth."

Ezekiel 32:23, "Whose graves are set in the sides of the pit, and her company is round about her grave: all of them slain, fallen by the sword, which caused terror in the land of the living."

Ezekiel 32:25, "They have set her a bed in the midst of the slain with all her multitude: her graves are round about him: all of them uncircumcised, slain by the sword: though their terror was caused in the land of the living, yet have they borne their shame with them that go down to the pit: he is put in the midst of them that be slain."

Ezekiel 32:29, "There is Edom, her kings, and all her princes, which with their might are laid by them that were slain by the sword: they shall lie with the uncircumcised, and with them that go down to the pit."

Ezekiel 32:30, "There be the princes of the north, all of them, and all the Zidonians, which are gone down with the slain; with their terror they are ashamed of their might; and they lie uncircumcised with them that be slain by the sword, and bear their shame with them that go down to the pit."

Revelation 9:1, "And the fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth: and to him was given the key of the bottomless pit."

Revelation 9:2,"And he opened the bottomless pit; and there arose a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace; and the sun and the air were darkened by reason of the smoke of the pit."

Revelation 11:7, "And when they shall have finished their testimony, the beast that ascendeth out of the bottomless pit shall make war against them, and shall overcome them, and kill them."

Revelation 17:8, "The beast that thou sawest was, and is not; and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit, and go into perdition: and they that dwell on the earth shall wonder, whose names were not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, when they behold the beast that was, and is not, and yet is."

Revelation 20:3,"And cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years should be fulfilled: and after that he must be loosed a little season."

4. Hell is a place of intense darkness. Some verses listed below refer directly to the darkness of hell. Other verses reflect in a general way the fact that Satan's kingdom is a kingdom of darkness rather than light.

1 Samuel 2:9, "He will keep the feet of his saints, and the wicked shall be silent in darkness; for by strength shall no man prevail."

Job 10:21-22, "Before I go whence I shall not return, even to the land of darkness and the shadow of death; A land of darkness, as darkness itself; and of the shadow of death, without any order, and where the light is as darkness."

Job 18:18, "He shall be driven from light into darkness, and chased out of the world."

Job 33:28, "He will deliver his soul from going into the pit, and his life shall see the light."

Job 33:30, "To bring back his soul from the pit, to be enlightened with the light of the living."

Psalm 49:19, "He shall go to the generation of his fathers; they shall never see light."

Psalm 88:6, "Thou hast laid me in the lowest pit, in darkness, in the deeps."

Proverbs 20:20, "Whoso curseth his father or his mother, his lamp shall be put out in obscure darkness."

Isaiah 59:10, "We grope for the wall like the blind, and we grope as if we had no eyes: we stumble at noonday as in the night; we are in desolate places as dead men."

Nahum 1:8, "But with an overrunning flood he will make an utter end of the place thereof, and darkness shall pursue his enemies."

Matthew 8:12, "But the children of the kingdom shall be cast out into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth."

Matthew 25:30, "And cast ye the unprofitable servant into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth."

2 Peter 2:4, "For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment;"

2 Peter 2:17, "These are wells without water, clouds that are carried with a tempest; to whom the mist of darkness is reserved for ever."

Jude 1:13, "Raging waves of the sea, foaming out their own shame; wandering stars, to whom is reserved the blackness of darkness for ever."

Revelation 16:10, "And the fifth angel poured out his vial upon the seat of the beast; and his kingdom was full of darkness; and they gnawed their tongues for pain,"

5. In Hell there is a fixed gulf between the wicked and the righteous. There is no passing to and fro. There can even be communication between the two places, as we see the rich man pleading with Abraham.

Luke 16:23, "And in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom."

2 Corinthians 5:8, "We are confident, I say, and willing rather to be absent from the body, and to be present with the Lord."

6. Hell is a place of eternal separation from God and everything good that God has created.

Proverbs 15:29, "The LORD is far from the wicked: but he heareth the prayer of the righteous."

2 Thessalonians 1:9, "Who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power."

7. In Hell there are hot, tormenting, burning flames.

Job 18:15,"It shall dwell in his tabernacle, because it is none of his: brimstone shall be scattered upon his habitation."

Deuteronomy 32:22, "For a fire is kindled in mine anger, and shall burn unto the lowest hell, and shall consume the earth with her increase, and set on fire the foundations of the mountains."

Job 31:12,"For it is a fire that consumeth to destruction, and would root out all mine increase."

Psalm 11:6,"Upon the wicked he shall rain snares, fire and brimstone, and an horrible tempest: this shall be the portion of their cup."

Psalm 37:20, "But the wicked shall perish, and the enemies of the LORD shall be as the fat of lambs: they shall consume; into smoke shall they consume away."

Psalm 140:10, "Let burning coals fall upon them: let them be cast into the fire; into deep pits, that they rise not up again."

Isaiah 66:24,"And they shall go forth, and look upon the carcases of the men that have transgressed against me: for their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched; and they shall be an abhorring unto all flesh."

Ezekiel 22:21, "Yea, I will gather you, and blow upon you in the fire of my wrath, and ye shall be melted in the midst thereof."

Matthew 5:22, "But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire."

Matthew 13:30,"Let both grow together until the harvest: and in the time of harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them: but gather the wheat into my barn."

Matthew 18:8,"Wherefore if thy hand or thy foot offend thee, cut them off, and cast them from thee: it is better for thee to enter into life halt or maimed, rather than having two hands or two feet to be cast into everlasting fire."

Matthew 18:9, "And if thine eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: it is better for thee to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into hell fire."

Matthew 25:41,"Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels."

Mark 9:43,"And if thy hand offend thee, cut it off: it is better for thee to enter into life maimed, than having two hands to go into hell, into the fire that never shall be quenched."

Mark 9:44,"Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched."

Mark 9:45,"And if thy foot offend thee, cut it off: it is better for thee to enter halt into life, than having two feet to be cast into hell, into the fire that never shall be quenched."

Mark 9:46, "Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched"

Mark 9:47, "And if thine eye offend thee, pluck it out: it is better for thee to enter into the kingdom of God with one eye, than having two eyes to be cast into hell fire."

Mark 9:48,"Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched."

Luke 3:9,"And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the trees: every tree therefore which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire."

Luke 3:17,"Whose fan is in his hand, and he will throughly purge his floor, and will gather the wheat into his garner; but the chaff he will burn with fire unquenchable.."

Luke 16:24, "And he cried and said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame."

James 3:6,"And the tongue is a fire, a world of iniquity: so is the tongue among our members, that it defileth the whole body, and setteth on fire the course of nature; and it is set on fire of hell."

Revelation 9:2, "And he opened the bottomless pit; and there arose a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace; and the sun and the air were darkened by reason of the smoke of the pit."

Revelation 20:10,"And the devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet are, and shall be tormented day and night for ever and ever."

8. Hell has gates that the doomed must enter.

Matthew 7:13, "Enter ye in at the strait gate: for wide is the gate, and broad is the way, that leadeth to destruction, and many there be which go in thereat:"

Matthew 16:18, "And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it."

9. Hell is prison with cells, or chambers, much like we build on earth.

Proverbs 7:27, "Her house is the way to hell, going down to the chambers of death."

Isaiah 24:22, "And they shall be gathered together, as prisoners are gathered in the pit, and shall be shut up in the prison, and after many days shall they be visited."

10. In hell the profane will be cast, who will speak profanity and blasphemy for eternity.

Psalm 139:20, "For they speak against thee wickedly, and thine enemies take thy name in vain."

Ezekiel 22:26, "Her priests have violated my law, and have profaned mine holy things: they have put no difference between the holy and profane, neither have they shewed difference between the unclean and the clean, and have hid their eyes from my sabbaths, and I am profaned among them."

Ezekiel 28:14-16, "Thou art the anointed cherub that covereth; and I have set thee so: thou wast upon the holy mountain of God; thou hast walked up and down in the midst of the stones of fire. Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the day that thou wast created, till iniquity was found in thee. By the multitude of thy merchandise they have filled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned: therefore I will cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God: and I will destroy thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire."

11. Jesus Christ has the keys to Hell, which represents His control over those who enter.

Revelation 1:18, "I am he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death."

12. Thus, in God's wrath the wicked have been assigned to Hell.

Exodus 15:7, "And in the greatness of thine excellency thou hast overthrown them that rose up against thee: thou sentest forth thy wrath, which consumed them as stubble."

1 Kings 20:42, "And he said unto him, Thus saith the LORD, Because thou hast let go out of thy hand a man whom I appointed to utter destruction, therefore thy life shall go for his life, and thy people for his people."

Job 21:17, "How oft is the candle of the wicked put out! and how oft cometh their destruction upon them! God distributeth sorrows in his anger."

Job 21:30, "That the wicked is reserved to the day of destruction? they shall be brought forth to the day of wrath."

Job 31:23,"For destruction from God was a terror to me, and by reason of his highness I could not endure."

Psalm 73:27,"For, lo, they that are far from thee shall perish: thou hast destroyed all them that go a whoring from thee."

Psalm 90:7-11, "For we are consumed by thine anger, and by thy wrath are we troubled. Thou hast set our iniquities before thee, our secret sins in the light of thy countenance. For all our days are passed away in thy wrath: we spend our years as a tale that is told. The days of our years are threescore years and ten; and if by reason of strength they be fourscore years, yet is their strength labour and sorrow; for it is soon cut off, and we fly away. Who knoweth the power of thine anger? even according to thy fear, so is thy wrath."

Proverbs 11:23, "The desire of the righteous is only good: but the expectation of the wicked is wrath."

Proverbs 31:8, "Open thy mouth for the dumb in the cause of all such as are appointed to destruction."

Isaiah 66:15, "For, behold, the LORD will come with fire, and with his chariots like a whirlwind, to render his anger with fury, and his rebuke with flames of fire."

Jeremiah 4:4, "Circumcise yourselves to the LORD, and take away the foreskins of your heart, ye men of Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem: lest my fury come forth like fire, and burn that none can quench it, because of the evil of your doings."

Jeremiah 25:37, "And the peaceable habitations are cut down because of the fierce anger of the LORD."

Lamentations 4:11,"The LORD hath accomplished his fury; he hath poured out his fierce anger, and hath kindled a fire in Zion, and it hath devoured the foundations thereof."

Matthew 24:51, "And shall cut him asunder, and appoint him his portion with the hypocrites: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth."

Luke 12:46, "The lord of that servant will come in a day when he looketh not for him, and at an hour when he is not aware, and will cut him in sunder, and will appoint him his portion with the unbelievers."

John 3:36, "He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life: and he that believeth not the Son shall not see life; but the wrath of God abideth on him."

Romans 1:18, "For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness."

Romans 5:9, "Much more then, being now justified by his blood, we shall be saved from wrath through him."

1 Thessalonians 1:10, "And to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead, even Jesus, which delivered us from the wrath to come."

2 Thessalonians 1:8, "In flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ."

2 Thessalonians 1:9, "Who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power."

Hebrews 10:30,"For we know him that hath said, Vengeance belongeth unto me, I will recompense, saith the Lord. And again, The Lord shall judge his people."

2 Peter 2:9,"The Lord knoweth how to deliver the godly out of temptations, and to reserve the unjust unto the day of judgment to be punished."

Revelation 21:8, "But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death."

13. There are varying degrees of punishment in Hell.

Zechariah 1:6, "But my words and my statutes, which I commanded my servants the prophets, did they not take hold of your fathers? and they returned and said, Like as the LORD of hosts thought to do unto us, according to our ways, and according to our doings, so hath he dealt with us."

Matthew 23:14-15, "Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye devour widows" houses, and for a pretence make long prayer: therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation. Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye compass sea and land to make one proselyte, and when he is made, ye make him twofold more the child of hell than yourselves."

Mark 12:40, "Which devour widows" houses, and for a pretence make long prayers: these shall receive greater damnation."

Luke 20:47, "Which devour widows" houses, and for a shew make long prayers: the same shall receive greater damnation."

Hebrews 10:28-29, "He that despised Moses" law died without mercy under two or three witnesses: Of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood of the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace?"

Proverbs 9:18 suggests that Hell has various "depths," or locations where degrees of punishment are inflicted.

Proverbs 9:18, "But he knoweth not that the dead are there; and that her guests are in the depths of hell."

14. Once a person enters Hell, he cannot leave. Souls stay there until Judgment Day.

Luke 16:26, "And beside all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed: so that they which would pass from hence to you cannot; neither can they pass to us, that would come from thence."

Revelation 20:15, "And whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire."

The doomed have no hope of ever returning to anything that is good.

Job 8:13, "So are the paths of all that forget God; and the hypocrite"s hope shall perish."

Proverbs 11:8, "The righteous is delivered out of trouble, and the wicked cometh in his stead."

Ecclesiastes 9:4, "For to him that is joined to all the living there is hope: for a living dog is better than a dead lion."

Isaiah 38:18, "For the grave cannot praise thee, death can not celebrate thee: they that go down into the pit cannot hope for thy truth."

Lamentations 3:18, "And I said, My strength and my hope is perished from the LORD."

Ephesians 2:12, "That at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world."

1 Thessalonians 4:13, "But I would not have you to be ignorant, brethren, concerning them which are asleep, that ye sorrow not, even as others which have no hope."

15. We learn also that in Hell a person has his full senses. The rich man could see Abraham ( Luke 16:23), as well as speak ( Luke 16:24), as well as reason ( Luke 16:24; Luke 16:27-28; Luke 16:30), as well as thirst ( Luke 16:24), as well as hear ( Luke 6:24-31), as well as feel ( Luke 16:24) and probably he could smell the foul odour of Hell. A man can even show concern for souls of others ( Luke 16:28). In Hell a person has a physical body.

Proverbs 1:12, ‘Let us swallow them up alive as the grave; and whole, as those that go down into the pit:"

Matthew 5:29, "And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell."

Matthew 10:28, "And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell."

16. Hell is a place of torment. Webster says the word "torment" means "Extreme pain; anguish; torture." This word is used four times in the story of the rich man and Lazarus. This torment is unceasing. It Luke 16:24-25, the Greek word "I am tormented" is the present, passive, indicative, used for continues action. There are two Greek words used in this story of the Rich Man and Lazarus ( Luke 16:19-31), with each Greek word being used two times.

a. Strong says the Greek word βά σανος (G 931), which means "a touch-stone, torture." The Enhanced Strong says this Greek word is used 3times in the New Testament, being translated in the KJV as, "torment 3." It refers to the physical pain caused by torture to the body of man.

b. Strong says the Greek word οδυνά ω (G 3600) means "to grieve." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 4times in the New Testament, being translated in the KJV as, "sorrow 2, torment 2." It refers to the intense sorrow and anguish of a man's soul who is being tortured.

Note that in Hell the physical limitations of grief are removed. By this, I mean that in Hell a person will grieve intensely and unceasingly for eternity. In this life, grief can be restrained by our physical limitations to bear it. For example, David and his men wept at Ziglag until they could weep no more. Their bodies would not allow grief to continue.

1 Samuel 30:4, "Then David and the people that were with him lifted up their voice and wept, until they had no more power to weep."

In this life, a person can fall asleep and find relief from pain. However, in Hell weeping and torment will be not be limited by our physical capacity to endure pain. This torment will be intense and unceasing throughout eternity.

Psalm 74:20, "Have respect unto the covenant: for the dark places of the earth are full of the habitations of cruelty."

Amos 5:18-19, "Woe unto you that desire the day of the LORD! to what end is it for you? the day of the LORD is darkness, and not light As if a man did flee from a lion, and a bear met him; or went into the house, and leaned his hand on the wall, and a serpent bit him."

Matthew 13:42,"And shall cast them into a furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth."

Matthew 13:50, "And shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth."

Matthew 24:51, "And shall cut him asunder, and appoint him his portion with the hypocrites: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth."

Matthew 25:30, "And cast ye the unprofitable servant into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth."

Luke 12:47-48,"And that servant, which knew his lord"s will, and prepared not himself, neither did according to his will, shall be beaten with many stripes. But he that knew not, and did commit things worthy of stripes, shall be beaten with few stripes. For unto whomsoever much is given, of him shall be much required: and to whom men have committed much, of him they will ask the more."

The torments placed upon mankind in Hell include destruction. Every aspect of the human make-up is in a process of being destroyed as a form of eternal torment.

Job 21:30, "That the wicked is reserved to the day of destruction? they shall be brought forth to the day of wrath."

Job 31:3, "Is not destruction to the wicked? and a strange punishment to the workers of iniquity?"

Job 31:23, "For destruction from God was a terror to me, and by reason of his highness I could not endure."

Psalm 9:17, "The wicked shall be turned into hell, and all the nations that forget God."

Psalm 16:10, "For thou wilt not leave my soul in hell; neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption."

Psalm 32:10,"Many sorrows shall be to the wicked: but he that trusteth in the LORD, mercy shall compass him about."

Psalm 88:11,"Shall thy lovingkindness be declared in the grave? or thy faithfulness in destruction."

Psalm 103:4,"Who redeemeth thy life from destruction; who crowneth thee with lovingkindness and tender mercies."

Psalm 139:19,"Surely thou wilt slay the wicked, O God: depart from me therefore, ye bloody men."

Proverbs 10:29,"The way of the LORD is strength to the upright: but destruction shall be to the workers of iniquity."

Proverbs 11:21, "Though hand join in hand, the wicked shall not be unpunished: but the seed of the righteous shall be delivered."

Proverbs 15:11, "Hell and destruction are before the LORD: how much more then the hearts of the children of men."

Proverbs 21:15, "It is joy to the just to do judgment: but destruction shall be to the workers of iniquity."

Proverbs 31:8, "Open thy mouth for the dumb in the cause of all such as are appointed to destruction."

Isaiah 1:28,"And the destruction of the transgressors and of the sinners shall be together, and they that forsake the LORD shall be consumed."

Matthew 7:13, "Enter ye in at the strait gate: for wide is the gate, and broad is the way, that leadeth to destruction, and many there be which go in thereat."

Matthew 23:33, "Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell."

Luke 13:3,"I tell you, Nay: but, except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish."

Luke 16:23,"And in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom."

Romans 3:16, "Destruction and misery are in their ways."

2 Thessalonians 1:9, "Who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power."

2 Peter 2:9, "The Lord knoweth how to deliver the godly out of temptations, and to reserve the unjust unto the day of judgment to be punished."

17. Hell is a place of intense fear, which torments the doomed for eternity.

Job 18:14,"His confidence shall be rooted out of his tabernacle, and it shall bring him to the king of terrors."

Job 31:23, "For destruction from God was a terror to me, and by reason of his highness I could not endure."

Psalm 55:4, "My heart is sore pained within me: and the terrors of death are fallen upon me."

Psalm 73:18-19,"Surely thou didst set them in slippery places: thou castedst them down into destruction. Oh, how are they brought into desolation, as in a moment! they are utterly consumed with terrors."

Proverbs 10:24, "The fear of the wicked, it shall come upon him: but the desire of the righteous shall be granted."

Hebrews 10:31,"It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God."

18. Hell is a place where the doomed are naked, humiliated and ashamed.

Isaiah 5:14,"Therefore hell hath enlarged herself, and opened her mouth without measure: and their glory, and their multitude, and their pomp, and he that rejoiceth, shall descend into it."

Isaiah 5:15, "And the mean man shall be brought down, and the mighty man shall be humbled, and the eyes of the lofty shall be humbled."

Isaiah 57:9, "And thou wentest to the king with ointment, and didst increase thy perfumes, and didst send thy messengers far off, and didst debase thyself even unto hell."

Ezekiel 32:24,"There is Elam and all her multitude round about her grave, all of them slain, fallen by the sword, which are gone down uncircumcised into the nether parts of the earth, which caused their terror in the land of the living; yet have they borne their shame with them that go down to the pit."

Revelation 16:15, "Behold, I come as a thief. Blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame."

19. Hell is a place where the doomed are not longer shown mercy.

Psalm 36:5, "Thy mercy, O LORD, is in the heavens; and thy faithfulness reacheth unto the clouds."

Psalm 62:12, "Also unto thee, O Lord, belongeth mercy: for thou renderest to every man according to his work."

Psalm 103:4, "Who redeemeth thy life from destruction; who crowneth thee with lovingkindness and tender mercies."

Psalm 103:17, "But the mercy of the LORD is from everlasting to everlasting upon them that fear him, and his righteousness unto children"s children."

20. Hell is a place where there is no peace.

Isaiah 57:21,"There is no peace, saith my God, to the wicked."

Ezekiel 7:25, "Destruction cometh; and they shall seek peace, and there shall be none."

21. In hell the doomed no longer have any purpose.

Psalm 6:5, "For in death there is no remembrance of thee: in the grave who shall give thee thanks."

Psalm 88:5, "Free among the dead, like the slain that lie in the grave, whom thou rememberest no more: and they are cut off from thy hand."

Psalm 88:12, "Shall thy wonders be known in the dark? and thy righteousness in the land of forgetfulness."

Proverbs 10:28, "The hope of the righteous shall be gladness: but the expectation of the wicked shall perish."

Ecclesiastes 6:4, "For he cometh in with vanity, and departeth in darkness, and his name shall be covered with darkness."

Ecclesiastes 9:10, "Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might; for there is no work, nor device, nor knowledge, nor Wisdom of Solomon , in the grave, whither thou goest."

22. In hell the doomed will not be able to rest their weary bodies.

Isaiah 57:20,"But the wicked are like the troubled sea, when it cannot rest, whose waters cast up mire and dirt."

Revelation 14:11, "And the smoke of their torment ascendeth up for ever and ever: and they have no rest day nor night, who worship the beast and his image, and whosoever receiveth the mark of his name."

23. In hell the putrid and rotting stench is unbearable.

Mark 9:25, "When Jesus saw that the people came running together, he rebuked the foul spirit, saying unto him, Thou dumb and deaf spirit, I charge thee, come out of him, and enter no more into him."

Revelation 18:2,"And he cried mightily with a strong voice, saying, Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird."

24. In hell there will be no water to quench man's unbearable thirst.

Zechariah 9:11, "As for thee also, by the blood of thy covenant I have sent forth thy prisoners out of the pit wherein is no water."

25. In hell worms and maggots will feed upon the decaying flesh of the doomed.

Job 21:26, "They shall lie down alike in the dust, and the worms shall cover them."

Job 24:20, "The womb shall forget him; the worm shall feed sweetly on him; he shall be no more remembered; and wickedness shall be broken as a tree."

Isaiah 14:11,"Thy pomp is brought down to the grave, and the noise of thy viols: the worm is spread under thee, and the worms cover thee."

Isaiah 66:24, "And they shall go forth, and look upon the carcases of the men that have transgressed against me: for their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched; and they shall be an abhorring unto all flesh."

Mark 9:44, "Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched."

Mark 9:46, "Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched."

Mark 9:48,"Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched."

26. In Hell the screams of the tormented doomed is unbearable.

27. God is a righteous judge in sending men to hell for eternity.

Deuteronomy 16:18, "Judges and officers shalt thou make thee in all thy gates, which the LORD thy God giveth thee, throughout thy tribes: and they shall judge the people with just judgment."

Deuteronomy 16:20, "That which is altogether just shalt thou follow, that thou mayest live, and inherit the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee."

Deuteronomy 32:4,"He is the Rock, his work is perfect: for all his ways are judgment: a God of truth and without iniquity, just and right is he."

Psalm 7:9, "Oh let the wickedness of the wicked come to an end; but establish the just: for the righteous God trieth the hearts and reins."

Psalm 96:10, "Say among the heathen that the LORD reigneth: the world also shall be established that it shall not be moved: he shall judge the people righteously."

Psalm 96:13, "Before the LORD: for he cometh, for he cometh to judge the earth: he shall judge the world with righteousness, and the people with his truth."

Proverbs 11:1, "A false balance is abomination to the LORD: but a just weight is his delight."

Proverbs 17:26, "Also to punish the just is not good, nor to strike princes for equity."

Ecclesiastes 3:17,"I said in mine heart, God shall judge the righteous and the wicked: for there is a time there for every purpose and for every work."

Isaiah 45:21, "Tell ye, and bring them near; yea, let them take counsel together: who hath declared this from ancient time? who hath told it from that time? have not I the LORD? and there is no God else beside me; a just God and a Saviour; there is none beside me."

Zechariah 8:16,"These are the things that ye shall do; Speak ye every man the truth to his neighbour; execute the judgment of truth and peace in your gates."

Acts 17:31,"Because he hath appointed a day, in the which he will judge the world in righteousness by that man whom he hath ordained; whereof he hath given assurance unto all men, in that he hath raised him from the dead."

Luke 16:20Comments- Adam Clarke says the name "Lazarus" is the Greek form for the Hebrew name "Eliezar." 252]

252] Adam Clarke, The Gospel According to St. Luke , in Adam Clarke"s Commentary, Electronic Database (Seattle, WA: Hendrickson Publishers Inc, 1996), in P.C. Study Bible, v 31 [CD-ROM] (Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc, 1993-2000), notes on Luke 16:20.

Luke 16:23 — "And in hell he lift up his eyes" - Word Study on "hell" - Strong says the Greek word ά δης (G 86) means "the place (state) of departed souls." The Enhanced Strong says this Greek word is used 11times in the New Testament, being translated in the KJV as, it is translated "hell 10, grave 11."

Comments- The Greek mythological god of the lower world was called Hades, or Pluto. 253]

253] Jessie M. Tadlock, Greek and Roman Mythology (New York: The Century Company, 1917), 189.

Luke 16:22-23Comments- "into Abraham's bosom….in his bosom" - This phrase is used figuratively to describe the position of Lazarus with Abraham. This term is used when the Jews of this period in history gathered around a table. There were no chairs. Therefore, people reclined on the floor leaning on their left side, with their feet pointed away from the table. When a cushion or a floor mat was used to recline in this fashion, it gave the person in front a position of literally leaning close to the bosom of the person behind him.

The person of highest rank was given the chief place at the table. Those of more important positions were placed next to the chief guest. To recline next to someone was associated with being intimately acquainted with that person.

This phrase is used in John 1:18 to reveal that Jesus holds the closest relationship with God the Father of any man. It means that Jesus knows the Father more intimately that anyone and is thus, qualified to make Him known.

John 1:18, "No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Song of Solomon , which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him."

John 1:18 reveals that Jesus still holds that perfect relationship with the Father that He has from eternity. Jesus" position with His Father has not been lowered in any way.

This phrase says basically the same thing that John 1:1 reveals. It tells us that Jesus was pre-existent, that this pre-existence was with the Father, and that Jesus shared intimate fellowship with the Father so as to share in His same character.

This phrase is used in other passages in Scripture. It is used of Sarai giving Hagar to Abraham.

Genesis 16:5, "And Sarai said unto Abram, My wrong be upon thee: I have given my maid into thy bosom; and when she saw that she had conceived, I was despised in her eyes: the LORD judge between me and thee."

John the apostle"s tender relationship with Jesus gave him the position of lying in the bosom of Jesus at mealtime.

John 13:23, "Now there was leaning on Jesus" bosom one of his disciples, whom Jesus loved."

It is used in Luke 16:22-23 to show the intimate fellowship with Abraham and Lazarus.

In his book Heaven: Close Encounters of the God Kind Jesse Duplantis describes his encounter with Abraham while having a divine visitation to Heaven. When Abraham came to meet Jesse he offered him a cup of water to drink. He said, "I'm Abraham. Paradise is my place. (Jesus describes Paradise as a beautiful garden leading into the City of God.)…I have come to help you. I meet all the people who come here because Paradise is my bosom." 254] Jesse explained that Abraham comes to meet everyone who enters Heaven because we are all children of Abraham.

254] Jesse Duplantis, Heaven Close Encounters of the God Kind (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Harrison House, 1996), 76-8.

Luke 16:24Comments- Bill Wiese, who wrote the book 23Minutes in Hell, which is an account of his experience in hell, explains that a person's senses and understanding are heightened in hell. 255] He understands more clearly than upon earth. Thus, the rich man recognized Abraham because of his heightened knowledge. Otherwise, the rich man would not have known this him.

255] Bill Wiese, 23Minutes in Hell (Lake Mary, Florida: Charis House, c 2006), 6, 7, 10. Wiese quotes Erwin Lutzer, who said that in Hell a person has "heightened perception and a better understanding." [see Erwin W. Lutzer, One Minute After You Die (Chicago: Moody Publishers, 1997), 39].

Luke 16:31 — "neither will they be persuaded" - Comments- Salvation comes through the conviction of sins ( Acts 26:28).

Acts 26:28, "Then Agrippa said unto Paul, Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian."

Luke 16:30-31Comments - The Children of Israel did not Believe- Neither did the children of Israel believe and trust God, although they saw many signs and wonders.

 


Copyright Statement
These files are copyrighted by the author, Gary Everett. Used by Permission.
No distribution beyond personal use without permission.

Bibliography Information
Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on Luke 16:4". Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ghe/luke-16.html. 2013.

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