corner graphic   Hi,    
ver. 2.0.19.10.19
Finding the new version too difficult to understand? Go to classic.studylight.org/

Bible Commentaries

Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures
Numbers

Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 6
Chapter 7 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11
Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15
Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter 18 Chapter 20
Chapter 21 Chapter 22 Chapter 23 Chapter 24
Chapter 25 Chapter 26 Chapter 27 Chapter 29
Chapter 30 Chapter 31 Chapter 32 Chapter 33
Chapter 35 Chapter 36

Book Overview - Numbers

by Gary H. Everett

STUDY NOTES ON THE HOLY SCRIPTURES

Using a Theme-based Approach

to Identify Literary Structures

By Gary H. Everett

THE BOOK OF NUMBERS

January 2013Edition

All Scripture quotations in English are taken from the King James Version unless otherwise noted. Some words have been emphasized by the author of this commentary using bold or italics.

All Old Testament Scripture quotations in the Hebrew text are taken from Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: With Westminster Hebrew Morphology, electronic ed, Stuttgart; Glenside PA: German Bible Society, Westminster Seminary, 1996, c 1925, morphology c 1991, in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

All New Testament Scripture quotations in the Greek text are taken from Greek New Testament, Fourth Revised Edition (with Morphology), eds. Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger, M. Robinson, and Allen Wikgren, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft (United Bible Societies), c 1966, 1993, 2006, in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

All Hebrew and Greek text for word studies are taken from James Strong in The New Strong"s Dictionary of Hebrew and Greek Words, Nashville: Thomas Nelson, c 1996, 1997, in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

The Crucifixion image on the book cover was created by the author's daughter Victoria Everett in 2012.

Gary H. Everett, 1981-2013

All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, stored, or transmitted in any form without prior permission of the author.

Foundational Theme - The Lord God is the One, True God

Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD.

Deuteronomy 6:4

Structural Theme - Israel's Perseverance in the Wilderness

There hath no temptation taken you but such as is common to man:

but God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able;

but will with the temptation also make a way to escape, that ye may be able to bear it.

1 Corinthians 10:13

Imperative Theme - Israel's Labour to Enter into Rest

For we are made partakers of Christ,

if we hold the beginning of our confidence stedfast unto the end;

Hebrews 3:14

Let us labour therefore to enter into that rest,

lest any man fall after the same example of unbelief.

Hebrews 4:11

INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK OF NUMBERS

Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures supports the view of the verbal, plenary inspiration of the biblical text of the Holy Scriptures, meaning that every word originally written down by the authors in the sixty-six books of the Holy Canon were God-breathed when recorded by men, and that the Scriptures are therefore inerrant and infallible. Any view less than this contradicts the testimony of the Holy Scriptures themselves. For this reason, the Holy Scriptures contain both divine attributes and human attributes. While textual criticism engages with the variant readings of the biblical text, acknowledging its human attributes, faith in His Word acknowledges its divine attributes. These views demand the adherence of mankind to the supreme authority of the Holy Scriptures above all else. The Holy Scriptures can only be properly interpreted by the guidance of the Holy Spirit, an aspect of biblical scholarship that is denied by liberal views, causing much misunderstanding and misinterpretation of the Holy Scriptures.

Introductory Material- The introduction to the book of Numbers will deal with its historical setting, literary style, and theological framework. 1] These three aspects of introductory material will serve as an important foundation for understanding God's message to us today from this divinely inspired book of the Holy Scriptures.

1] Someone may associate these three categories with Hermann Gunkel's well-known three-fold approach to form criticism when categorizing the genre found within the book of Psalm: (1) "a common setting in life," (2) "thoughts and mood," (3) "literary forms." In addition, the Word Biblical Commentary uses "Form/Structure/Setting" preceding each commentary section. Although such similarities were not intentional, but rather coincidental, the author was aware of them and found encouragement from them when assigning the three-fold scheme of historical setting, literary style, and theological framework to his introductory material. See Hermann Gunkel, The Psalm: A Form-Critical Introduction, trans. Thomas M. Horner, in Biblical Series, vol 19, ed. John Reumann (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Fortress Press, 1967), 10; see also Word Biblical Commentary, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard, and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas, Texas: Word Incorporated, 1989-2007).

HISTORICAL SETTING

"We dare not divorce our study from understanding the historical setting of every passage of Scripture

if we are going to come to grips with the truth and message of the Bible."

(J. Hampton Keathley) 2]

2] J. Hampton Keathley, III, "Introduction and Historical Setting for Elijah," (Bible.org) [on-line]; accessed 23May 2012; available from http://bible.org/seriespage/introduction-and-historical-setting-elijah; Internet.

Each book of the Holy Scriptures is cloaked within a unique historical setting. An examination of this setting is useful in the interpretation of the book because it provides the context of the passage of Scripture under examination. The section on the historical setting of the book of Numbers will provide a discussion on its title, historical background, authorship, date and place of writing, recipients, and occasion. This discussion supports the Jewish tradition that Moses was the author of the book of Numbers , writing during the period of Israel's wilderness journey.

I. The Title

There are a number of ancient titles associated with the book of Numbers.

A. The Ancient Jewish Title "And He Spoke" - Henry Swete says ancient Jews titled the five books of the Pentateuch, Proverbs , and Lamentations by identifying a key word in the opening verses. 3] The Hebrew title for Numbers was "Vayedabber" ( וַיְדַבֵּ֨ר), which comes from the opening word of this book, meaning "and he spoke." Jerome (A.D 342to 420) was familiar with this ancient Hebrew title. 4]

3] Henry B. Swete, An Introduction to Old Testament in Greek (Cambridge: University Press, 1902), 214.

4] Jerome says, "the fourth, Vaiedabber, which we call Numbers;" See Jerome, "Prefaces to the Books of the Vulgate Version of the Old Testament: The Books of Samuel and Kings," trans. W. H. Freemantle, in A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, Second Series, vol 6, eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff (New York: The Christian Literature Company, 1893), 489-90.

B. The Modern English Title "Numbers" - Today, English bibles use the title " Numbers ," which finds it origin in the Greek title " άριθμοί " found in the LXX. The Hebrew title ( מִסְפָּרִים), meaning " Numbers ," is found in the Mishna, 5] and was translated into the Greek title " άριθμοί ." As with the other books of the Pentateuch, the Latin title followed the LXX, thus "Numeri (liber)" for the book of " άριθμοί " in the Vulgate, 6] from which we get the English title "Numbers." 7] Henry Swete suggests this Greek title comes from a phrase out of Numbers 1:2, " κατὰ ἀριθμὸν ἐξ ὀνόματος αὐτῶν." Although Philo (20 B.C - A.D 50) does not mention the book of Numbers by its Greek or Hebrew titles; he does refer to the other four books of the Pentateuch by their Greek names, suggesting he was familiar with this title. 8] The Greek title " άριθμοί " was known by Melito, bishop of Sardis (d. c 190). 9] Tertullian (c 160 - c 225) uses the Greek " άριθμοί ," 10] and Cyprian (d 258) uses the Latin Numeri. 11] Since the title "Numbers" is used as far back as the LXX, Henry Swete and George Gray believe this title is "of Alexandrian and pre-Christian origin." 12] This title reflects the contents of the book by referring to the two censes taken by Moses in the book.

5] Henry B. Swete, An Introduction to Old Testament in Greek (Cambridge: University Press, 1902), 215.

6] Biblia Sacra Juxta Vulgatam Clementinam, ed. electronica (Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc, 2005), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004).

7] Philip J. Budd, Numbers , in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD- Romans , vol 5, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), "introduction."

8] Herbert E. Ryle, Philo and Holy Scripture (London: Macmillan and Company, 1895), xx-xxiv.

9] Eusebius writes, "‘I learned accurately the books of the Old Testament, and send them to thee as written below. Their names are as follows: Of Moses, five books: Genesis ,, Exodus ,, Numbers ,, Leviticus , Deuteronomy; Jesus Nave, Judges , Ruth; of Kings, four books; of Chronicles, two; the Psalm of David; the Proverbs of Song of Solomon , Wisdom also, Ecclesiastes ,, Song of Solomon , Job; of Prophets, Isaiah , Jeremiah; of the twelve prophets, one book; Daniel ,, Ezekiel , Esdras. From which also I have made the extracts, dividing them into six books.' Such are the words of Melito." See Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 42614, trans. Arthur C. McGiffert under the title The Church History of Eusebius, in A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, A New Series, vol 1, eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff, (Oxford: Parker and Company, c 1890, 1905), 206.

10] Tertullian writes, "The prophet Balaam, in Numbers , when sent forth by king Balak to curse Israel, with whom he was commencing war, was at the same moment filled with the Spirit." See Tertullian, Against Marcion, 428, in The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol 3, eds. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson (Buffalo, New York: The Christian Literature Publishing Company, 1885), 396.

11] Henry B. Swete, An Introduction to Old Testament in Greek (Cambridge: University Press, 1902), 215.

12] Henry B. Swete, An Introduction to Old Testament in Greek (Cambridge: University Press, 1902), 215; George B. Gray, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Numbers , in The International Critical Commentary on the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, editors Charles A. Briggs, Samuel R. Driver, and Alfred Plummer (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1903), xxi.

C. Other Titles: "In the Wilderness" - The Masoretic text has adopted the title ( בְּמִדְבַּר), meaning "in the wilderness" (from the fifth word in the opening verse) and according to George Gray "is used in modern Hebrew bibles." 13] The title ( במדבר) can be found in the standard work Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. 14]

13] George B. Gray, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Numbers , in The International Critical Commentary on the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, editors Charles A. Briggs, Samuel R. Driver, and Alfred Plummer (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1903), xxii.

14] Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, eds. A. Alt, O. Eifelt, P. Kahle, and R. Kittle (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelstiftung, c 1967-77).

D. Other Titles: "Fifth of the Precepts" - Origen (c 185 - c 254) tells us the Hebrew title for Numbers was " άμμεσ φεκωδείμ ," from ( פִּקּוּדִים) ( חמֶשׁ) meaning, "fifth of the precepts." 15] Swete says a similar title ( פִּקּוּדִים) ( סֵפֶר) occurs in the Mishna and means, "book of precepts." 16]

15] Eusebius, the early Church historian, writes, " Numbers , Ammesphekodeim;" Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 6251-2, trans. Arthur C. McGiffert under the title The Church History of Eusebius, in A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, A New Series, vol 1, eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff (Oxford: Parker and Company, c 1890, 1905), 272-3.

16] Henry B. Swete, An Introduction to Old Testament in Greek (Cambridge: University Press, 1902), 198.

II. Historical Background

III. Authorship

See Introduction to the Pentateuch.

IV. Date

See Introduction to the Pentateuch.

V. Recipients

See Introduction to the Pentateuch.

VI. Occasion

LITERARY STYLE (GENRE)

"Perhaps the most important issue in interpretation is the issue of genre.

If we misunderstand the genre of a text, the rest of our analysis will be askew."

(Thomas Schreiner) 17]

17] Thomas R. Schreiner, Interpreting the Pauline Epistles, second edition (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, c 1990, 2011), 11.

Within the historical setting of the children of Israel in the wilderness, the author of the book of Leviticus chose to write using the literary style of the law. Thus, the book of Leviticus is assigned to the literary genre called "law."

A. Grammar and Syntax: Key Words Used in the Book of Numbers - A key word in the book of Numbers is "number" and "numbered." It is used more in this book than any other book in the Holy Bible.

THEOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK

"Scholarly excellence requires a proper theological framework."

(Andreas Ksenberger) 18]

18] Andreas J. Ksenberger, Excellence: The Character of God and the Pursuit of Scholarly Virtue (Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway, 2011), 161.

Based upon the historical setting and literary style of the book of Numbers , an examination of the purpose, thematic scheme, and literary structure to this book of the Holy Scriptures will reveal its theological framework. This introductory section will sum up its theological framework in the form of an outline, which is then used to identify smaller units or pericopes within the book of Numbers for preaching and teaching passages of Scripture while following the overriding message of the book. Following this outline allows the minister of the Gospel of Jesus Christ to take his followers on a spiritual journey that brings them to the same destination that the author intended his readers to reach.

VII. Purpose

VIII. Thematic Scheme

The Pentateuch is woven together as the first major division of the Holy Scriptures with a three-fold thematic scheme. (1) Primary Theme- The primary, foundational theme of the Pentateuch is the claim found in Deuteronomy 6:4 and known to the Jews as "the Shema," a verse that declares the God of Israel is one, true and living God, a theme that undergirds all five books of the Pentateuch. (2) Secondary Theme- Each book of the Pentateuch has a secondary theme that supports this central theme, providing the evidence to prove that the God of Israel is one God, who had dominion over all other gods worshipped by depraved humanity. Collectively, the secondary themes of the five books of the Pentateuch reveal the establishment of the nation of Israel above the nations of the earth through worship of YHWH, who has chosen Israel through His foreknowledge and divine election to be His chosen method of bringing redemption to mankind. The five books of the Pentateuch form a thematic scheme of God's plan of redemption for the nation of Israel and for the heathen nations with their secondary themes. This thematic scheme follows the structure found in Romans 8:29-30, which is predestination, calling, justification, and glorification. (3) The Third Theme- The third theme of the Pentateuch is an imperative theme, and it is also found in the Shema, where Moses commands Israel to love YHWH their God with all of one's heart, mind, and strength ( Deuteronomy 6:5).

The book of Numbers offers a three-fold thematic scheme that supports the central claim of the Pentateuch, the claim found in Deuteronomy 6:4 and known to the Jews as "the Shema," a verse that declares the God of Israel is one, true and living God, a theme that undergirds all five books of the Pentateuch. Thus, the foundational theme of Numbers is the central claim of the Pentateuch, a theme shared by all five books in this division of the Holy Scriptures. The book of Numbers carries a secondary theme that emphasizes perseverance against persecutions from without. After spending one year at Mount Sinai to cut a covenant with Israel, give them the Mosaic Law, build the Tabernacle, and choose the Levites as its ministers, God then told Israel to go take possession of the Promised Land. Because of their disobedience, Israel was told to wander in the wilderness for the next forty years. During this time, the Israelites faced a number of attacks from the pagan nations in the region. Thus, the theme of perseverance from persecutions from without characterizes the secondary theme of the book of Numbers. The third theme of Numbers is Israel's charge to move with the cloud by day and pillar of fire by night. This leadership from the Lord guides the Israelites through this period of their wilderness journey.

A. Primary Theme (Foundational): The Lord is the One, True God- The foundational, underlying theme of the book of Numbers is the central claim of the Pentateuch, a claim which states that the God of Israel is the one true and holy God, who is orchestrating a plan of redemption for mankind. The central claim of the Pentateuch supports the underlying theme of the Old Testament itself, which is the theme of God the Father's foreknowledge and divine election to redeem mankind through predestination, calling, justification, and redemption ( Romans 8:29-30).

The Primary Theme of Numbers - The book of Numbers reflects the primary theme of the Pentateuch as the Lord demonstrates His omnipotence and redemptive nature in leading the children of Israel through a forty-year wilderness journey by providing every daily need through His divine providence and provision.

B. Secondary Theme (Structural): Perseverance from Persecutions from Without - Israel's Forty-year Wilderness Journey - The secondary theme of the Pentateuch is the establishment of the nation of Israel by God's foreknowledge and divine election as His chosen method of bringing redemption to mankind. It is this holy nation that will give birth to the Messiah who will again restore righteousness upon the earth. We can easily see the secondary theme of the Pentateuch by examining the secondary themes of the five books of the Pentateuch, which testify of predestination, calling, justification, indoctrination, divine service, perseverance, and glorification. The book of Numbers carries one of the secondary themes that make up the structure of the Pentateuch, that of perseverance.

The Secondary Theme of the Individual Books of the Pentateuch- The secondary theme of the first part of the book of Genesis is the predestination of mankind to take dominion upon the earth, and theme of the second part is the origin of the nation of Israel, God's seed of righteousness, which He plans to use to accomplish the redemption of mankind. God will use several men who fulfilled their divine destinies to create the nation of Israel. These patriarchs, Adam, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph, will play leading roles in preparing for the establishment of this nation in much the same way the Gospels and the book of Acts reveals the origin of the Church and how men like Jesus Christ, Peter, Stephen, Philip the evangelist and Paul the apostle played leading roles in the establishment of the early Church. Thus, the book of Genesis is structured around the genealogies of these men of righteousness in order to explain its theme of the lineage of the nation of Israel. As the first part of the book of Exodus emphasizes deliverance, so do the Gospels testify of our redemption and set us apart from the world. As the last part of the book of Exodus emphasizes the doctrines of the nation of Israel, so to the Pauline Epistles establish Church doctrine. As the book of Leviticus establishes the order of worship for the Israelites, so does the Pastoral Epistles establish Church order. As the book of Numbers explains the perseverance of the "church" in the wilderness, so do the Catholic Epistles of Hebrews , James and 1Peter explain the perseverance of the Church. As the book of Deuteronomy is the second giving of the Law with stern warnings to persevere, so do the Catholic Epistles of 2Peter, 1, 2, 3John and Jude emphasize this same theme. Finally, the story of the conquest of Canaan in the book of Joshua is figurative of the Church entering into Heaven, as is emphasized in the book of Revelation. Note that we find two verses in the New Testament that allow us to look at the Old Testament in a figurative way of the Christian life.

Romans 15:4, "For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning, that we through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope."

1 Corinthians 10:11, "Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples: and they are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are come."

The Secondary Theme of Numbers: Perseverance from Persecutions from Without - the theme of perseverance from persecutions from without characterizes the secondary theme of the book of Numbers. This theme carries a parallel under the New Covenant as the Church is called to persevere in the midst of persecutions, a theme carried in the epistles of Hebrews ,, James , and 1Peter. Thus, the author of the book of Hebrews found it appropriate when discussing the topic of the perseverance of the saints in Numbers 3:1 to Numbers 4:13 to draw its parallel in the Old Testament from the book of Numbers , which shares a similar theme.

C. Third Theme (Imperative): Labouring to Enter into Rest- The third theme of Numbers is Israel's charge to enter into God's rest by moving with the cloud by day and pillar of fire by night. This leadership from the Lord guides the Israelites through this period of their wilderness journey. This theme reflects the third theme of the Pentateuch, which is the command to love the Lord God with all of one's heart, mind, and strength.

IX. Literary Structure

There are two major divisions in the book of Numbers:

I. Instruction given at Mt. Sinai ( Numbers 1:1 to Numbers 10:10)

II. The Wilderness Journey ( Numbers 10:11 to Numbers 36:13)

X. Outline of Book

I. Preparing for the Wilderness Journey — Numbers 1:1 to Numbers 10:10

A. The First Census— Numbers 1:1 to Numbers 4:49

1. The Twelve Tribes— Numbers 1:1-54

2. The Encampment of Israel— Numbers 2:1-34

3. Levites Appointed to Serve Aaron— Numbers 3:1-13

4. The Duties & Census of the Levites— Numbers 3:14-39

5. The Redemption of the Firstborn— Numbers 3:40-51

6. Census of Sons of Kohath— Numbers 4:1-20

7. Census of Sons of Gershon— Numbers 4:21-28

8. Census of Sons of Merari— Numbers 4:29-33

9. Numbering of Sons of Levi— Numbers 4:34-49

B. Additional Instructions— Numbers 5:1 to Numbers 6:27

—1. The Lepers Discharged from Camp— Numbers 5:1-4

2. Restitution of Sins— Numbers 5:5-11

3. Unfaithful Wives— Numbers 5:12-31

4. The Vow of the Nazarite— Numbers 6:1-21

5. The Priestly Blessing— Numbers 6:22-27

C. The Offerings of Dedication— Numbers 7:1-88

1. Offering of Leaders— Numbers 7:1-11

2. Offering of Judah— Numbers 7:12-17

3. Offering of Issachar— Numbers 7:18-23

4. Offering of Zebulun— Numbers 7:24-29

5. Offering of Reuben— Numbers 7:30-35

6. Offering of Simeon— Numbers 7:36-41

7. Offering of Gad— Numbers 7:42-47

8. Offering of Ephraim— Numbers 7:48-53

9. Offering of Manasseh— Numbers 7:54-59

10. Offering of Benjamin— Numbers 7:60-65

11. Offering of Dan— Numbers 7:66-71

12. Offering of Asher— Numbers 7:72-77

13. Offering of Naphtali— Numbers 7:78-83

14. Summary of Offering— Numbers 7:84-88

D. Additional Dedications— Numbers 7:89 to Numbers 8:26

1. Setting of Lampstand— Numbers 7:89 to Numbers 8:4

2. Dedication of Levites— Numbers 8:5-22

3. Duties of the Levites— Numbers 8:23-26

4. The Second Passover— Numbers 9:1-14

E. Movement of Cloud and Fire— Numbers 9:15-23

F. The Two Silver Trumpets— Numbers 10:1-10

II. The Wilderness Journey — Numbers 10:11 to Numbers 36:13

A. Israel's First Three-Day Journey to Paran— Numbers 10:11 to Numbers 19:22

1. Israel Journeys to Paran— Numbers 10:11-13

2. The Three Tribes on the East of the Ark — Numbers 10:14-17

3. The Three Tribes on the South of the Ark — Numbers 10:18-21

4. The Three Tribes on the West of the Ark — Numbers 10:22-24

5. The Three Tribes on the North of the Ark — Numbers 10:25-27

6. Summary of Encampment— Numbers 10:28

7. Moses Invites His Father-in-Law to Join Him — Numbers 10:29-32

8. The Ark of the Covenant Leads Israel — Numbers 10:33-36

9. The Appointment of Seventy Elders — Numbers 11:1-30

a) The People Complain— Numbers 11:1-3

b) The People Despise Manna— Numbers 11:4-9

c) Moses Complains to the Lord— Numbers 11:10-15

d) The Lord Anoints Seventy Elders— Numbers 11:16-30

e) The Lord Judges the People who Lusted— Numbers 11:31-35

10. Miriam's Leprosy— Numbers 12:1-16

11. Moses Sends Out Ten Spies— Numbers 13:1 to Numbers 14:45

12. Regulations Concerning the Burnt Offering— Numbers 15:1-16

13. Regulations Concerning the Heave Offering— Numbers 15:17-21

14. Regulations Concerning the Sin Offering— Numbers 15:22-31

15. The Man Stoned for Picking Up Sticks— Numbers 15:32-36

16. Regulations Concern Tassels for Garments— Numbers 15:37-41

17. The Rebellion of Korah— Numbers 16:1-50

18. Aaron's Rod that Blossomed— Numbers 17:1-13

19. The Priesthood of Aaron— Numbers 18:1-19

20. The Service of the Levites— Numbers 18:20-24

21. The Tithe for the Levites— Numbers 18:25-32

22. The Laws of Purification— Numbers 19:1-22

a) The Sacrifice of the Red Heifer— Numbers 19:1-10

b) Purification from a Dead Body— Numbers 19:11-22

B. Israel Journeys from Paran to Zin— Numbers 20:1-21

1. Moses Strikes the Rock Twice— Numbers 20:1-13

2. Israel Refused Passage Through Edom— Numbers 20:14-21

C. Israel Journeys from Kadesh to Mount Hor— Numbers 20:22 to Numbers 21:3

1. The Death of Aaron— Numbers 20:22-29

2. Israel Defeats King Arad— Numbers 21:1-3

D. Israel Journeys around Edom— Numbers 21:4-20

1. Fiery Serpents— Numbers 21:4-9

2. Israel's Journeys— Numbers 21:10-20

3. Israel Defeats Sihon of the Amorites— Numbers 21:21-31

4. Israel Defeats Og of Bashan— Numbers 21:32-35

E. Israel Encamps in Plains of Moab— Numbers 22:1 to

1. Balaam Blesses Israel— Numbers 22:1 to Numbers 24:25

2. Israel's Harlotry with Moabites— Numbers 25:1-18

3. The Second Census — Numbers 26:1-65

4. The Inheritance of Daughters of Zelophehad — Numbers 27:1-11

5. The Appointment of Joshua— Numbers 27:12-23

6. The Offerings & Feast Days— Numbers 28:1 to Numbers 29:40

a) Daily Offerings— Numbers 28:1-8

b) Sabbath Offerings— Numbers 28:9-10

c) New Month Offerings— Numbers 28:11-15

d) The Passover Offerings— Numbers 28:16-25

e) First-fruits Offerings— Numbers 28:26-31

f) Feast of Trumpets Offerings— Numbers 29:1-38

g) Summary of Offerings— Numbers 29:39-40

7. Laws Concerning Vows— Numbers 30:1-16

8. Israel Defeats the Midianites— Numbers 31:1-54

9. Reuben, Gad & Manassah East of Jordan— Numbers 32:1-42

10. The Record of Israel's Journeys— Numbers 33:1-49

11. Israel's Charge to Take the Promise Land— Numbers 33:50-56

12. The Borders of the Land of Israel— Numbers 34:1-15

13. The Appointment of Leaders of the Tribes— Numbers 34:16-29

14. The Cities of the Levites— Numbers 35:1-8

15. The Cities of Refuge— Numbers 35:9-15

16. Statutes Concerning Murder— Numbers 35:16-34

17. Statutes Concerning Female Heirs— Numbers 36:1-12

18. Summary of Commandments in Moab— Numbers 36:13

BIBLIOGRAPHY

COMMENTARY BIBLIOGRAPHY

Budd, Philip J. Budd. Numbers , In Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD- Romans , vol 5. Eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker. Dallas: Word Inc, 2002. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 30b [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2004.

Clarke, Adam. The Holy Bible Containing the Old and New Testaments, vol. 1. London: Joseph Butterworth and Sons, 1825.

Espin, E. T. and J. F. Thrupp. Numbers. In The Holy Bible According to the Authorized Version (A.D 1611), with an Explanation and Critical Commentary and a Revision of the Translation, by Bishops and Clergy of the Anglican Church, vol 1, part 1. Ed. F. C. Cook. London: John Murray, 1871.

Gill, John. Numbers. In John Gill's Expositor. In e-Sword, v 777 [CD-ROM] Franklin, Tennessee: e-Sword, 2000-2005.

Gray, George B. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Numbers , in The International Critical Commentary on the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments. Editors, Charles A. Briggs, Samuel R. Driver, and Alfred Plummer. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1903.

Hartley, John E. Leviticus. In Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD-Rom, vol 4. Eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker. Dallas: Word Inc, 2002. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 30b [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2004.

Henry, Matthew. An Exposition of the Old and New Testament, vol 1. London: James Nisbet and Co, no date.

Jamieson, Robert, A. R. Fausset, and David Brown, The Portable Commentary: A Commentary, Critical and Explanatory, on the Old and New Testaments, vol 1. Glasgow: William Collins, 1863.

Keil, C. F, and F. Delitzsch. Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament, vol 3. Trans. James Martin. In Clark's Foreign Theological Library, fourth series, vol 6. Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark, 1867.

Metzger, Bruce M, David A. Hubbard, and Glenn W. Barker, eds. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas, Texas: Word Incorporated, 1989-2007.

Rawlinson, G. Exodus. In The Pulpit Commentary. Ed. H. D. M. Spence and Joseph Exell. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co, 1950. In Ages Digital Library, v 10 [CD-ROM]. Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc, 2001.

Wilcock, Michael. The Message of Revelation. In The Bible Speaks Today. Ed. John R. W. Stott. Leicester, England: Inter-Varsity Press, c 1975, 1986.

GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY

Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. Eds. A. Alt, O. Eifelt, P. Kahle, and R. Kittle. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelstiftung, c 1967-77.

Biblia Sacra juxta Vulgatam Clementinam. Ed. Electronica. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM]. Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc, 2005.

The Book of Jubilees. Trans. R. H. Charles. In The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English With Introductions and Critical and Explanatory Notes to the Several Books, vol 2, ed. R. H. Charles, 1-82. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913.

Conder, C. R. "Raamses, Rameses." In International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Ed. James Orr. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939. In The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008.

Epistle of Barnabas. In The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol 1, eds. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, c 1885, 1913.

Eusebius. Ecclesiastical History 625, trans. Arthur C. McGiffert under the title The Church History of Eusebius. In A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, A New Series, vol 1. Eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff. Oxford: Parker and Company, c 1890, 1905.

Ewing, W. "Hormah." In International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Ed. James Orr. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939. In The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008.

Gunkel, Hermann. The Psalm: A Form-Critical Introduction. Trans. Thomas M. Horner. In Biblical Series, vol 19. Ed. John Reumann. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Fortress Press, 1967.

Keathley, III, J. Hampton. "Introduction and Historical Setting for Elijah." (Bible.org) [on-line]. Accessed 23May 2012. Available from http://bible.org/seriespage/introduction-and-historical-setting-elijah; Internet.

Ksenberger, Andreas J. Excellence: The Character of God and the Pursuit of Scholarly Virtue. Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway, 2011.

Masterman, E. W. G. "Bitter Herbs." In International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Ed. James Orr. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939. In The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008.

Ovid. Metamorphoses, vol 2. Trans. Frank J. Miller. In The Loeb Classical Library. Eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse. London: William Heinemann Ltd, 1958.

Pinches T. G. "Pethor." In International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Ed. James Orr. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939. In The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008.

Roberts, Frances J. Come Away My Beloved. Ojai, California: King's Farspan, Inc, 1973.

Ryle, Herbert E. Philo and Holy Scripture. London: Macmillan and Company, 1895.

Sailhamer, John H. Introduction to Old Testament Theology. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, c 1995.

Schreiner, Thomas R. Interpreting the Pauline Epistles, second edition. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, c 1990, 2011.

Swete, Henry B. An Introduction to Old Testament in Greek. Cambridge: University Press, 1902.

Tertullian, Against Marcion, 428. In The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol 3. Eds. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson. Buffalo, New York: The Christian Literature Publishing Company, 1885.

Lectionary Calendar
Saturday, October 19th, 2019
the Week of Proper 23 / Ordinary 28
ADVERTISEMENT
Commentary Navigator
Search This Commentary
Enter query in the box below
ADVERTISEMENT
To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient contact form
Powered by Lightspeed Technology