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Bible Commentaries

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
Acts 1

 

 

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Verse 1

Acts 1:1. ΄ὲν, indeed) The Apodosis to the μὲν, viz., as to this second book (treatise), is exhibited by the fact itself, which absorbs the particle δὲ, but [which should follow the μέν].— λόγον, treatise) λόγος, the Latin liber, usually has such a length, as that the eager reader can finish it at one reading. It is therefore of use, at times, to read through at one time one whole book; for instance, the Gospel according to Luke. The authority of either of the two treatises of Luke redounds to the other. The greatest (farthest) limit hitherto, in the economy of Christ, is this time from the resurrection as far as to the Ascension: with it the first book of Luke terminates, and the second begins, which describes, not so much the Acts of the Apostles, as the Acts of the Holy Spirit; even as the former treatise contains the Acts of Jesus Christ.— περὶ πάντων, concerning all things) namely, narrated in a summary manner. John 21:25.— ἤρξατο ποιεῖνἄχρι) began to do—until; that is, did from the beginning: comp. the use of ἀρξάμενος, beginning, in Acts 1:22. Luke has interwoven, in due order throughout the beginnings and endings; i.e. he has introduced all things with due consideration.— ποιεῖν, to do) by His miracles and holy actions.— διδάσκειν, to teach) by His discourses.


Verse 2

Acts 1:2. ἐντειλάμενος, having given commandment) They who depart are wont to give commandment and a commission, as is needed and what is sufficient for the occasion. In Acts 1:3, Luke expresses generally, what the Lord spake to the apostles during those Forty days: but in Acts 1:2; Acts 1:4, et seq., he declares what He said on that remarkable day, viz., that of His Ascension: with this comp. Acts 1:5 at the end, and Acts 1:9 at the beginning [which prove that Acts 1:4-9 refer to the one and the same day, namely, that of the Ascension]. For it was up to that very day that Luke had carried forward his Gospel: and with it he begins the Acts of the Apostles.— τοῖς ἀποστόλοις, unto the apostles) An appellation appropriate to the subject of the whole book: their term of discipleship was now expired.— διὰ, through) Construe this with having given commandment. He Himself who gave commandment had the Holy Spirit, Luke 4:18, “The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me:” and He bestowed that Spirit upon the apostles in giving them His instructions, John 20:22, “Receive ye the Holy Ghost;” intending presently after to bestow it on them most abundantly. Thus before His ascension He gave them an earnest of Pentecost.— ἐξελέξατο) He had chosen out: Luke 6:13; John 6:70. Judas is treated of separately in Acts 1:16-17.— ἀνελήφθη) He was taken up.


Verse 3

Acts 1:3. παρέστησεν ἑαυτὸν, He Presented or showed Himself) Noble language. A sweet return backwards [a retrogression]: He was taken up, He presented Himself alive, His Passion.— παθεῖν, His Passion) reaching to His death.— τεκμηρίοις, proofs) by sight, hearing, touch, etc.; by means of which they might know clearly and for certain both that it was He Himself, and that He was alive.— δἰ ἡμέρων τεσσαράκοντα) for forty days, not continuously, but at intervals. On the other hand, only ten, not forty, days elapsed from the Ascension to Pentecost: the period of His death was three days.— ὀπτανόμενος, appearing to [being seen of] them) in appearances of considerable length: John 21:12.— περὶ τῆς βασιλείας, concerning the kingdom) This was the sum of the words of Christ, even before His Passion.


Verse 4

Acts 1:4. συναλιζόμενος, having a meeting with them(1)) This is not said of all His appearances, Acts 1:3, but of the last, and that, a meeting attended by a large number, and one of the greatest moment. This reading, which has been assailed by some, and the notion of this verb, are proved by Hesychius, who explains συναλιζόμενος, συναλισθεὶς, by συναχθεὶς, συναθροισθείς.— μὴ χωρίζεσθαι, that they should not depart) They would otherwise have readily (naturally been inclined to have) left Jerusalem, where the Lord had been crucified.— τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν, the promise) Ammonius says that ὑπισχνεῖται is said of one who has undertaken or engaged to give to one who has asked; but ἐπαγγέλλεται of one, who of himself has undertaken or volunteered a promise to give. Which propriety of usage in the Greek verb, when the Divine promises are the subject in hand, is accurately to be observed.— ἠκούσατε, ye have heard) He had used the very expression in Luke 24:49, “Behold, I send the promise of My Father upon you.” And this parallelism serves to form the closest bond of connection between both books of Luke. The style passes from the narrative to the recitative, as in ch. Acts 23:22; also as coming alter the verb παρήγγειλεν, He enjoined them.


Verse 5

Acts 1:5. ὑμεῖς, ye) who are Mine. Matthew 3:11, John the Baptist, “I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance—but—He shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with tire.” This has a widely extended application: Acts 11:16.— βαπτισθήσεσθε, ye shall be baptized) by Me. Matt. l. c.— οὐ μετὰ πολλὰς, not many days hence) The number of days not being defined, kept the faith of the disciples in exercise.


Verse 6

Acts 1:6. συνελθόντες, having come together) They thought that they would more easily obtain a reply when asking jointly.— τούτῳ) at this interval (period), viz. that which was coming after not many days.— τὴν βασιλείαν, the kingdom) the seat of which is Jerusalem, Acts 1:4, but the full extent of it most comprehensive, Acts 1:8, and the nature and inward character of it more divine than the construction which the interrogators were at the time putting on the words of the Lord; Acts 1:3 at the end. Luke 22:16, “I will not anymore eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.”— τῷ ἰσραὴλ, to Israel) The dative bears the emphasis. The apostles, taking the fact for granted, were asking concerning the time: and in a like manner the reply, which follows immediately after, is framed.


Verse 7

Acts 1:7. οὐκ ὑμῶν ἐστιν, not for you is it) He does not say, “It is not for you;” but “not for you (not your part) is it;” in order that the emphasis may be on the ὑμῶν [Engl. Vers. loses this point]. Comp. by all means John 4:38, οὐχ ὑμεῖς,— ἄλλοι, not ye—others have; and “not unto thee (it appertained), but to the priests,” 2 Chronicles 26:18; and οὐχ ἡμῖν καὶ ὑμῖν, “Not to us and to you belongeth the office of building,” etc., Ezra 4:3. It is a kindly repulse, and an impressive description of the Divine Reserve; and yet its aim is not to censure but to teach. He does not say, It is not part of your right and office to ask; but He says, Not yours is it to know. The Father has not ordered that this should he in your power, but has reserved it to His own power, that He should Himself know and do. Comp. Matthew 24:36, “Of that day and hour knoweth no man; no, not the angels of heaven, but My Father only.” Not yours is it, saith He; from which it is not a legitimate inference, that it will not be the privilege even of others hereafter. The Revelation of the Divine economy has its successive steps: 1 Peter 1:12, “Unto whom it was revealed that not unto themselves, but unto us, they did minister the things which are now reported,” etc.; Matthew 11:11; Revelation 1:1.— χρόνους καιροὺς, the intervals (periods) or times [“the times or the seasons”]) The question of the disciples is corrected, and the general term, χρόνῳ, “at this interval” (period), is determined by another term being added, χρόνους καιροὺς, the intervals (periods) or times, as we have elsewhere shown. Let it be generally observed in this place, that something longer is meant by χρόνον than by καιρόν: ch. Acts 7:17; Acts 7:20, “As the time ( χρόνος) of the promise drew nigh,” “In which season ( καιρῷ) Moses was born.” Justus Jonas writes, “It is enough that you know from the Scriptures that it is about to come to pass that all things shall be restored; but when this is about to be, belongs to GOD.”— οὓς, which) To pry into the times reserved to GOD, is the part of mere curiosity: not to concern one’s self about what has been revealed, is the part of a petty or a drowsy mind: Daniel 9:2; 1 Peter 1:11, “Searching what, or what manner of time, the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify;” Revelation 13:18. The things which did not as yet belong to the apostles to know, were afterwards signified by the Apocalypse. The more general enunciation of truths does not derogate from the special revelation which follows subsequently. Peter also has it said to him in this place, Thine it is not, altogether as in John 21:22-23, What is that to thee? πατὴρ, the Father) Matthew 20:23, “To sit on My right hand is not Mine to give, but—to them for whom it is prepared of My Father;” Matthew 24:36.— ἔθετο, hath put) Therefore the thing itself is sure: otherwise there would be no time of the thing.— ἐν τῇ ἰδίᾳ ἐξουσίᾳ, in His own power) At the time of the farther revelation, and especially of the actual fulfilment, even those things which heretofore had rested in the Father’s power, are known.


Verse 8

Acts 1:8. ἀλλὰ, but) The antithesis is between that which was the part of the disciples, or was not: as also between that which was about to be at that time, and that which was reserved for farther off times.— μάρτυρες, witnesses) by your teaching, and by shedding your blood as martyrs: it is not said. Ye shall be kings of the world; although the kingdom of GOD shall be propagated by that very testimony.— ἱερουσαλὴμγῆς, Jerusalem—the earth) A gradation or ascending climax. See, for instance, the successive steps, ch. Acts 8:1; Acts 8:4-5; Acts 8:27.— σαμαρείᾳ, Samaria) They had heretofore been hound [Matthew 10:5-6] not to enter the cities of the Samaritans. Without a doubt this now seemed strange to the apostles.


Verse 9

Acts 1:9. νεφέλη, a cloud) Therefore the Lord did not disappear (vanish away) of Himself.


Verse 10

Acts 1:10. ἄνδρεςλευκῇ, men—white) Comp. note on Matthew 28:3 [Angels had not before the resurrection appeared in this garb]. A man put for an angel: ch. Acts 10:30; Acts 10:3; Acts 10:22; Luke 24:4, note. But comp. also Luke 9:30. note [Moses and Elias, who were men, appeared like angels at the transfiguration]. [Therefore they were either angels or men.—V. g.]


Verse 11

Acts 1:11. γαλιλαῖοι, ye men of Galilee) In apparitions which are vouchsafed to individuals, the angels employed the proper name: instead of which in this place the name of their country is employed, under which they all are included. Out of Galilee seldom, if ever, a prophet had arisen; hut all the apostles had come out of it.— τί, why?) A similar Why occurs in ch. Acts 3:12.— ἐμβλέποντες) gazing earnestly, with a lingering look up into heaven, which now it serves no purpose to look at, since Jesus is no longer to he seen.— οὕτως, ὅν τρόπον, so, in like manner as) A similar phrase occurs, ch. Acts 27:25, “even as it was told me:” 2 Timothy 3:8.— ἐλεύσεται, shall come) It is the Ascension of Christ, rather than His Advent to judgment, which is described in Scripture as His return. He is said to come, not only because He had not previously come to judge, but because His Adwent in glory shall be much more remarkable than His first Advent. The world had not believed that the Son of GOD had come: in respect to believers He is said to return: John 14:3, “I come again (= return) and receive you to Myself.” Then He shall be revealed in His own day. The verb cometh already was employed in the prophecy of Enoch, Jude Acts 1:14. He shall come, in a visible manner, in a cloud, with a trumpet, with an attendant train, and perhaps in the same place, Acts 1:12, “the mount called Olivet.” Add Zechariah 14:4, “His feet shall stand in that day upon the Mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem on the east.” Comp. the annot. of Michaëlis, and the note on Matthew 24:27, “As the lightning cometh out of the East, so shall the coming of the Son of man be” [It is probable that Christ’s coming will be from the East]. Not those who saw Him ascending are said to be about to see Him when He shall come. Between His Ascension and His Coming in glory no event intervenes equal in importance to each of these two events: therefore these two are joined together. Naturally therefore the apostles, before the giving of the Apocalypse, set before them the day of Christ as very near. And it accords with the majesty of Christ, that during the whole period between His Ascension and His Advent, He should without intermission be expected.


Verse 12

Acts 1:12. ἐλαιῶνος, of Olives) where His agony had taken place.— ἐγγὺς, near to) five furlongs.— σαββάτου ὁδὸν, a Sabbath day’s journey) As far as a Jew was permitted to journey on the Sabbath day, without fatigue; i.e. as much as two thousand cubits (ells). Chrysostom infers from this, that it was on the Sabbath day that they returned to the city: I am more inclined to think that the exact spot in the whole Mount of Olives, which was that from which the Ascension took place, is marked by this distance from the city.(2)


Verse 13

Acts 1:13. ὑπερῷον) So the LXX. render עליה; Gregory says, “ ὑπερῶα in the Scriptures were places in that part of the house which was farthest removed from the ground, set apart by the Jews for private prayer, looking towards the temple of Solomon or its site; which, on account of their consecration and suitable privacy, were used by the apostles for Christian purposes.”—Obs. ch. 3, where he describes at large ὑπερῷα.— πέτρος, Peter) Construe this, etc., with ἀνέβησαν. καταμένοντες, as Engl. Vers. The commas should be after εἰσῆλθον, and after καταμένοντες, “when they were come in, Peter, etc., went up into an upper room, where they were abiding, or staying.”—E. and T.">(3) As to the order of the apostles, see on Matthew 10:2.(4) The article is added to Peter, rather than to the rest, as he was the foremost, ch. Acts 3:11, Acts 4:13; Acts 4:19, Acts 8:14; although not always so, ch. Acts 3:4. By means of these few and despised men, without any other human helps, Christ brought the world to the obedience of the faith.


Verse 14

Acts 1:14. ὁμοθυμαδὸν, with one accord) This particle is often employed in the Acts, suitably to the subject of the book: outside of the Acts it does not occur, save once, in the New Testament, viz. Romans 15:6.— τῇ προσευχῇ καὶ τῇ δεήσει) As to the difference between these words, see 1 Timothy 2:1, note [ δέησις, from δεῖ, is an imploring of the Divine grace in some special need: προσευχὴ, prayer, is any presenting of our wishes and desires before God].— σὺν γυναιξὶ, with the women) Luke 24:10, at the sepulchre, “Mary Magdalene, and Joanna, and Mary the mother of James, and other women;” 1 Corinthians 9:5, “Have we not power to lead about a sister, a wife, as well as other apostles, and as the brethren of the Lord?”— ΄αρίᾳ, Mary) of whom the last mention in the New Testament is made here. She being held in high esteem among the saints, on account of both her holiness and her age, furnished testimony as to all things which had taken place all along from the time of the Annunciation.— ἀδελφοῖς, with His brethren) His cousins. These two were gained over, though in the beginning they had not believed. [John 7:5.]


Verse 15

Acts 1:15. ἀναστὰς, having stood up) as men are wont to do when about to make a speech. This speech of Peter, though delivered before the great Pentecost, yet bears the impress, not of the discipleship, but of the apostleship, owing to the “receiving of the Holy Ghost,” as mentioned in John 20:22.— ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ, together, at the same time) namely, in that place. In other places there may have been more disciples, especially outside of the city.— ὡς ἑκατὸν εἴκοσι, about one hundred and twenty) A tenth part of this number consisted of apostles. εἴκοσι and εἴκοσιν(5) are written, according to the statement of Eustathius.— εἶπενἄνδρες, said—men) There is a parenthesis between the proposition and its discussion, as in Genesis 6:9-10, “These are the generations of Noah (Noah was a just man, etc.); and Noah begat three sons.”


Verse 16

Acts 1:16. ἄνδρες ἀδελφοὶ, men brethren) This is a more blessed mode of address than the well-known one of Demosthenes, etc., Men of Athens. It is an appellation expressive of honour and love, calculated to conciliate the hearers.— ταύτην) this Scripture, viz. in Ps. 69. and 109.


Verse 17

Acts 1:17. ὄτι, because) This expresses the reason for which Judas is here mentioned, because he had held an office.— κατηριθμημένος, numbered with us) It is sad to be numbered, and yet not continue.— κλῆρον, [‘part’] the allotment) Lot or allotment is said of whatever falls to the share of one without any exertion on his part.— τῆς διακονίας, the ministry) So most frequently, in this and the following books, the ministry of the New Testament is termed: but in the Old Testament the LXX. translators for the most part use λειτουργεῖν for שרת, to attend on the service of the sanctuary; an expression which of itself conveys to the mind the idea of something rather magnificent: whereas the apostles followed (adopted) an easy humility.(6)ταύτης, of this) viz. our.


Verse 18

Acts 1:18. ἐκτήσατο, acquired possession of) purchased. Judas, indeed, did not pay the money, Matthew 27:5, “He cast down the pieces of silver in the temple—And the chief priests took the silver pieces—and bought with them the potters’ field:” but yet he either had determined to purchase it: comp. 2 Kings 5:26 [Elisha to Gehazi, “Went not mine heart with thee when,” etc.]; or by making the commencement of the purchase, gave occasion to the priests to consummate it. The wretched man did not believe that the cause of Jesus would be a lasting one: and in the event of its coming to nought, he had marked out, against the time to come, a dwelling-place for himself and those belonging to him (Psalms 109:9 implies he had a wife and children, “Let his children be fatherless, and his wife a widow: let his children be continually vagabonds and beg”), whither they might betake themselves; and he wished to provide for his and their livelihood. Others explain it, ἐκτήσατο, he acquired, or obtained, viz. not for himself, but in reality for others.— πρηνὴς γενόμενος, having fallen forward on his face [headlong]) The kind of death which Judas inflicted on himself (Matthew 27:5, note; he strangled himself, a death which is usually effected by hanging. So Ahitophel, 2 Samuel 17:23), was at the time well known. Therefore it is taken for granted in this place; and what followed that act is added, namely, the position of the dead body after it had been cast out with ignominy, viz. lying prostrate on the face; whereas those decently buried are laid out lying on the back. The passage may be illustrated from a book written in elegant Greek, 3 Maccabees 5:41 (43), where a king, most hostile to the Jews, threatens that he will level the temple to the ground by fire, τὸν ναὸν πυρὶ πρηνέα καταστήσειν. πρηνῆ γένεσθαι does not mean to throw himself headlong.— ἐλάκησε μέσος, burst asunder with a crash [loud noise] in the midst) Hesychius explains ἔλακεν by ἐψόφησεν. And the μέσος makes the language more express and explicit. The verb coheres with πρηνὴς, as in Wisdom of Solomon 4:19, ῥήξει αὐτοὺς ἀφώνους πρηνεῖς.— σπλάγχνα, bowels) He had himself previously laid aside the bowels of compassion: Psalms 109:17-18, “As he clothed himself with cursing like as with his garment, so let it come into his bowels like water.”


Verse 19

Acts 1:19. γνωστὸν ἐγένετο, it became known) namely, that which is mentioned in the beginning of Acts 1:18.— τῇ ἰδίᾳ, in their own idiom [tongue]) This and the subsequent interpretation of it, This is the field of blood, Luke has added to the speech of Peter for the information of Theophilus, and the reader who does not understand Hebrew.


Verse 20

Acts 1:20. γενήθητο, κ. τ. λ.) Psalms 69:25 (26), LXX., γενηθήτω ἔπαυλις αὐτῶν αὐτῶν ἠρημωμένη, καὶ ἐν τοῖς σκηνώμασιν αὐτῶν μὴ ἔστω κατοικῶν.— ἔπαυλις) that is to say, οἴκημα εὐτελὲς, a mean dwelling, according to Eustathius.— αὐτοῦ, his) The Hebrew and LXX. have αὐτῶν, their. But it is understood of Judas as being included in the plural pronoun, to accord with the present purpose of the apostle. Justus Jonas remarks, “By the rejection of Judas, and the substituting of another, is indicated the casting away of the Jews, and of all who persecute Christ after He has been sent to them.”—[ ἔρημος, desolate) This is the lot that falls to all things which the ungodly possess in the world.—V. g.]— μὴ ἔστω, let there not be) This was fulfilled when the field passed into a burying-place for strangers.— καἰ τὴνἓτερος) Psalms 109:8. So clearly the LXX.— ἓτερος, another) Matthias, as an individual, was not more plainly designated, and so occasion arose for recourse to a holy casting of lots.


Verse 21

Acts 1:21. δεῖ, it is necessary, it behoves that) So in Acts 1:16.— τῶν) The genitive depends on ἓνα, and is resumed in τούτων, Acts 1:22, the order of the fact and of the words being elegantly appropriate.— εἰσῆλθε, went in) in private. Comp. John 10:9, note, “By Me—he shall go in and out, and find pasture.” [A Hebrew phrase denoting constant intercourse.]— ἐξῆλθεν, went out) in public.— ἐφʼ ἡμᾶς, over(7) us) as a Master. The preposition accords not only with went in, but also with went out.


Verse 22

Acts 1:22. ἀπὸ τοῦ βαπτίσματος ἰωάννου, from the baptism of John) It is with this point that the history of Jesus Christ in Mark has its actual Beginning. The other evangelists briefly explain the preceding events.— ἓως, up to) The testimony of the Twelve Apostles concerning the Lord Jesus and His resurrection, extend up to the day of His Ascension.— τῆς ἀναστάσεως αὐτοῦ, of His resurrection) He who believes in the resurrection of Christ, believes in all which went before and which followed. As to the resurrection of Christ, there is frequent mention of it in the Sermons and in the first Epistle of Peter. As an apostle is a witness of the resurrection of Christ, so he is a Christian who believes in it. At that time there was just as much need of grace (Divine power), to enable one to believe that the act had been accomplished, as there was to believe that there is salvation in that act so accomplished. Accordingly, they who believed in the former received the whole faith. In our days, whilst no one in the Church calls in question the accomplishment of the act, many stop short at that point, and, notwithstanding their belief in the certainty of the fact, do not thereby attain to the whole faith.— ἓνα, one) For there ought not to be more than Twelve, and therefore both were not to be taken into the apostleship together.


Verse 23

Acts 1:23. δύο, two) The faithful may have arrived at this number by consultation; they went (could go) no farther. Therefore at this point, and not before, the recourse to lots begins, whereby a weighty matter is committed to the Divine decision, and the immediate call [the call direct from God] of the apostle is accomplished. Justus Jonas, on this passage, thinks that in our day also there is possibly room (scope) for the use of lots in the choice of bishops; and a memorable instance of it is related by Comenius in the Hist. of the Slav. Church, § 60. The same also occurs in Rieger’s Böhm. Br. vol. iii. p. 36.— ὃς ἐπεκλήθη, who was surnamed) It might seem, because of this surname, that he ought to have been preferred; but perhaps it was not until afterwards that he obtained this surname, in order that he might perceive, that, although Matthias had been chosen, he notwithstanding did not lose the credit due to his merits.


Verse 24

Acts 1:24. σὺ, Thou) Thou Thyself. It was necessary that an apostle should be called by an immediate call of God. They invoke Jesus as Lord; Acts 1:21 : for it was His province to choose an apostle; Acts 1:2, ch. Acts 9:17, Acts 26:16, Jesus to Saul, “I have appeared unto thee for this purpose, to make thee a minister and a witness;” John 6:70, “Have I not chosen you Twelve?”— καρδιογνῶστα, who knowest the hearts) The heart, in the case of a minister of the Gospel, ought to be right: ch. Acts 8:21; 2 Corinthians 1:12; 1 Thessalonians 2:4. The heart it is which causes that the one should be preferred to the other, who was at least equally good, judging outwardly.— πάντων, of all) even of these two.— ἀνάδειξον, show) This was effected by the issue of the actual casting of lots. Jesus often appeared after the resurrection: and yet He did not then confer the apostle-ship on Matthias; but after the Ascension.


Verse 25

Acts 1:25. εἰς τὸν τόπον τὸν ἴδιον, to his own place) to the place altogether peculiar to him, and distinct from that of the other apostles, [or even distinct from the rest of those who perish.—V. g.] He had sought ἴδιον, a something peculiarly his own property: Acts 1:18, the field: he obtained his own place, which escapes [falls not under] the eyes of survivors, viz. a place in the region of death.


Verse 26

Acts 1:26. ἔδωκαν, they gave forth) They cast.— κλήρους αὐτῶν, their lots) the lots of Joseph and Matthias [not their own lots]. [With prudent consideration they had brought forward two out of the whole multitude, for the purpose of making choice between them: but there remained now no other way of deciding between these two, save that of casting lots.—V. g.] Whilst the apostles had the Lord with them, they had no recourse to lots; nor did they employ them after the coming of the Paraclete, ch. Acts 10:19, Acts 16:6, etc. [The Holy Spirit guided them]: but at this intermediate time alone, and in the case of this one business, they employed them most appropriately.— συγκατεψηφίσθη, he was numbered among) All acquiesced in the showing (the direction) of the Divine choice. Hands are not said to have been laid on the new apostle; for he was ordained by an altogether immediate call.

 


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Bibliography Information
Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Acts 1:4". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/acts-1.html. 1897.

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Saturday, August 24th, 2019
the Week of Proper 15 / Ordinary 20
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