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Bible Commentaries

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
John 14

 

 

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Verse 1

John 14:1. ΄ή) In some copies there is prefixed this clause, καὶ εἶπε τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ· and this the distinguished D. Hauber supports, especially in den harmonischen Anmerkungen, p. 206. Erasmus was the first to edit the passage so; and Luther, following either Erasmus, or the Vulgate, which contains a similar interpolation, translates it so. The whole voice of antiquity refutes this addition, as I had shown in my Apparatus, p. 595 [Ed. ii. 263]. The principle of an adequate reason, which D. Hauber uses as if favouring its insertion, I will use on the other side, so as to say with Erasmus himself, Lucas Brugensis, and Mill, that one or two transcribers, at the commencement of a Pericopa, or portion appointed for Church reading, prefixed this formula, as they most frequently have done.(343)μὴ ταρασσέσθω, let not—be troubled) on account of My departure: ch. John 13:33, “Yet a little while I am with you: ye shall seek Me,” etc.; John 16:6, “Because I have said these things unto you, sorrow hath filled your heart.” He takes away from the disciples their trouble of heart before that He alludes to the causes of that trouble. The Lord knew what these were in the case of the disciples, ch. John 13:33, and unfolds them in detail more openly in the following parts of His discourse. This [comforting of the disciples] is repeated, and with additional emphasis, at John 14:27. [And it is not merely in ch. 13., but further also in ch. 14., a reply is given to the question proposed by Peter, ch. John 13:36, “Lord, whither goest Thou?”—V. g.]— πιστεύετεπιστεύετε, believe ye—believe ye) The Imperative, just as in the parallel expression, μὴ ταράσσεσθω, let not—be troubled. The sum and substance of this sermon is this, Believe ye: and this exhortation, Believe, at John 14:11, and subsequently, is urged until [His exhortation becoming effectual] it is made into the Indicative, ch. John 16:31; John 16:30, “Do ye now believe? By this we believe that Thou camest forth from God:” and when this was effected, the Saviour prays and departs. [Hence is evident the very close connection which there is of the chapters 14., 15., 16., between one another.—Harm., p. 506.] It might be thus punctuated, πιστεύετε· εἰς τὸν θεὸν καὶ εἰς ἐμὲ πιστεύετε· whereby the verb would first be placed by itself, equivalent to a summary of what follows, as in ch. John 16:31; then next the same would be repeated with an explanation; with which comp. ch. John 13:34, note [That ye love, first put simply, then repeated with Epitasis, or explanatory augmentation]. But the received punctuation seems to me preferable, and moreover to be understood so as that the accent in pronunciation should in the former clause fall chiefly on the words believe ye; in the second clause, on in Me: so that the ancient faith in God, may be as it were seasoned [dyed] with a new colour, by their believing in Jesus Christ.— εἰς ἐμέ, in Me) who am come from God; ch. John 16:27, “The Father Himself loveth you, because ye—have believed that I came out from God.”


Verse 2

John 14:2. οἰκίᾳ, house) He shows already whither He is going.—V. g.] A rare appellation of the heavenly habitation: a house of residence, into which are admitted children, and in which the Father dwells. Jesus looks beyond His sufferings to the goal. Comp. Hebrews 12:2, “Who, for the joy that was set before Him, endured the cross;” 2 Timothy 4:7, [so Paul in a dungeon before his martyrdom] “I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith.”— τοῦ πατρός μου, of My Father) In the beginning of this sermon, Jesus often adds the pronoun to the mention of His Father; but as He gets forward in it, and at its close, after that He has taken precaution to establish His own pre-eminence above believers, and has stirred up the disciples to faith, He speaks as it were more in common, calling God, the Father, namely, Mine, and at the same time also yours.— μοναί, mansions) This refers to place, not to time [places of abode; not times of abode]; and it is said in the plural, on account of the multitude of those whom that common mansion contains.— πολλαί) many, so as to contain angels and your predecessors in the faith, and you, and very many more. By the plural number itself there appears also to be implied a variety of the mansions: for He does not say, a great mansion, but many mansions. Comp. Revelation 21:16, note, “The city lieth four-square,” etc.— εἰσίν, there are) already now, and from the beginning.— εἰ δὲ μή, but if it were not so) If there were not already [many mansions].— εἷπον ἄν) I would tell, or rather, I would have told you. Concerning the pluperfect, comp. ch. John 4:10, note [ σὺ ἂν ᾔτησαςκαὶ ἔδωκεν ἄν]. “What would He have told them? This very thing, which follows, πορεύομαι, I go. Parodying [an adaptation of] the very similar passage, ch. John 16:26, illustrates the sentiment here: I have not said to you, that I would prepare a place for you; for already there ARE mansions, and those numerous.— πορεύομαι, I go) to the home of My Father.— ἑτοιμάσαι, to prepare) He does not altogether deny that He prepares the place, with which comp. the following verse, where He Himself affirms it: but each of the two statements mutually qualifies the other. But see, what force there may lie in the order of the words: in John 14:2 it is said, τόπον ὑμῖν, a place for you; in John 14:3, ὑμῖν τόπον, for you a place: the first word in each instance respectively containing the emphasis, as in 1 Corinthians 7:22, note [ κληθεὶςἀπελεύθερος,— ἐλεύθερος κληθείς]. The place itself is already prepared: but for you it has yet to be prepared. The one preparation is absolute, the other relative. The beginning of the third verse, καὶ ἐάν, and if, does not depend on εἶπον, I would have told you, but stands by itself.


Verse 3

John 14:3. ἐάν, if) A mild particle, used for ὅταν, when.— ἔρχομαι, I come [am coming]) The Present, as concerning His speedy coming: John 14:18, “I will not leave you comfortless; I come to you.” It is a peculiar idiom of speech, that the Lord is not wont to say, I will come, but I come, even when another verb in the future tense is added. Comp., however, also Matthew 17:11 concerning the forerunner [ ἡλίας ἔρχεται, καὶ ἀποκαταστήσει πάντα], and the LXX., 2 Samuel 5:3 [ ἔρχονταιοἱ πρεσβύτεροικαὶ διέθετο αὐτοῖς βασιλεύς].— καί, and) The end of My departure infers [carries with it] this very consequence, that I am to come again.— πρὸς ἐμαυτόν, to Myself) An expression full of majesty. The house of the Father is the house of the Son: ch. John 16:15, “All things that the Father hath are Mine;”


Verse 4

John 14:4. ὁποῦ ἐγὼ ὑπάγω, whither I am going) This is the summary of what precedes.(344)τὴν ὁδόν, the way) This forms the statement of subject introductory to those things which follow.


Verse 5

John 14:5. θωμᾶς, Thomas) One after the other asks questions, with reverential and sweet affection [suavity] towards Him: John 14:8 [Philip], John 14:22 [Judas, not Iscariot], and previously, ch. John 13:36 [Simon Peter].— καὶ πῶς, and how) Thomas, using acute reasoning, lays it down as a sure conclusion, that, inasmuch as they knew not the goal, they must much less know the way. [Jesus replies as to both (the goal and the way), but in inverse order. Jesus is the way: through Him (as the way) whither is it given us to attain? To the Father.—V. g.]


Verse 6

John 14:6. ὁδός, καὶ ἀληθεία, καὶ ζωή, the way, and the truth, and the life) He is called in the Soliloquies of Augustine, ch. iv., the true way of life [vera via vitæ]. But the text has greater force, comprising the sum of the doctrine concerning Jesus Christ. For to the question concerning the Way, He answers this, I am the Way: to the question concerning Knowledge [John 14:5, How can we know?], He answers this, I am the Truth: to the question, Whither? He makes that answer, I am the Life. [To the metaphoric declaration, I am the Way, there is subjoined, for the sake of explanation, a more literal (plain, not figurative) declaration, I am both the Truth and the Life. He who moves onward by this way, he, and he alone, truly avails himself of the right path; and he who stedfastly holds to this way, he has life for ever.—V. g.] At the same time, also, three propositions are stated (comp. similarly the three [things, of which the Spirit reproves the world, sin, righteousness, and judgment], ch. John 16:8), of which the first, that concerning the way, is handled presently after in this verse, “No man cometh to the Father, but by Me;” concerning the truth, at John 14:7, etc., 17, “The Spirit of Truth:—ye know Him;” concerning the life, John 14:18-19, etc., “Because I live, ye shall live also;”— πρὸς τὸν πατέρα, to the Father) This again answers the question as to knowing [John 14:5]. The one and only way, the sure way.— διʼ ἐμοῦ, by Me) This again answers the question as to the way.


Verse 7

John 14:7. εἰ, if) This if does not altogether deny [that they knew Him], but it draws their souls to onward progress: John 14:28.(345) [So Luke 17:6. “If ye had faith as a grain of mustard seed:” after they had said, “Lord, increase our faith.”]— ἑωράκατε, ye have seen) The preterite: ye have begun to see, and see Him.


Verse 8

John 14:8. ἀρκεῖ, it sufficeth) So that we may not desire to ask further questions, and may no more be troubled in mind. This αὐτάρκεια, acquiescence [in God’s way], they attain to in ch. John 16:30, “Now are we sure that Thou knowest all things, and needest not that any man should ask Thee: by this we believe that Thou camest forth from God.” Comp. Psalms 17:15, “I shall be satisfied, when I awake in Thy likeness;” Psalms 22:23; Psalms 22:26, “The meek shall eat and be satisfied: they shall praise the Lord that seek Him;” Psalms 69:30; Psalms 69:32, “The humble shall see this and be glad; and your heart shall live, that seek God.”


Verse 9

John 14:9. λέγει, saith) The reply to, Show us, is contained in John 14:9-11; the answer to, it sufficeth us, is contained in John 14:12, etc., “The works that I do, shall ye do also—If ye ask anything in My name, I will do it.”— οὐκ ἔγνωκάς με, hast thou not known Me?) This is expressed by the consequent. Since thou dost deny that the Father is known to thee, thou virtually [by consequence] deniest that I am known to thee. But thou dost know Me, therefore by that very fact thou knowest the Father; by reason of the consummate unity which subsists between us.— ἑωρακὼς ἐμέ, ἑώρακε τὸν πατέρα, he who hath seen Me, hath seen the Father) Just as the soul, which by itself is not perceived, is perceived by means of what it does through the instrumentality of the body: so he sees the Father, who sees Christ. In every thought concerning God, we ought to set Christ before us. See Colossians 1:15, note, “The image of the invisible God.” That expression, מַלְאַךְ פָּנָיו, Angel of His face, Bechai interprets מלאך שהוא פניו The Angel who is His face. Comp. Psalms 139:7, “Whither shall I flee from Thy presence?” Chrysostom remarks, He who seeth the creature, doth not also see the essence of God ( τὴν οὐσίαν). If any man seeth Me, saith He, he seeth My Father: but if He were of another and distinct essence, He would not have said this,—No one, who is ignorant of gold, can see the essence of gold in silver.— καὶ πῶς) καί appears to be repeated from John 14:5. N. I., almost all the Latin MSS., Iren. and Augustine, omit the καί in John 14:9.(346)


Verse 10

John 14:10. ὅτι) that.— ἐν τῷ πατρὶἐν ἐμοί, in the Father—in Me) This intimates the highest degree of unity: ch. John 17:21, “Thou, Father, art in Me, and I in Thee.”— ἔστι, is) This word contains the emphasis: for the consequent of this His Being [Esse] is His speaking and doing [loqui, facere: λαλῶποιεῖ], and this His Being [Esse, ἔστι] is known by His words and deeds. Presently after comes the synonymous expression, that dwelleth in Me [ μένων]. Hence from Their unity in operation, Their prior unity of essence shines forth the more apparent.— ῥήματα, the words) and, the works.— αὐτός) Himself.— ποιεῖ τὰ ἔργα, doeth the works) and speaketh the words. [What, in respect of those who were not on rather intimate terms with the Lord Jesus, are called signs and miracles, these, in conversation with His disciples, He simply calls works. No doubt to Christ Himself works of that sort were, as it were, ordinary and common.—V. g.]


Verse 11

John 14:11. πιστεύετέ μοι) Non creditis is the reading of the Lat. Vulg. arising from alliteration [the transcriber’s eye catching the similar letters and word] at the preceding verse, which also had, Non credis quia. Thence the Latin transcriber also has omitted mihi(347) also at the end of the verse. Believe, Believe: an instance of Epanalepsis [See Append., “When the same word is in the beginning of the preceding member, and in the end of the following member of the sentence”].— ὅτι) because [but Engl. Vers. that]: with which comp. the διά, for the sake of presently after. Believe Me for the sake of, My very affirmation, which is sufficient ground for believers to rest on. This is the first motive to faith; one which Christ alone could have proposed: a second is afforded by the miracles, on account of which the apostles also could have been believed [could claim their hearers’ faith] concerning Christ.— ἔργα, the works) which ye have heretofore seen, and which ye are about to see: John 14:12, etc., “Greater works than these shall he do.” [For these could not have been of any other, save Divine origination. Psalms 72:18, “The Lord God—who only doeth wondrous things;” Psalms 136:4, “To Him, who alone doeth great wonders.” The footing on which false miracles rest is altogether distinct: 2 Thessalonians 2:9, “The working of Satan, with all power, and signs, and lying wonders.”—V. g.]— πιστεύετέ μοι, believe Me) εἰς ἐμέ, on Me, in the foll. verse. He who believes Christ, when speaking concerning Himself, believes on Christ: whereas, he who believes Peter, when speaking concerning Christ, believes not on Peter, but on Christ.


Verse 12

John 14:12. ἀμὴν, ἀμήν, verily, verily) There follow most sweet promises and exhortations mixed together; and in such a way, that, whilst speaking, He from time to time [“subinde”] touches upon those topics, which in the progress of His discourse form the very subjects proposed for discussion.(348) For instance, John 14:15, as to love, “If ye love Me, keep My commandments:” with which comp. John 14:21, “He that hath My commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth Me.” And He also repeats some things by way of recapitulation. The Evangelist and Apostle also imitates this method of our Lord: 1 John 2:20, note.— , those which) i.e. equally great. [Comp. ch. John 5:20; John 5:25, “The Father showeth the Son all things that Himself doeth; and He will show Him greater works than these:—The dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God, and they that hear shall live.”]— μείζονα, greater) for instance, Acts 5:15, “They brought forth the sick into the streets, that at the least the shadow of Peter in passing by might overshadow some of them;” John 19:12. “From Paul’s body were brought unto the sick handkerchiefs or aprons, and the diseases departed;” Mark 16:17, the end of the ver., “They shall speak with new tongues.”— ποιήσει, he shall do) through faith in Me.


Verse 13

John 14:13. τι ἄν) This differs from ἐάν τι, John 14:14. For τι ἄν and τοῦτο mutually refer to one another.— αἰτήσητε, ye shall have asked) A comprehensive promise, John 14:14; ch. John 15:7, “If ye abide in Me, etc., ye shall ask what ye will, and it shall be done unto you;” 16, “That whatsoever ye shall ask the Father in My name, He may give it you;” John 16:23; John 16:26, “At that day ye shall ask in My name; and I say not unto you, that I will pray the Father for you,” etc.— ἐν τῷ ὀνόματί μου, in My name) Mine, who am the Son of God. The reference is to the words, He that believeth on Me, John 14:12. In the Old Testament they used to adore the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob: in the New Testament the God and Father of our Lord is invoked in the name of Jesus Christ.— τοῦτο ποιήσω, this will I do) So will do [it] in the foll. ver. Both the thing and the person are hereby manifested [ τοῦτο being expressed in the first case, ἐγώ in the second; τοῦτο ποιήσωἐγὼ ποιήσω], In both, the reference is to the he shall do, John 14:12.— ἐν, in) John 14:10-11, “I am in the Father, and the Father in Me.”


Verse 14

John 14:14. ἐγὼ, I) This already points to the glory referred to in John 14:13, “That the Father may be glorified in the Son.”


Verse 15

John 14:15. ἐὰν ἀγαπᾶτέ με, if ye love Me) Immediately after faith, He exhorts them to love [John 14:21].


Verse 16

John 14:16. καὶ ἐγώ, and I) The twenty-first verse gives the connection of this verse with the preceding verses.— ἄλλον, another) Therefore Jesus Christ is also an advocate [Comforter, Engl. Vers.] Let Zechariah 9:12 be considered, as to whether it is a parallel in point: for in this very passage He saith, ἐρωτήσω, I will pray.(349) One Paraclete is Himself distinct from the other; and the office too of the one differs from that of the other. Therefore παράκλησις, the advocacy of the Holy Spirit, was intended to have something peculiar in it. Comp. ch. John 16:7-8, “It is expedient for you that I go away: for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send Him unto you. And when He is come, He will reprove the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment.”— παράκλητον [‘Comforter’], Advocate, Paraclete) This word is not found in the LXX., and John alone of the writers of the New Testament has it. παρακαλεῖν is the Latin advocare, to call in to one’s help a patron: thence comes the term παράκλητος, one called in to render aid; one’s defender, patron (counsellor); one who speaks in a person’s behalf, and suggests to him what he ought to say. See John 14:26, “The Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost—shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.” Comp. John 14:13 as to what we ought to say to God: “Whatsoever ye shall ask in My name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son;” ch. John 16:8, as to what ought to be said to the world, “When He is come, He will reprove the world of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment.” The appellations, Paraclete, and, the Spirit of truth, occur conjoined also in ch. John 15:26. The former corresponds to the economy of Christ, comp. 1 John 2:1, “If any man sin, we have a Paraclete, or Advocate, with the Father, Jesus Christ the Righteous;” the latter, to the economy of the Father, comp. ch. John 4:23, “The true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and truth; for the Father seeketh such to worship Him.” [The largest promises in this passage succeed one after another: as to the Holy Spirit, from John 14:15-17; as to the Lord Jesus Himself, from John 14:18-21; as to the Father, from John 14:22-24; and again as to the Holy Spirit, ch. John 16:12-15; as to the Lord Jesus, John 14:16-23; as to the Father, John 14:23-28.—V. g.]— μένῃ, that he may abide) So John 14:23, “If a man love Me,” etc., “we will come unto him and make our abode ( μονὴν, lasting stay) with him.”— εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, for ever) Not merely for one or two years.


Verse 17

John 14:17. τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς ἀληθείας, the Spirit of truth) A most admirably-chosen appellation: ch. John 16:13, “When He, the Spirit of truth, is come, He will guide you into all truth: for He shall not speak of Himself; but whatsoever He shall hear, that shall He speak: and He will show you things to come.” The Spirit, who has the truth, reveals it, namely, by giving knowledge in the understanding; confers it by experimental proof and taste in the case of the will; testifies of it to others also through those to whom He has revealed it; and defends that truth, of which ch. John 1:17 speaks, “Grace and truth came by Jesus Christ.” For which reason He is also called “the Spirit of grace” in Hebrews 10:29, where there goes before “the blood of the Testament,” viz. the New Testament [which is attested by the Holy Spirit; the grace and the testimony of the Spirit being thus joined together]. It is the truth that makes all virtues in us true and real. Otherwise (without it) there is a kind of knowledge that is false, faith that is false, love that is false, hope that is false: but there is no such thing as truth that is false.— κὁσαος, which the world) Along with the first mention of the Holy Spirit begins the distinction between believers and the world, a distinction which repeatedly recurs. The Son is said to have been sent into the world: but not so the Holy Spirit. The world sees not the Holy Spirit, according to this passage, and shall not see Jesus hereafter, according to John 14:19, “Yet a little while, and the world seeth Me no more.”— οὐ δύναται λαβεῖν, cannot receive) Although God is willing to give to all.— ὅτι, because) There is a kind of Epanodos.(350) “The world doth not receive, BECAUSE it doth not know; ye know, BECAUSE ye have Him.” Therefore to know and to have are so conjoined, that not to know is the cause of not having, and to have is the cause of knowing. Comp. ch. John 4:10, “If thou knewest the gift of God, and who it is, etc., thou wouldest have asked of Him, and He would have given thee living water.” The world doth not know; therefore it doth not ask; therefore it cannot receive: whereas to others God does give.— οὐ θεωρεῖ, seeth Him not) Do believers, then, see Him? They see Him in His operations. Unbelievers also see Him in His operations; but they do not perceive that it is He, and that He is the Spirit of truth; wherefore they cannot receive Him: whereas believers not only see Him, but also perceive that He is the same Spirit.— ὑμεῖς, ye) This is the emphatic word in the sentence.— γινώσκετε, ye know) This denotes an event immediately about to take place.— ὅτι, because) From the indwelling of the Spirit comes the intimate acquaintance: John 14:21-22, “He that loveth Me shall be loved of My Father, and I will love him and will manifest Myself to him. Judas saith—How is it that Thou wilt manifest Thyself unto us, and not unto the world? Jesus said, If a man love Me, etc., we will come unto him, and make our abode with him.”— παρʼ ὑμῖνἐν ὑμῖν, with you—in you) These particles differ: In is something more than with.


Verse 18

John 14:18. οὐκ ἀφήσω, I will not leave) although you fear that I will. Ye shall have joy from Me and from the Father.(351) This is the consolation given to those who were fearing that they should be orphans.— ὑμᾶς, you) O little children: ch. John 13:33.— ὀρφανοὺς, orphans [Engl. Vers. loses the force, ‘comfortless’]) The tie of relationship which the disciples had was with Christ, not with the world.— ἔρχομαι, I come) The Present implying the speediness of His coming. I come, after the resurrection; My presence not being done away with after the Ascension, but confirmed by it. Also saith He, I come, not, I return. All His other Comings are rather continuations of His first Coming than repetitions of it. Also He says, in the Present, I come, and presently after, Ye see, and, I live, in John 14:19 : this is owing to the very vivid realising of the thing as present, which was about to be immediately after, and for certain: John 14:27, “Peace I leave (Present) with you, My peace I give,” etc.


Verse 19

John 14:19. οὐκ ἔτι, no longer) Acts 10:41, “God showed Him openly (after the Resurrection), not to all the people, but unto witnesses chosen before of God.”— θεωρεῖτέ με) ye see Me, and shall see Me, namely, alive. For even the force of the antithesis in οὐκ ἔτι, no longer, carries with it the need of supplying the Future [Whereas the world both seeth and shall see Me no more, ye both see and shall see Me].— ὅτι, because) The cause why they shall see Him.— ζῶ, I live) Not only I shall live, but I live: Revelation 1:18, “I am He that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore.”— ζήσεσθε, ye shall live) The future: for the life of believers follows the life of Jesus; and it is not of themselves, but by (of) Him that they live. Comp. ch. John 6:57, “As the living Father hath sent Me, and I live by the Father, so he that eateth Me, even he shall live by Me.”


Verse 20

John 14:20. ἐκείνῃ, in that) after that “little while” ( ἔτι μικρόν).— ἡμέρᾳ day) the day of the Resurrection.— γνώσεσθε, ye shall know) better than we do now.— ὑμεῖς) ye, concerning whom see the following verses.— ἐν τῷ) in My Father, viz. the living Father, ch. John 6:57. Understand, and the Father in Me; and infer, the Father in you, and you in the Father.


Verse 21

John 14:21. ἐγὼ, I) likewise as My Father.— ἀγαπήσω αὐτὸν, καὶ ἐμφανίσω αὐτῷ ἐμαυτὸν) Exodus 33:13, εἰ οὖν εὕρηκα χάριν ἐναντίου σου, ἐμφάνισόν μοι σεαυτὸν, If therefore I have found grace in Thy sight, manifest Thyself to me.


Verse 22

John 14:22. οὐκ ἰσκαριώτης, not Iscariot) He distinguishes the godly Judas, not by his own surname, but by setting aside (by the negation of) the surname of the other Judas; marking at the same time the traitor as present again after his negotiation with the Lord’s adversaries, but as alien to such a question.— τί γέγονεν, what hath happened that? [“How is it that?”]) The godly Judas seems to have supposed that something has happened, because of which the world would be deprived of that revelation of Jesus: but through modesty he had no remembrance of his own peculiar privilege above the world.— ἡμῖν, unto us) who love Thee.— οὐχὶ τῷ κόσμῳ, not to the world) John 14:17; John 14:19. So the opinion of a worldly kingdom, generally entertained by the disciples, is cut off.


Verse 23

John 14:23. τὸν λόγον μου, My word) [Not as Engl. Vers., words]. The word is represented as one (Singular) in this verse, in reference to believers, who keep it whole: in John 14:24 ( τοὺς λόγους μου) more words than one (Plural) are mentioned, in reference to unbelievers, who rend them in sunder: “keepeth not My words.” Comp. ch. John 15:12, note [“This is My commandment ( ἐντολὴ), That ye love one another.” He had previously used the Plural, commandments. All of them are comprised in the one, love]; and 1 John 2:4-5, “He that keepeth not His commandments (Plur.), etc.; but whoso keepeth His word” (Sing.), etc.— τηρήσει, he will keep) Keeping His commandments is put before love in John 14:21, “He that hath My commandments and keepeth them, he it is that loveth Me:” now love is put before keeping His word. Love, in a certain respect, and that a primary one, goes before keeping of the commandments; see John 14:15, “If ye love Me, keep My commandments;” but in a certain respect it also follows, since by keeping of the commandments love the more in proportion increases, and acquires new vigour. Therefore to keep His word is a middle term between the love towards Jesus Christ, and the love of the Father towards him who loves Jesus Christ.— ἐλευσόμεθα, We will come) I and the Father. The Singular number ἐμφανίσω, I will manifest, advances onward to the Plural, we will come.— μονὴν, abode) See the correlative to this in John 14:2, μοναἰ, mansions.(352) Comp. Revelation 3:20, at the end, “I will come into him, and sup with him, and he with Me.”— μονὴν ποιήσομεν, We will make our lasting abode [mansion]) Either the architect or the inhabitant is said to make an abode (mansion): but in this place it is restricted to the inhabitants (the indwelling Father and Son). This is a very sublime view. It is therefore cut short at John 14:25.


Verse 24

John 14:24. μὴ ἀγαπῶν με, he that loveth Me not) as is the case with the world. See John 14:22.— τοὺς λόγους μου, My words) The godly man is said to keep both the word and words, and the commandments, of Christ and of God; the hypocrite is said not to keep them: it is only the word, or words [not also the commandments], that the man who is professedly alien to Christ is said not to keep. To observe His word is the whole; to observe the commandments is the part.— οὐ τηρεῖ, keepeth not) and therefore is not loved [of the Father and Son, John 14:21], nor seeth the ‘abiding’ of the Father and Son in him.— καὶ λόγος, and the word) This clause has reference not only to the former words of this verse, but also to John 14:23; nay, even more to the latter, as is evident from the singular number being used here, as in John 14:23.— ὃν ἀκούετε, which ye hear) now also, whilst I am speaking these things with you.— ἀλλὰ, but) Hence is evident the reason why he who keepeth, or else keepeth not, the word of Jesus, hath the Father also (abiding with him), or else hath Him not accordingly.


Verse 25

John 14:25. ταῦτα, these things) not any more.— λελάληκα, I have spoken) Therefore the Word of Jesus Christ is the word of faith: it is for this reason that He so often saith, λελάληκα, εἴρηκα, εἶπον, I have said [it (or these things), as a thing established once for all, the word of faith]. He said to the disciples, at the time of His staying with them, different things from what He said at the time of His departure; ch. John 16:4, “These things I said not unto you at the beginning, because I was with you.”


Verse 26

John 14:26. ἐκεῖνος, [That Person], He) So ch. John 15:26 [ ἐκεῖνος], “He shall testify of Me;” John 16:8, “And when He is come, He ( ἐκεῖνος) will reprove the world of sin,” etc.; 13, 14, “When He ( ἐκεῖνος), the Spirit of truth, is come, He will guide you, etc.: He ( ἐκεῖνος) shall glorify Me.”— διδάξει πάντα. He shall teach you all things) There is not added here the clause, which I said unto you. For that Paraclete taught other things also: ch. John 16:12-13, “I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now. Howbeit, when He, the Spirit of truth, is come, He will guide you into all truth.” Nor, however, even subsequently, were the whole of the dogmas of Christian truth infused into the apostles in one condensed mass; but as often as they needed them, and as the occasion suggested, the Paraclete instructed them in all the parts of the Apostolic office.— ὑπομνήσει, shall bring to your remembrance) This very discourse (homily) furnishes an instance, as having been a long time afterwards so accurately written out by John. Add Acts 11:16, [Peter says] “Then remembered I the word of the Lord, how that He said, John indeed baptized with water, but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost.”


Verse 27

John 14:27. εἰρήνην) שלום, peace in general (the genus); the peace of reconciliation. [Such as ye might have enjoyed as Israelites (as distinguished from “My peace”).—V. g.]— ἀφίημι) I leave, at My departure. The same verb occurs in John 14:18, Matthew 22:25 [ ἀφῆκε τῆν γυναῖκα, said of the man dying without issue, and leaving his wife to his brother].— εἰρήνην τὴν ἐμὴν) My peace, in particular (the species): the peace of sons. So τὴν χαρὰν τὴν ἐμὴν, My joy, ch. John 17:13. All things in Christ are new; even the commandment of ‘love,’ ch. John 13:34, and in some measure faith itself. See note, John 14:1 [The old faith in God receives as it were a new colour from the Gospel, which orders faith in Christ].— δίδωμι, I give) even now. See ch. John 16:33, “These things have I spoken unto you, that in Me ye might have peace.” To the gradation in the nouns, peace, My peace, there corresponds the gradation in the verbs, I leave, I give.— κόσμος, the world) in its empty salutations [which in Hebrew were generally wishes for ‘peace’ to the person saluted], or in merely external benefits, which do not reach the heart, and which, simultaneously with the presence, cease from the sight and life of mortal men. The world so gives, as that it presently after snatches away; it does not leave.— μὴ ταρασσέσθω, let not—be troubled) by fears from within.— μηδὲ δειλιάτω, nor let it be afraid) by terrors from without.


Verse 28

John 14:28. ἠκούσατε, ye have heard) On other occasions His wont is to say, εἶπον, I have said; but this which He has said, concerning His departure, His disciples eagerly had attended to, and that, too, with sorrow.— ὑπάγω, καὶ ἔρχομαι πρὸς ὑμᾶς, I go away, and come unto you) In relation to the world He saith, I came and depart [“I leave the world”], ch. John 16:28 : καὶ, and forthwith.— ἐχάρητε ἂν) ye would rejoice, or rather, ye would have rejoiced. As to the Pluperfect, we have slightly touched upon the subject in John 14:2.(353) Ye would have rejoiced for My sake, as I am setting out upon a wished-for journey of departure, and for your own sakes, as love makes you capable of perceiving that My departure is advantageous even to yourselves. Love begets joy, both of itself, and also because it keeps the word of Christ, which opens out all the most joyful prospects to us.— μείζων μου, greater than I) Many and various were the former disputations and treatises on this passage, which Dion. Petavius has collected, Tom. ii. Theol. Dogm. l. 2, de Trin. cap. 2; G. Bullus Def. Fid. Nicæn. Sect. iv.; Jo. Casp. Suicer. Thes. Part ii. coll. 1368, Reinecc. ad N. T., fol. 387. Not a few of the Greeks and Latins have answered the Arians, and laid it down, That the Father, not as God, but as the ἀγέννητος Father (not-begotten), is said to be greater than the Son, not regarded in His character as God, but as the Son, begotten of the Father; and that this fact does not do away with His unity of essence ( τὸ ὁμοούσιον) or consubstantiality with the Father. To these is to be added G. Arnold. Evang. Bottschafft, p. 697. Others affirm, that Christ is inferior to the Father in respect of His human nature;(354) which phrase of comparison has in it nothing inept; comp. 1 John 3:20, “God is greater than our heart.” Jesus both had in His most holy soul, at one time, a greater feeling of His glory, at another time of His humility, and expressed that feeling accordingly in His words. Comp. note on Mark 13:32, “Of that hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels, etc., neither the Son, but the Father” [spoken in relation to His human nature, and His humiliation]. In this passage He speaks under the feeling of His ταπεινότης, lowliness: language such as was best adapted both to the capacity of understanding which the disciples had at the time, and to the present (existing) time and circumstances, when He was treating of His departure to the Father. Before His actual departure, He had been lower even than the angels, Hebrews 2:9; after His departure, He became greater than His own self [i.e. the Worker, through His disciples, of greater miracles than even He Himself had performed in the days of His flesh. “He that believeth on Me, the works that I do shall he do also; and greater works than these shall he do, because I go unto My Father”], John 14:12, and equal to the Father, ch. John 17:5, “O Father, glorify Thou Me with Thine own self, with the glory which I had with Thee before the world was.” Nor yet does He speak of His Humiliation alone, but speaks as the Son of God in the flesh, directing His aspirations (longing to go) to the Father. Greater than I; that is to say, more blessed. Comp. this term as it occurs in ch. John 4:12, “Art Thou greater than our father Jacob?” John 8:53, “Art Thou greater than our father Abraham?” 1 Corinthians 13:13, “The greater of these is charity;” John 14:5, “Greater (more useful) is he that prophesieth than he that speaketh with tongues;” and as to the thing itself, comp. Mark 10:18.(355) This consideration especially made the departure of Jesus out of the world to the Father a thing to be desired.


Verse 29

John 14:29. εἴρηκα, I have told you) as to My departure and return. The word is the seed: faith [with peace and joy.—V. g.] is the fruit.— ἵνα, that) The scope of this discourse. So ch. John 15:11; John 15:17, John 16:1; John 16:4; John 16:33.


Verse 30

John 14:30. οὐκ ἔτι, no longer henceforth) For which reason ye ought the more diligently to hold fast these things which I speak.— ἔρχεται, cometh) is already now coming: having been “cast out,” ch. John 12:31, he rushes upon Me. So afterwards he assailed the women spoken of in Revelation 12:9; Revelation 12:13.— γὰρ, for) The enemy, as being already in the act of making his assault, either on account of the shortness of the time did not suffer Him to speak more, or he ought not to hear the Lord’s words; or, had more been said to the disciples, he might have snatched it from them.— κόσμου, of the world) Even then the prince of the world agitated (influenced) the world, when the world, in compliance with its prince, crucified Christ.— καὶ, and) and cannot prevent Me from going from the world straightway to the Father.— ἐν ἐμοὶ, in Me) although Jesus was now approaching death, of which the devil in other respects had the power.— οὐδὲν, nothing) no share of claim (right) or power over Me. The righteousness of Christ was perfect: a becoming protestation. Here Jesus gets rid of (removes out of the way) the prince of the world; in the second and closing part of this discourse, He gets rid of the world; ch. John 16:33, “In the world ye shall have tribulation; but be of good cheer, I have overcome the world.”


Verse 31

John 14:31. ἀλλʼ ἵνα, but that) This indicates that in the preceding verse καὶ signifies and indeed [to which ἀλλʼ ἵνα here answers],— γνῷ κόσμος, that the world may know) The world, which is held fast by its prince; by divesting itself of its character, however, that the world may cease to be the world, and may recognise to its salvation that the good pleasure of the Father is in Me.— οὕτως ποιῶ, that so I do) from love; ch. John 15:10, “Even as I have kept My Father’s commandments, and abide in His love.” The full stop is rightly fixed here: nor is the ἀλλʼ ἵνα which precedes an objection to this (Let the ἀλλʼ ἵνα be well considered in ch. John 1:8, “He was not that light, but that he should bear witness of that light;” John 9:3, John 13:18, John 15:25; 1 John 2:19; Mark 14:49, “I was daily with you—and ye took Me not; but that the Scriptures might be fulfilled” [ ἀλλʼ ἵνα πληρωθῶσιν αἱ γραφαί]): in this sense, but, viz. I await the onset of the prince of the world, [that the world may know, etc.] The stopping by a colon is not ancient. See Luther’s Kirchenpostill for the feast of Pentecost. If ἐγείρεσθε, arise, were the Apodosis, such a connection would be a remote one, involving many enunciations or sentiments.(356) Between this going and the world’s coming to know Jesus, how many things intervened!— ἐγείρεσθε, arise) A word expressing alacrity. He Himself strenuously proceeds to the business in hand, rising now already before His disciples.— ἄγωμεν ἐντεῦθεν, let us go hence) into the city, to the Passover. Comp. ch. John 13:1, “Before the feast of the Passover;” John 18:1. The things which heretofore elapsed from ch. John 13:31 [The departure of Judas after receiving the sop], were done and spoken on Thursday outside the city. But the things which follow in chapters 15. and 16. and 17., were spoken in the city on the very evening of the Passover, accompanied with the wonted hymn; namely, immediately before His going forth beyond the brook Cedron (ch. John 18:1). There are then two discourses, which are divided by this abrupt breaking off here (John 14:31). [To the common scope of which, however, as well as to the sense and argument, the intervening Passover-supper most sweetly corresponds.—Harm., p. 507.]

 


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Bibliography Information
Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on John 14:4". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/john-14.html. 1897.

Lectionary Calendar
Monday, October 21st, 2019
the Week of Proper 24 / Ordinary 29
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