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Bible Commentaries

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4
Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8
Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12
Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16
Chapter 17 Chapter 18 Chapter 19 Chapter 20
Chapter 21 Chapter 22 Chapter 23 Chapter 24
Chapter 25 Chapter 26 Chapter 27 Chapter 28

Book Overview - Matthew

by Johann Albrecht Bengel




THE Evangelists contain the rudiments of the New Testament.—(See John 16:12.(1)) Concerning their authority,(2) see Ephesians 4:11; and 1 Peter 1:12. They are four in number—two of them, namely John and Matthew, were themselves apostles, and took part, therefore, in the things which they relate: the other two, Mark and Luke, afford, in their own persons, an example of faith, having derived their sure and accurate knowledge of the Gospel from others. Mark, however, presupposes the existence of Matthew, and, as it were, supplies his omissions; Luke does the same for both of them; John for all three. Matthew, an apostle wrote first,(3) and thus established an authority for both Mark and Luke. John, also an apostle, wrote last,(4) and confirmed to mankind, more fully, the works of Mark and Luke, already sufficiently firm in themselves.(5) Matthew wrote especially to show the fulfilment of the Old Testament Scriptures, and to convince the Jews. Mark produced an abridgement of Matthew, adding at the same time many remarkable things which had been omitted by his predecessor, and paying particular attention to the noviciate of the apostles. Luke composed a narrative of a distinctly historical character, with especial reference to our Lord’s office as Christ. John refuted the impugners of His divinity. All which is recorded by either of these Four, was actually done and said by Jesus Christ. But they severally drew from a common treasury those particulars, of which each had the fullest knowledge, which corresponded to his own spiritual character, and which were best suited to the time when he wrote, and to the persons whom he primarily addressed. Chrysostom, at the commencement of his second homily on the Epistle to the Romans, says,—Moses has not prefixed his name to the five books which he wrote. Nor have Matthew, John, Luke, nor Mark, to the Gospels written by them.(6) Why so? Writing, as they did, for those who were present, it was not necessary for them to indicate themselves, being also present.

The term GOSPEL has several significations, which, though cognate, are not identical. (1.) The Good News itself concerning Jesus Christ, which was communicated by Jesus Christ Himself, His forerunner, His apostles, and other witnesses, first to the Jews, then to the whole human race. (2.) The whole office and system of propagating that Good News, either by preaching or writing: in which sense, for example, we find the expression “my gospel,” sc. that of Paul, in 2 Timothy 2:8. (3.) by a still further metonymy,(7) the written remains of those who have committed the gospel narrative to writing. if you wish, in Greek, to name at once the four books, which Tertullian styles the Gospel Engine (Evangelicum Instrumentum), you ought in strictness to make use of the singular number, and say, τ κατ ΄ατθα ον, κατ ΄άρκον, κ. τ. λ. ε αγγέλιον (the Gospel according to Matthew, according to Mark, etc.(8)), not in the plural ( τ κ. τ. λ. ε αγγέλια, the Gospels), except perhaps for the sake of brevity. For the subject of all four is one and the same; though treated in one manner κατ ΄ατθα ον, i.e., as far as Matthew is concerned, according to Matthew, by Matthew, as Matthew treated it; in another manner κατ ΄άρκον: etc.—Cf. κατ, Acts 27:7, fin.—Nevertheless, as in Genesis, the first word which occurs is Bereschith (which was afterwards adopted as the title), so the first word written by Matthew was βίβλος, Book, or Roll (see Gnomon on Matthew 1:1); by Mark ἀρχ, the Beginning (see Gnomon on Mark 1:1), and so on. The appellation, however, of Gospel, as a title for the book itself, occurs in the most ancient fathers. By the same authorities, Matthew is said to have written his Gospel in Hebrew. Why should he not have written the same work, the same without the slightest variation, in Greek as well as in Hebrew, even though he did not, strictly speaking, translate it from the one language into the other?—Cf. Jeremiah 51:63; Jeremiah 36:28, and the annotations of Franzius(9) on that passage (De Interp. S.S., p. 504); see also La Vie de Madame Guion,(10) pt. ii., p. 229.—We now proceed to give the following


of the


I. The Nativity, and the matters immediately following.

A. The Genealogy: Matthew 1:1-17

B. The Generation: Matthew 1:18-25

C. The Magi: Matthew 2:1-12

D. The Flight and Return. Matthew 2:13-23

II. Our Lord’s Entrance on His Ministry.

A. John the Baptist: Matthew 3:1-12

B. The Baptism of Jesus: Matthew 3:13-17

C. His Temptation and Victory. Matthew 4:1-11

III. The deeds and words, by which Jesus proved Himself to be Christ.

A. At Capernaum: Where must be remarked, Matthew 4:12-16

1. His Preaching, Matthew 4:17

2. The Call of Peter, Andrew, James, and John, Matthew 4:18-22

3. His Preaching and Healing, the conflux of Multitudes, Matthew 4:23-25

4. The Sermon on the Mount, Matthew 5:7

5. The Leper, Matthew 8:1-4

6. The Centurion and his servant, Matthew 8:5-13

7. Peter’s mother-in-law, Matthew 8:14-15

8. Many sick persons. Matthew 8:16-17

B. The voyage across the sea; the two individuals warned concerning following Christ; the command exercised over the wind and the sea: the devils migrating from men into swine. Matthew 8:18-34

C. Again at Capernaum,

1. The Paralytic, Matthew 9:1-3

2. The call of Matthew, Intercourse with Sinners defended, Matthew 9:10-13

3. Fasting, Matthew 9:14-17

4. The girl dead, and, after the healing of the woman who had an issue of blood, restored to life, Matthew 9:18-26

5. The Two Blind Men, Matthew 9:27-31

6. The Demoniac; Matthew 9:32-34

7. Our Lord goes through the cities and villages, and commands labourers to be prayed for, Matthew 9:35-38

8. He sends and instructs labourers, Matthew 10:1-42

and preaches Himself: Matthew 11:1

9. Johns message to our Lord; Matthew 11:2-6

10. Our Lord praises John, denounces woe against the refractory cities, invites those that labour: Matthew 11:7-30

11. The ears of corn rubbed: Matthew 12:1-8

12. The withered hand healed: Matthew 12:9-13

13. The Pharisees lay snares: Jesus departs: Matthew 12:14-21

14. The Demoniac is healed: the people are amazed: the Pharisees blaspheme: Jesus refutes them, Matthew 12:22-37

15. He rebukes those who demand a sign, Matthew 12:38-45

16. He declares who are His, Matthew 12:46-50

17. He teaches by Parables, Matthew 13:1-52

D. At Nazareth, Matthew 13:53-58

E. At other places

1. Herod, after the murder of John, hearing of Jesus, is perplexed: Jesus departs, and is sought by the people, Matthew 14:1-13

2. He heals; and feeds five thousand: Matthew 14:14-21

3. The sea voyage, and cures in the land of Genesareth, Matthew 14:22-36

4. Unwashen hands; Matthew 15:1-20

5. The woman of Canaan; Matthew 15:21-28

6. Many sick healed; Matthew 15:29-31

7. Four thousand fed; Matthew 15:32-38

8. In the coasts of Magdala, those who demand a sign are refuted; Matthew 15:39 to Matthew 16:4

9. The warning concerning leaven, Matthew 16:5-12

IV. Our Lord’s Predictions of His Passion and Resurrection.

A. The First Prediction.

1. The preparation by confirming the primary article, that Jesus is the Christ: Matthew 16:13-20

2. The Prediction itself delivered; and the interference of Peter rejected. Matthew 16:21-28

B. The Second Prediction.

1. The Transfiguration in the Mount; silence enjoined; Matthew 17:1-13

2. The Lunatic healed; Matthew 17:14-21

3. The Prediction itself; Matthew 17:22-23

4. The Tribute-Money paid; Matthew 17:24-27

5. Who is the greatest? Matthew 18:1-20

6. The duty of forgiving injuries. Matthew 18:21-35

C. The Third Prediction.

1. The Departure from Galilee; Matthew 19:1-2

2. The question concerning Divorce; Matthew 19:3-12

3. Kindness to little children, Matthew 19:13-15

4. The Rich Man turning back; Matthew 19:16-22

And thereupon discourses,

On the Salvation of the Rich, Matthew 19:23-26

On the rewards of following Christ, Matthew 19:27-30

On the Last and the First. Matthew 20:1-16

5. The Prediction itself; Matthew 20:17-19

6. The request of the sons of Zebedee; humility enjoined. Matthew 20:20-28

7. The two Blind Men cured.

V. The Events at Jerusalem immediately before the Passion.

A. Sunday:

1. The Regal Entry, Matthew 21:1-11

2. The Cleansing of the Temple; Matthew 21:12-17

B. Monday:

The Fig-tree. Matthew 21:18-22

C. Tuesday. Occurrences—

A. In the Temple:

1. The Interference of the Chief Priests,

i. Repulsed,

a. By the Question concerning John’s Baptism, Matthew 21:23-27

b. By two Parables:

(1) The Two Sons, Matthew 21:28-32

(2) The Vineyard, Matthew 21:33-44

ii. Proceeds to lay snares for Him. Matthew 21:45-46

2. The Parable of the Marriage Feast: Matthew 22:1-14

3. The Questions of our Lord’s Adversaries—

i. Concerning Tribute, Matthew 22:15-22

ii. —the Resurrection, Matthew 22:23-33

iii. —the Great Commandment: Matthew 22:34-40

4. Our Saviour’s question in return concerning David’s Lord, Matthew 22:41-46

His warning concerning the Scribes and Pharisees, Matthew 23:1-12

His denunciation against them, Matthew 23:13-36

And against the city itself:— Matthew 23:37-39

B. Out of the Temple.

The Discourse concerning the Destruction of the Temple and the End of the World. Matthew 23:24-25.

VI. The Passion and Resurrection.

A. The Passion, Death, and Burial.

a. Wednesday.

A. Our Lord’s Prediction, Matthew 26:1-2

B. The Deliberation of the Chief Priests, Matthew 26:3-5

C. The agreement of Judas, offended at the anointing of our Lord, to betray Him. Matthew 26:6-16

b. Thursday.

A. By Day;

The Passover prepared. Matthew 26:17-19

B. At Evening.

1. The Betrayal indicated, Matthew 26:20-25

2. The Lord’s Supper. Matthew 26:26-29

C. By Night.

1. The offence of Peter and the Disciples foretold; Matthew 26:30-35

2. The Agony in Gethsemane; Matthew 26:36-46

3. Jesus is taken, forbids the employment of the sword, rebukes the crowd, is deserted by His disciples: Matthew 24:47-51

4. Is led to Caiaphas: false witnesses are unsuccessful: confesses Himself to be the Son of God: is condemned to die: is mocked. Matthew 26:57-68

5. Peter denies; and weeps. Matthew 26:69-75

c. Friday.

A. The Passion consummated.

i. In the Morning.

1. Jesus is delivered to Pilate. Matthew 27:1-2

2. The death of Judas. Matthew 27:3-10

3. The kingdom of Jesus: His silence. Matthew 27:11-14

4 Pilate; warned in vain by his wife releases Barabbas, and delivers Jesus to be crucified. Matthew 27:15-26

5. Jesus is mocked and led forth. Matthew 27:27-32

ii. The Third Hour.

The Vinegar and Gall: the Cross: the Garments divided: the Inscription on the Cross: the two Thieves: the Blasphemies. Matthew 27:33-44

iii. From the Sixth to the Ninth hour: the Darkness: the Desertion. Matthew 27:45-49

B. The Death.

The Vail Rent, and the great. Earthquake. Matthew 27:50-53

The Centurion wonders: the Women behold. Matthew 27:54-56

C. The Burial. Matthew 27:57-61

d. Saturday.

The Sepulchre guarded, Matthew 27:62-66

B. The Resurrection:

A. Announced to the Women.

1. By the Angel, Matthew 28:1-8

2. By the Lord Himself, Matthew 28:9-10

B. Denied by His Enemies, Matthew 28:11-15

C. Shown to His Disciples. Matthew 28:16-20

Lectionary Calendar
Wednesday, October 21st, 2020
the Week of Proper 24 / Ordinary 29
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