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Bible Commentaries

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Matthew 10

Verse 1

Matthew 10:1 . Καὶ , and ) This is clearly connected with the end of ch. 9, as the repeated mention of sheep indicates. He sends, before He is greatly entreated to do so. προσκαλεσάμενος , having called to Him ) solemnly. [441] All did not hear and see all things together. τοὺς δώδεκα μαθητὰς , the twelve disciples ) [442] In the following verse they are called the twelve apostles . Matthew the apostle calls them apostles once, sc. in the present passage, where they are first sent forth; St Mark does so once ( Mat 6:30 ), and that when they just returned from that mission ; John, the apostle, never does so; for in ch. Mat 13:16 he uses the word in its general, not its particular meaning; St Luke does so in his Gospel particularly, but only on occasions, and those the same as Matthew and Mark, or subsequently , for other weighty reasons: see Luke 6:13 ; Luke 9:10 ; Luke 11:49 ; Luke 17:5 ; Luke 22:14 ; Luke 24:10 . For they were, during the whole of the period which the Gospels embrace, disciples, i.e. scholars , and are therefore so called. But, after the advent of the Paraclete, in the Acts and Epistles they are never called disciples, but apostles. In the Acts, those only are called disciples , who had either learnt with the apostles, or were then learning from the apostles, and were apostolic men, and the seed of all Christian posterity; see Acts 6:1 ; Acts 21:16 . After which last passage the word disciple does not occur again in the New Testament: but they are called brethren, Christians, believers (fideles), saints , etc. ἔδωκεν , κ . τ . λ ., He gave , etc.) The apostles made gradual progress. Great is the authority of conferring authority . [443] αὐτοῖς , to them ) The disciples, when in the Lord’s presence, were employed in miracles only to a certain extent, as in ch. Mat 14:19 and Matthew 17:27 ; but they did not themselves perform miracles (see ch. Mat 17:18 ), unless when sent forth by Christ (see Luk 10:17 ), or after the departure of Christ; see John 14:12 . πνευμάτων , of spirits) i.e. against spirits . ἀκαθάρτων , unclean ) A frequent epithet: sometimes they are called πνευμάτα πονηρὰ , evil spirits . θεραπεύειν , to heal ) sc. in His name: see ch. Matthew 9:35 .

[441] This is that remarkable embassy or mission, to which the Lord appeals in Luke 22:35 . He sent forth the Seventy also without purse, scrip, and shoes, Luke 10:4 . But in Luk 22:35 He is speaking not of the Seventy, but of the Apostles. We have the return of the Apostles recorded in Mark 6:30 , Luke 9:10 . In the intervening period, the Lord is represented more than once as having had the disciples present with Him. Luke 12:1 ; Luke 12:49 ; Luke 13:10 ; Mark 6:1 . I feel well persuaded, that no considerable portion of that time elapsed, without the Saviour having had present with Him at least some of His Apostles, as witnesses of those most important things, which He during that time both spake and performed. Nor even was the whole body of the Apostles long away from Him; comp. Matthew 10:23 . Meanwhile they returned one after the other: in which way it may have happened that some individuals out of the Twelve are named οί δώδεκα ; or even it may have been that, coming and going from time to time, they took their turns with the Lord, when making His journeys, until at length it was the privilege of them all to be with Him together again. It seems indeed to be tacitly intimated in Luke 9:10 , that their actual return took place somewhat earlier, their narration or report of their proceedings following subsequently more than once. Harm. , p. 292.

[442] The election of whom as Apostles, the sacred writer takes for granted as having taken place before the sermon on the mountain. V. g.

[443] i.e. His great authority is evinced in the fact of His being able to give them authority to do all these miracles. ED.

Verse 2

Matthew 10:2 . Τὰ ὀνόματά , the names ) Scripture, in enumerations of this kind, preserves an accurate order. See Genesis 48:20 ; Numbers 12:1 ; and, “Noah, Daniel, and Job,” in Ezekiel 14:14 ; Ezekiel 14:20 . Therefore the plan which is observed in the list of the apostles, princes of the kingdom of Christ, is of far graver import than any precedence of the kings of the world (as, for example, Peter is named first , not without an indication of rank): [444] nor is there anything fortuitous in it. It is not said, “ Bartholomew, Peter, Jude, John, Andrew, Matthew ,” etc.: and the four, as it were, locations of them, are deserving of observation:

[444] In the original, “non sine indicio ordinis.” In the notes to his German Version he says, on the words “ Der erste, ” “the first,” In der That war SIMON den andern überlegen: wiewol das der Stuhl zu ROM nichts angehet .” “SIMON was in reality superior to the other [apostles], though that [fact] does not in any way concern the See of ROME” See Gnomon below on πρῶτος . (I. B.)

(I.) Matthew 10:2 .

(II.) Mark 3:16 .

(III.) Luke 6:14 .

(IV.) Acts 1:13 ; Acts 1:26 .

1. Simon, 1. Simon, 1. Simon, 1. Peter, 2. And Andrew, 2. And James, 2. And Andrew, 2. And James, 3. James, 3. And John, 3. James, 3. And John, 4. And John, 4. And Andrew, 4. And John, 4. And Andrew, (See also Ib. Matthew 13:3 .) 5. Philip, 5. And Philip, 5. Philip, 5. Philip, 6. And Bartholomew, 6. And Bartholomew, 6. And Bartholomew, 6. And Thomas, 7. Thomas, 7. And Matthew, 7. Matthew, 7. Bartholomew, 8. And Matthew, 8. And Thomas, 8. And Thomas, 8. And Matthew 9. James the son of Alphaeus, 9. And James the son of Alphaeus, 9. James the son of Alphaeus, 9. James the son of Alphaeus, 10. And Lebbaeus, 10. And Thaddaeus, 10. And Simon Zelotes 10. And Simon Zelotes, 11. Simon the Canaanite, 11. And Simon the Canaanite, 11. Judas the brother of James, 11. And Judas the brother of James: 12. And Judas Iscariot. 12. And Judas Iscariot. 12. And Judas Iscariot. 12. Matthias. The first and the third arrangements enumerate them by pairs, the second singly, the fourth mixedly. The first and third arrangements correspond generally to the time of their vocation, and the conjunction of the apostles in twos; the second, to their dignity before our Lord’s passion; the fourth, to their dignity after His ascension. All the arrangements may be divided into three quaternions, none of which interchanges any name with either of the others. [445] Again, Peter stands always first in the first quaternion, Philip in the second (cf. John 1:42 ; John 1:44 ; Joh 12:22 ), James the son of Alphaeus in the third; though, within their several quaternions, the other apostles exchange their relative position [in the different lists]. The traitor stands always last. The plan of the first and third quaternions is contained in what I have just said: in the second, Matthew places himself modestly after his [446] Thomas, thus proving himself to be the writer of the book; for both Mark and Luke put Thomas after Matthew, although St Luke, after the confirmation of Thomas’s faith ( Joh 20:27-28 ), puts him, in the Acts, even above Bartholomew, and associates him with Philip. From the first quaternion we have the writings of Peter and John; from the second, that of Matthew; from the third, those of James and Jude, or Thaddeus. St John has not enumerated the apostles in his Gospel, but he has done so by implication in the Apocalypse; see Revelation 21:19-20 , and my German, Exposition of it. πρῶτος , first ) on the primacy of Peter, see Luke 8:45 ; Luke 9:32 ; John 1:42 ; Matthew 16:16 ; John 21:15 ; Acts 1:15 ; Acts 2:14 ; Acts 8:14 ; Acts 10:5 ; Acts 15:7 . He was, however, first among the apostles, not placed over the apostles: in the apostolate, not above it. What is this to the Pope of Rome? Not more than to any other bishop; nay, even less. ὁ λεγόμενος Πέτρος , who is called Peter ) A surname which became afterwards better known. [447]

[445] i.e. No one of the three quaternions allows a name found in it to be exchanged for a name found in one of the other two quaternions; though the names are varied as to their order in the same quaternion by the different writers. ED.

[446] “Thomam suum,” his Thomas, i.e. his associate in the lists; Matthew and Thomas being placed together in all of them. (I. B.)

[447] i.e. better known than the name “SIMON,” which he had received at his circumcision. (I. B.)

Verse 3

Matthew 10:3 . Ὁ τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου , the son of Zebedee ) To distinguish him from James the son of Alphaeus. ὁ τελώνης , the publican ) A humble confession of the Evangelist concerning himself. He does not call Peter, Andrew, etc., the fishermen : but he does call himself the publican .

Λεββαῖος , Lebbaeus ) According to Hiller, Thaddaeus, derived from the Chaldee תד , bosom, and Lebbaeus, from the Hebrew לב , heart, are synonymous terms, and denote a man of much heart: [448] see Onomata Sacra, p. 123. So Thomas means the same thing as Didymus . Those copies [449] which have in this passage only Λεββαῖος , are supported by the list of the apostles which Cotelerius [450] has published with the apostolical constitutions, and by Hesychius in the article ἼΑΡΑ . [451] As this reading is shorter and middle , [452] it appears to be the right one. Some persons having appended the disputed clause from the parallel passage of Mark as a gloss, others introduced it into the text from the same source. Their reading considers Thaddaeus as a surname , and Lebbaeus as the name of this apostle: His name , however, in reality was Judas the brother of James : but he was called Lebbaeus by name, as it were to distinguish him from Judas Iscariot. [453]

[448] “ Hominem pectorosum ,” lit. in classical Latin, a man of broad, large, or high breast. (I. B.)

[449] The reading of E. M. is “ καὶ Λεββαῖοςἐπικληθεὶς Θαδδαῖος .” (I. B.)

[450] COTELERIUS, alias JEAN BAPTISTE COTELIER, born at Nismes in 1627, was one of the most eminent critics of modern times. As a mere child, he was considered a prodigy of learning; and he sustained this reputation at the Sorbonne, where he took the degree of Batchelor. In 1667 the great Minister Colbert selected him, together with the celebrated Du Cange, to examine and catalogue the Greek MSS. of the Royal Library. The able manner in which he performed this task procured him, in 1676, the Professorship of Greek in the Royal College at Paris. His labours were many and valuable. He died in 1686. (I. B.)

[451] The passage referred to does not really occur under Ἴαρα , but under Ἰάκωβος , which is by mistake placed out of its alphabetical order. The article on Ἴαρα consists of a single line, viz. Ἴαρα αἷμαμοῖρα .

[452] “Media.” See Author’s Preface, viii. 14, and footnote in voc. (I. B.)

[453] Lachm. with B c Vulg. reads Καὶ Θαδδαῖος . Tischend. with D and MSS. in August, reads Καὶ Λεββαῖος . ab have Judas. Mill attributes the reading Λεββαῖος here to some one wishing to call attention to the fact, that Mark and Luke call Matthew Λευΐ , Levi . It seems hard to account for the introduction of such a reading, if not genuine: and yet the weight of authorities are for Καὶ Θαδδαῖος here, which otherwise might well be a transcriber’s or harmonist’s correction from Mark 3:18 ; Δεββαῖος , as the less open to suspicion of transcribers’ corrections, being accounted as the genuine reading. Jerome calls him τριώνυμος , triple-named ; so that in his day Lebbeus must have been a recognised name either here or in Mark, as well as Thaddeus and Judas. ED.

Then follow immediately the words referred to by Bengel: Ἰάκωβος Ἀλφαίον . ὁ καὶ Θκδδαῖος καὶ Λευὶ , παρὰ τῷ Μαρκῳ , παρὰ δὲ τῷ Ματθαιῷ Δεββαιος , παρὰ δὲ Δουκᾷ , Ἰούδας Ἰακώβου .

In the note on Hesychius (Ed. Lugd. Bat. 1776), vol. xi. col. 10, are these words

Nullus dubito quin diversos hic confuderit Glossæ hujus insititiæ auctor, ex male intellecto Veteris cujusdam Scriptoris apostolicorum nominum laterculo, qualem ex MS. codice Bibliothecæ Regiæ protulit Cotelerius ad lib. ii. Constitut. Apostol . c. 63, p. 264, ed. Cleric. (I. B.)

So the margin of Bengel’s larger Ed., though in the text there stood Θαδκῖος . The first Ed. of the Gnomon gives the palm to the shorter reading, Λεββκῖος . So marg. of Exodus 2:0 and Vers. Germ., leaving it however to the decision of the reader, whether the words ὁ ἐπικληθεὶς Θχδδκῖος are to be accepted or rejected. Michaelis, in his Einleitung, T. ii., p. m. 1687, etc., shows, by many proofs, that Judas the brother of James is the same as Thaddeus and Lebbeus, and was called among the Syrians Adai or Adæus. E. B.

Verse 4

Matthew 10:4 . Ἰσκαριώτης , Iscariot ) so called from the village of Iscariot in the tribe of Ephraim, as Jerome says on the beginning of Isaiah 28:0 . Louis de Dieu, on Acts 1:16 , says, “In the Æthiopic language, I find אִשְכָרַֽן for a bag or pouch to carry money in: for thus the translator has rendered τὸ γλωσσοκόμον (the bag) in John 12:6 ; John 13:29 . Hence may be derived, without any impropriety, אִשְכַרְיותָא (Iscariota), ὁ ἔχων γλωσσοκόμον , he who hath the bag. ὁ καὶ , who also) The word also implies that Judas was best known and most easily distinguished by the betrayal. παραδοὺς , betrayed) By the mention of his treason, it is silently intimated that Matthias, whom St Luke mentions by name in the Acts, was his successor in the apostolate.

Verses 5-6

Matthew 10:5-6 . Ὁδὸν πόλιν οἴκον , way city house ) The apostles were sometimes obliged to tread the roads of the Samaritans in their journeys; [454] but there was the less need for them to enter their cities, and stay there, because the Lord had preached to them in His journey (see John 4:0 ), and the apostles also were afterwards to come to them. The first of these injunctions regards this first legation; most of the rest apply equally to the whole office of the apostolate, to which the twelve are introduced on the present occasion; cf. Matthew 10:18 . Our Lord gave nearly the same commands to the seventy disciples; Luke 10:1-11 .

[454] Inasmuch as Samaria was situated between Judea and Galilee. V. g.

Verse 6

Matthew 10:6 . Πρόβατα , sheep ) See ch. Matthew 9:36 . ἀπολωλότα , lost ) He uses this expression in preference to led astray : cf. ch. Matthew 18:12 ; Matthew 18:14 . The apostles would find sufficient occupation in attending to these. Ισραὴλ , Israel ) from which the Samaritans had departed.

Verse 7

Matthew 10:7 . Πορευόμενοι , as ye go ) Answering to πορεύεσθε ( go ye ), in Matthew 10:6 . κηρύσσετε , preach ye ) Here were the disciples going forth like students in theology, who practise the rudiments of the ministry and perform the functions of curates, and afterwards return to receive further instruction. [455] ἤγγικεν , is at hand ) This was to be the burden and sum of their discourses; [456] cf. Mark 6:12 .

[455] They themselves, in fact, were as yet destitute of perfect knowledge of Jesus Christ, who not until afterwards instructed them more distinctly concerning His passion, death, and resurrection. In the meantime, their preaching, confirmed as it was by very many miracles, prepared the minds of men, so as that they subsequently, without difficulty, yielded themselves up to obey Him, on His advent among them, of whom the hope had been presented to them by this preparatory announcement. Comp. Matthew 10:23 . Harm. , p. 293.

[456] Which exhorted to repentance. V. g.

Verse 8

Matthew 10:8 . Ἀσθενοῦντας δαιμόνια , sick devils ) An ascending gradation: cf. Matthew 10:1 , where the highest grade is put first. δωρεὰν , gratuitously ) This is not inconsistent with the conclusion of Matthew 10:10 . Hire is due for labour, but miracles and gifts of grace ought not to be sold.

Verse 9

Matthew 10:9 . Μὴ κτήσησθε , κ . τ . λ ., do not procure , etc.) Thus they were taught apostolic contentedness. [457] They were permitted to use what they already possessed, but not to procure any thing new. χρυσὸν ἄργυρον χαλκὸν , gold silver brass) i.e. , money, large or small. εἰς τὰς ζώνας , into your girdles ) which served also for purses.

[457] “Sic didicere αὐτάρκειαν apostolicam.” The word αὐτάρκειαν , implies not merely the patient endurance of penury or privation, but such a state of mind and habit of acting and judging as would actually render the individual sufficiently fed, clothed, etc., and fully satisfied with that which would not meet the exigencies of another. The sense of Independence , so frequent in the classical writers, is not wholly abandoned. (I. B.)

Verse 10

Matthew 10:10 . Πήραν , scrip ) in which bread and other articles of food were kept; see Mark 6:8 . μηδὲ ῥάβδον , nor staff ) In Mark 6:8 , we read “ but one staff .” He who had no staff, was not to care about procuring one, for our Lord says “do not procure he however who possessed a staff, might take it with him, for convenience, not defence. ἄξιος γὰρἐργάτης , κ . τ . λ ., for the labourer is worthy , etc.) On the other hand, the hire is worthy of the labourer. τροφῆς , food ) This word includes all the articles which are enumerated in Matthew 10:9-10 .

Verse 11

Matthew 10:11 . Ἐξετάσατε , search out ) sc. by asking others, and by spiritual examination. The godly are easily discovered by the godly, and in like manner the ungodly by the ungodly. ἄξιος ἐστι , is worthy ) sc. of being your host. κἀκεῖ μείνατε , and there remain ) sc. in the house of that man, until you leave the city. [458] A change of houses might have the appearance of fastidiousness. [459]

[458] A distinguishing: privilege was thereby granted to those who were their “first-fruits” in each city. V. g.

[459] In the original, “potuisset præbere speciem hominum delicatorum,” where it is difficult to find an exact equivalent to “delicatorum:” though one is naturally reminded of Luke 7:25 . q. v. (I. B.)

Verse 12

Matthew 10:12 . Ἀσπάσασθε , salute) i.e. say שלום , peace, mentioned in Matthew 10:13 , i.e. salvation. Our Lord adopted formulæ and ceremonies already observed, but He elevated them to a higher use.

Verse 13

Matthew 10:13 . Ἐὰν μὲν , κ . τ . λ ., if indeed , etc.) i.e. if they receive you. ἐλθέτω ἐπιστραφήτω , let it come let it return to ) The imperative may here be taken in its strict sense. If you pray for it, let it come. If you are not unwilling, let it return . So bear yourselves, that [in the one case] it may come [upon the house], that [in the other] it may return [to you ]. Impart your salutation to them with ready good-will, or take it back to yourselves. [460] ἡ εἰρήνη ὑμῶν , your peace ) sc. that of which you are the messengers. ἐὰν δὲ , κ . τ . λ ., but if , etc.) contrary to your expectation. πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐπιστραφήτω let it return to you ) By a testimony of duty performed, and an increase of tranquillity and spiritual power. That which has once gone forth from the wealth of God, has not gone forth in vain, but assuredly finds some one whom it may reach. A consolation for ministers who appear to themselves to produce no edification. The Lord says to them thus, “They have despised it; have it yourselves.” [461]

[460] This was, as it were, a prelude to the loosing and binding (c. Mat 18:18 ). V. g.

[461] In his German Version he says, “you must not distress ( kränken ) yourselves. That which others reject becomes thereby a greater blessing to you.” (I. B.)

Verse 14

Matthew 10:14 . Ὅς ἐὰν , whosoever ) whatever householder or magistrate. ἐξερχόμενοι , when ye depart ) The ignorance of men was not yet invincible. At present, in a greater multitude of labourers and hearers, it is not necessary to depart. [462] ἤ , or ) If you should not be admitted into any house of the city. κονιορτὸν , dust ) Because punishment ( Mat 10:15 ) would overtake the very dust of the land trodden by the feet of the impious, from which the apostles would wish to be altogether free; see Acts 13:51 ; cf. Matthew 18:6 ; Mark 6:11 . That seeing your determination, they may know it has been said to them as a testimony against them . The action combined with the word moves both spectators and auditors; see Nehemiah 5:13 . τῶν ποδῶν , your feet ) This depends upon ἐκτινάξατε , shake off from . Guilt is supposed to adhere to the feet or shoes; see 1 Kings 2:5 . Therefore the apostles ought to declare, by shaking the dust from their feet, that the fault of those who did not listen has been removed from them.

[462] Beng, seems to mean, There was not then, as yet, the invincible ignorance of men to contend with, that there is now: it was wilful unbelief; and in such a case it was their duty not to waste time, as the spiritual labourers were few, but to depart. In our day, on the other hand, where the numbers of both spiritual labourers and their hearers are many, it is not the duty of the former to depart, though many wilfully harden themselves, for there are others who labour under ignorance, and it is the minister’s duty to labour to overcome that ignorance, which, though invincible in itself, can be overcome by the Spirit of God. ED.

Verse 15

Matthew 10:15 . Ἀνεκτότερον , more tolerable ) Therefore it is worse not to believe the Gospel , than to imitate the men of Sodom; see ch. Matthew 11:22 ; Matthew 11:24 . There appears to be an hypallage, viz.: that city shall, on the day of judgment, undergo a heavier punishment than the land of Sodom and Gomorrha either endured of old, or shall receive at the judgment. If merely a brief [463] repulse shall be so heavily punished, what shall be their fate who resist more obstinately.

[463] In the original, “Si perbrevis repulsa tam graviter punietur:” where “ perbrevis ,” “ very short ,” does not imply that the impenitence and unbelief of the persons indicated was of short continuance, but that their actual refusal to receive the Gospel occupied only the same time as the brief visit of the Apostles whom they rejected. (I. B.)

Verse 16

Matthew 10:16 . Ἰδοὺ , behold) Behold is frequently used for pointing out a thing which is present. ἐγὼ , I ) your Lord. Do not hesitate. I give you a safe conduct. πρόβατα , sheep ) unarmed. ἐν μέσῳ , in the midst ) not into the midst, for you are already among wolves. λὐκων , of wolves ) who will be unwilling that the lost sheep , mentioned in Matthew 10:6 , be brought back; cf. ch. Matthew 7:15 , concerning false prophets, although here the appellation “ wolves ” has a wider signification. γίνεσθε , become ye ) In exhortations this word is frequently used rather than ἔστε , be ye . Go forth as such, and show yourselves to be so. ὡς οἱ ὄφεις , as serpents ) The godly often appear to the ungodly as serpents, and thus vanquish the old serpent. καὶ , and ) Thus David was at the same time prudent and simple towards Saul. [464] ἀκέραιοι , without horn ) hoof, tooth, or sting; both actively and passively harmless. Many words of this kind have at the same time both an active and a passive signification; cf. Gnomon on Romans 16:19 .

[464] It not seldom happens that one finds others, as it were, altogether the counterpart of one’s self. But it is of use to remember, that many are worse than yourself, and some perhaps better. V. g.

Verse 17

Matthew 10:17 . Προσεχετε δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων , but beware of men ) The expression used in the last verse, “Be ye wise,” is now explained; and the force of the injunction is extended, [465] for the word men is of general signification; cf. John 2:24 . [466] ΣΥΝΈΔΡΙΑ ΣΥΝΑΓΩΓΑῖς , councils synagogues ) The councils, where the chief men assemble; the synagogues, where the people also resort. ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς , in the synagogues ) They will consider the action so holy, that it may be performed even in the synagogue , which is put in opposition to the council ; see ch. Matthew 23:34 . μαστιγώσουσιν , they shall scourge ) Hard things are foretold, yet they were actually endured by the apostles, and even by our Lord Himself.

[465] In the original, “Declaratur τὸ prudentes : acceditque moniti extensio.” (I. B.)

[466] How strong are the reasons for being on our guard against men, is especially then made manifest, when one has to be conversant (to have intercourse) with them at a time of their being under the constraint of no external consideration. V. g.

Verse 18

Matthew 10:18 . Δὲ , but ) The particle is here used epitatically, [467] to denote a further step in the subject announced. ἈΧΘΉΣΕΣΘΕ , ye shall be brought ) The apostles did not come ultroneously to the rulers, they were brought. αὐτοῖς , against them ) sc. the Jews, in contradistinction to the Gentiles mentioned immediately afterwards, καὶ τοῖς ἔθνεσιν , and the Gentiles ) This chapter therefore already contemplates matters more remote, and refers to the apostolate after our Lord’s ascension.

[467] See Append, on Epitasis. An emphatic addition to an enunciation already made. ED.

Verse 19

Matthew 10:19 . Μὴ μεριμνήσητε , Be not careful ) Your only care must be to be without care. We are not forbidden by this passage from all preparation; see 1 Timothy 4:15 , cf. Luke 21:14 ; 1 Corinthians 14:26 . But on a sudden emergency, even in these times, a faithful professor should not be anxious as to what he has to say. ἤ , or) Care is elegantly mentioned; where, however, the “ what” (quid , τί ) is supplied, there the “ how ” [468] ( quomodo , πῶς ) is not wanting. The “ how or what ” includes whatever can fall under the idea of care; therefore, especially also the words, concerning which many, who have the matter ready, are wont to be over anxious. The Spirit does not speak without words; see Matthew 10:20 : and in Luke 21:15 , we read, “I will give you a mouth and wisdom.” Analogous combinations, under other circumstances, occur in John 8:28 ; John 12:49-50 ; Romans 8:26 ; 1 Peter 1:11 . The doctrine of verbal inspiration is not inferred from the difference of the words how and what , but from the promise itself. ἐν ἐκείντῇ ὤρᾳ , in that hour ) even though not before. Many feel most strongly their spiritual power when the hour arrives of imparting it to others. τί , what ) for ὅ , that which . Cf. ch. Matthew 15:32 , and Luke 17:8 .

[468] Referring to “HOW or WHAT ye shall speak ” (I. B.)

Verse 20

Matthew 10:20 . οἱ λαλοῦντες , that speak ) A similar use of the article occurs in John 6:63 . ἐν ὑμῖν , in you ) As instruments.

Verse 21

Matthew 10:21 . Ἀδελφὸς , the brother ) Those who are most near, are most easily divided. θανατῶσουσιν , shall cause to be put to death ) By an atrocious death, even by the agency of the magistrates.

Verse 22

Matthew 10:22 . Διὰ τὸ ὄνομά Μου , for My name’s sake ) which the world hates. οὗτος , κ . τ . λ ., this man , etc.) truly. This is one of the apothegms which our Lord uttered more than once. See ch. Matthew 24:13 .

Verse 23

Matthew 10:23 . Τὴν ἄλλην κἂν ἐκ ταύτης διώκωσιν ὑμᾶς φεύγετε εἰς ἑτέραν , the other [469] and if they persecute you from this city, flee ye into another ) This is the most ancient Latin reading, [470] and also that of Orige [471][472] contra Celsum (p. 51, Ed. Hoesch. [473] ), where, instead of φεύγετε εἰς τὴν ἄλλην ” [as in E.M.], we find φεύγετε εἰς τὴν ἑτέραν · κἂν ἐν τῇ ἑτέρᾳ δίωκωσι , πάλιν φεύγετε εἰς τὴν ἄλλην .” Flee ye into the other ; [474] and if they persecute you in that other, flee ye again into the other . [475] Francis Lucas [476] of Bruges quotes old Latin Codices in favour of that reading. Thence, too, the Anglo-Saxon version has “ and thonne hi on thœre eovv ehtath, fleoth on tha thryddan;” i.e. “and when they persecute you in that [city], flee to the third .” Ambrose [477] also, in his treatise, De Fugâ Seculi (ch. 4), says, “But if they shall persecute you in one, flee ye into another.” And Juvencus [478] renders the passage thus:

[469] E. V. an other. (I. B.)

[470] The words κἄν ἑτέραν are not found in E. M. (I. B.)

[471] rigen (born about 186 A.D., died 253 A.D., a Greek father: two-thirds of the N. Test. are quoted in his writings). Ed. Vinc. Delarue, Paris. 1733, 1740, 1759.

[472] ORIGEN was born at Alexandria, in Egypt, about A.D. 185; and died at Tyre, about A.D. 254. (I. B.)

[473] DAVID HOESCHELIUS, born at Augsburgh 1556. He was a laborious and successful Editor. Among the authors he edited were Origen, Philo Judæus, Basil, and Photius. He died 1617. (I. B.)

[474] τὴν ἑτέρκν . ἕτερος signifies originally, other in opposition to one, though it has also the force of other in opposition to many . (I. B.)

[475] τὴν ἁλλην . ἄλλος signifies originally, other in opposition to many , though it is used also to represent other in opposition to one . Here τὴν ἄλλην appears to have the force of the former . (I. B.)

[476] FRANCIS LUCAS was born at Bruges in the sixteenth century. He studied under Arius Montanus, and became a Doctor of Louvain, and Dean of the Church of St Omer. He was profoundly skilled in the Greek, Hebrew, Syriac, and Chaldee languages, and is considered a judicious critic. he died in 1619. (I. B.)

[477] Born at Treves A.D. 340; consecrated, in 374, Bishop of Milan, where he died in 397. he was an eloquent preacher, and an able and voluminous writer. (I. B.)

[478] C. AQUILINUS VETTIUS (al. VECTIUS, or VESTIUS) JUVENCUS, a Spanish priest of good family, who flourished in the fourth century. He wrote, besides other works, a history of our Lord in good hexameter verse, considered both poetical and faithful, and published it about 330. (I. B.)

“Profugite e tectis quæ vos sectabitur urbis

Inde aliam, mox INDE ALIAM, conquirite sedem.”

Flee from the roofs of the city which persecutes you; thence seek another and THEN AGAIN ANOTHER abode .” Thus Augustine; thus the Armenian Version. The Codex Cantabrigiensis, the Codices Colbertini 2467 and 3947, Parisiensis 6, and the Codex Stephani η (to which some add the Codex Gonvillianus), contain this passage in various forms of words. The variety of the Greek words [479] suggests the suspicion that this verse has been rendered from Latin into Greek : on the other hand, the antiquity and celebrity of the Latin text is proved by the very multitude and discrepancy of these Greek codices. The omission appears to have arisen from the carelessness so frequently manifested by transcribers, where similar words recur: the facility with which the mistake may occur, appears from the fact that Gelenius, in his Latin version of Orige [480] , omits this very clause [which undoubtedly exists in the original]. Athanasius more than once substitutes ἑτέραν for ἄλλην , as is at present the case with the Codex Colbertinus, and from which you may conjecture, that another omission [481] might soon be made by other transcribers.

[479] Lachm. reads ἐτέραν , with B d Orig. 1,295; 380; 3,473 c ; 709; cod. 4,398. But Tischend. ἄλλην , with D abc Vulg. Origen 3,709, and Rec. Text. Lachm. adds in brackets, κἄν ἐν τῇ ἑτέρᾳ διώκωσιν ὑμᾶς , φεύγετε δεἰς τὴν ἄλλην , with DL ( ἐκ τάυτης ἐκδιώξωσιν τ . ἑτέραν ) ab Orig. 1,295b; 380 a ; Hil. 656. But B c Vulg. and Rec. Text omit these words. Probably they come from a transcriber who fancied that φεύγετε εἰς τὴν ἑτέραν , sc. “ a second city,” was incomplete without a clause, “And when they persecute you in that second city, flee into another, i.e. a third city.” To avoid the need for this, I believe the reading ἄλλην for ἐτέραν arose. The shorter is generally preferable to the longer reading, as it was the tendency of transcribers to insert all added matter, lest their copy should be incomplete. ED.

[480] rigen (born about 186 A.D., died 253 A.D., a Greek father: two-thirds of the N. Test. are quoted in his writings). Ed. Vinc. Delarue, Paris. 1733, 1740, 1759.

[481] “hiatus,” hiatus, gap . See Author’s Preface viii. 14, and App. Crit. Part I. § xxii., obs. xxvii., etc. (I. B.)

Οὐ μὴ τελέσητε , ye shall not finish [482] ) cf. כלה , [483] in 2 Chronicles 31:1 . τὰς πόλεις , the cities ) not to say, villages , of Israel. See Matthew 10:6 . Our Lord tells them that there was no fear of their not having where to preach, and that they were not to remain long in one place, as they would have the opportunity of remaining longer in other places. ἕως ἄν ἔλθηΥἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου , until the Son of Man be come ) Concerning this coming , see Matthew 10:7 ; Matthew 11:1 . [484]

[482] E. V. Ye shall not have gone over . (I. B.)

[483] כָּלָה (1) To be completed, finished. GESENIUS. (I. B.)

[484] To wit, there is here meant that very advent, whereby. through His full presence, beneficence, and preaching, the preparatory announcement of His ambassadors in those days was, as it were, completed and fulfilled by Him, whom it behoved to come, to proclaim the Gospel, and to see that it was proclaimed by others, Matthew 11:3 ; Matthew 11:5 . In a similar manner, He commanded the Seventy disciples also to announce the approach of the divine kingdom, and followed up that announcement by His own very presence in those same places, Luke 10:1 ; Luke 10:9 . Harm. , p. 293.

Verse 25

Matthew 10:25 . Ὁ δοῦλος , κ . τ . λ ., the servant , etc.) i.e. ἴναδοῦλος γένηται ὡςκύριος αὐτοῦ , ἀρκετὸν αὐτῷ ἑστίν , that the servant he as his lord, is sufficient for him . An instance of Zeugma . οἰκοδεσπότην , master of the household [485] ) Jesus was indeed the Master of a household, and brought up a large family of disciples (see Luk 22:35 ), affording the most perfect example of a domestic, as well as a solitary life; and He is also Master of the household of the whole Church. Βεελζεβούλ , Beelzebul ) Beelzebub was a god of Ekron; see 2 Kings 1:2 . As the Greeks, however, seem to have been unable to pronounce the word Beelzebub , the LXX. rendered it Βααλζεβούβ (Baalmwian): and the Evangelists also wrote it in Greek with a λ ( l ), instead of a β ( b ), as the final letter, on account, apparently, not of the derivation, but the pronunciation; just as the LXX. wrote Μελχὸλ ( Melchol ) for Michal. As this reason, however, did not hold good in other languages, translators have restored the original sound of the Hebrew word. The Jews, however, frequently employ the term זבל , [486] in contempt of idols; but the compound, בעל־זבל , is not found in Hebrew, although it is credible that the Hebrews who spoke Greek may have said ΒΕΕΛΖΕΒΟῪΛ for ΒΕΕΛΖΕΒΟῪΒ the more willingly, on account of its resemblance to זבול . [487] Tertullian, when quoting Luke 11:0 , in his work against Marcion, book iv., ch. 26, writes it, Beelzebul. ἘΚΆΛΕΣΑΝ , Κ . Τ . Λ ., have called , etc.) See ch. Mat 9:34 and Mark 3:22 . They called Him Beelzebub, that is, the ally of Beelzebub. πόσῳ μᾶλλον , how much more ) The world hated Christ most and first; and it was the duty of His disciples to feel that they ought much more to endure that hatred, much less to refuse it. [488] ΤΟΎς ΟἸΚΙΑΚΟῪς ΑὐΤΟῦ , his domestics) i.e. they shall call them the domestics of Beelzebub.

[485] In the original the word used is pater-familias , which is employed throughout the whole sentence. (I. B.)

[486] זָבַּל (1) properly in my opinion, i q. הָבַל to be round, to make round, whence the Talmudic &#זְבֻל זֶבֶל round or globular dung, such as that of goats or camels. GESENIUS. (I. B.)

[487] זבל with the Kibbuts = זבול with the Shureq. (I. B.)

[488] Those of Christ’s household have less of the power which characterized their Master; and besides, they are not, as He was, without blemishes, and these last the world knows well how to upbraid them with. V. g.

Verse 26

Matthew 10:26 . Οὖν , therefore ) although you will be hated. οὐδὲν , nothing ) Cf. Mark 4:22 ; Luke 12:2 . γὰρ , κ . τ . λ ., for, etc.) The world will not so quickly destroy you, by whom truth will be propagated far and wide. κεκαλυμμένον , covered) i.e. removed from sight. ἀποκαλυφθήσεται , shall be uncovered ) especially in the time of the Messiah. κρυπτὸν , hidden) i.e. removed from hearing: cf. Matthew 10:27 .

Verse 27

Matthew 10:27 . Οὖς , ear ) sc. one, secretly. ἐπὶ τῶν δωμάτον , on the housetops ) A flat place, where men might converse, or even assemble as an audience: cf. 2 Samuel 16:22 . [489]

[489] He desires them to banish all fear from their minds. V. g.

Verse 28

Matthew 10:28 . Καὶ μὴ φοβηθῆτε , κ . τ . λ ., and be not afraid of etc.) The connection is as follows: He who publicly preaches hidden truth, him the world afflicts: he who fears God, ought to fear nothing except Him: he who does not fear God, fears everything except Him: see 1 Peter 3:14-15 . [490] ἈΠῸ , of ) This preposition is not repeated. I fear Him , is a stronger phrase than I am afraid of Him . [491] ἈΠΟΚΤΕΝΌΝΤΩΝ , [492] who kill ) From the root κτέω are derived κτένω , κτείνω , κτέννω . See Eustathius. τὸν δυνάμενον , Him who is able [493] ) and that too with the highest ability and authority (see Luk 12:5 ), that is, GOD; see James 4:12 . καὶ ψυχὴν καὶ σῶμα , both soul and body ) the two essential parts of man. ἀπολέσαι , to destroy, to ruin ) It is not said to kill : the soul is immortal. ἐν Γεέννῃ , in hell ) It is not easy to preach the truth; and to none are severer precepts given than to the ministers of the Word, as is evident from the epistles to Timothy and Titus. The most efficacious stimulus is on this account employed. Many witnesses to the truth have been first excited, and afterwards led on, by the most fearful terrors from God.

[490] The world admires the magnanimous spirit of those who fear nothing, and regards such a spirit worthy of heroes and great men. And yet the fear of GOD is the only heroism truly worthy of the name; and in the absence of it, all presence of mind, as it is called, is false, and only indicates reckless rashness. V. g.

[491] i.e. Bengel would render the passage thus “ Be not afraid of them ( μὴ φοβηθῆτε ἀπὸ τῶν ) which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear HIM ( φοβὴθητε τὸν ) which is able,” etc. (I. B.)

[492] E. M. ἀποκτεινόντων . (I. B.)

[493] In the original there is a play on the words potest and potestas , which cannot be preserved in the translation. The passage runs thus “ Eum qui potest , et quidem cum summa ἐξουσίᾳ , potestate .” (I. B.)

Verse 29

Matthew 10:29 . Δύο στρουθία ἀσσαρίου , two sparrows for a farthing ) [494] In Luke 12:6 , we read, five sparrows for two farthings . A reason why men are not to be feared. ἕν , one ) sc. one in preference to another. [495] Οὐ ΠΕΣΕῖΤΑΙ , shall not fall ) To fall on the ground is to die. The use of the future tense implies a condition: if it falls, it does not fall without your Father’s permission. ἄνευ τοῦ θελήματος τοῦ Πατρὸς ὑμῶν , without the will of your Father ) This is the reading of Irenæu [496] , Tertullian, Novatian, Cypria [497] , Hilary, Augustine, Cassiodorius; also of the Italic, Coptic, Arabic, Gothic, and Persic versions. It is therefore an ancient reading, and one too widely received to be accounted for on the hypothesis of its being a paraphrase, especially since the sense would be complete without the contested words ΤΟῦ ΘΕΛΉΜΑΤΟς ” ( the will of), as the LXX. in Isa 36:10 [498] write ἌΝΕΥ ΚΥΡΊΟΥ , without the Lord , and the Hebrews say, מבלעדי שמיא , without heaven . The later Greeks omitted these words, τοῦ θελήματος , from the recurrence of the article τοῦ . The numbered hairs of the faithful, mentioned in the parallel passage of Luke 12:7 , correspond to this “ will .” [499] ὑμῶν , your ) not their Father.

[494] The ἀσσάριον , called λεπτὸν in Mark 12:42 , and rendered mite in that place and elsewhere by the E. V., was about 31/336 of a farthing. (I. B)

[495] Bengel means, that this is a proof of God’s individual providence even in matters relating to the brute creation. (I. B.)

[496] renæus (of Lyons, in Gaul: born about 130 A.D., and died about the end of the second century). The Editio Renati Massueti, Parisinæ, a. 1710.

[497] yprian (in the beginning and middle of the third century: a Latin father). Ed. Steph. Baluzii, Paris. 1726.

[498] In the Hebrew also, “without Jehovah.” (I. B.)

[499] BD Orig. (omitting ὑμῶν ) Vulg. and Rec. Text, have ἄνευ τοῦ πατρὸς ὑμῶν . But sine voluntate” is added by abc Hil. 657, 831 Iren. Cypr. 82, 121 (omitting ‘vestri’ before ‘patris’). ED.

Verse 30

Matthew 10:30 . Ὑμῶν , your ) used antithetically. αἱ τρίχες , the hairs ) which you yourselves care little about. Who cares about the hairs once pulled out by the comb? A proverbial saying concerning a very small matter.

Verse 31

Matthew 10:31 . Πολλῶν , many ) opposed to one in Matthew 10:29 . ὑμεῖς , you ) even each of you individually.

Verse 32

Matthew 10:32 . Ἐν , in, on) i.e. , when the question is raised concerning Me. This ἐν Ἐμοὶ ” “ on Me ,” differs from Με ,” “ Me ,” and αὐτὸν ,” “ him ,” in the next verse; cf. Luke 12:8-9 . ἀνθρώπων , men ) Our Lord is speaking especially of persecutors.

Verse 33

Matthew 10:33 . Ἀρνήσομαι κᾀγὼ αὐτὸν , [500] I also will deny him ) This order of the words, sc. “I-will-deny even-I-also him,” which expresses more exactly the law of retribution, jus talionis (as in Mat 10:32 ), is supported by the Latin and Gothic versions, [501] by the Codex Byzantinus, and perhaps by other MSS. Such matters have been generally neglected by the collators of Codices. Others read ἀρνήσομαι αὐτὸν κᾀγώ . [502]

[500] E. M. ἀρνήσομαι αὐτὸν κἀγὼ . (I. B.)

[501] The Gothic version of the Bible was made from the Greek, both in the Old and in the New Testament, by Ulphilas, a celebrated bishop of the Mæso-Goths, who assisted at the Council of Constantinople in 359, and was sent on an embassy to the Emperor Valens, about the year 378. He is said to have embraced Arianism, and to have propagated Arian tenets among his countrymen. Besides translating the entire Bible into the Gothic language, Ulphilas is said to have conferred on the Mæso-Goths the invention of the Gothic characters. The character, however, in which this version of the New Testament is written, is, in fact, the Latin character of that age; and the degree of perfection which the Gothic language had obtained during the time of Ulphilas, is a proof that it had then been written for some time. The translation of Ulphilas (who had been educated among the Greeks) was executed from the Greek; but, from its coincidence in many instances with the Latin, there is reason to suspect that it has been interpolated, though at a remote period, from the Vulgate. Its unquestionable antiquity, however, and its general fidelity, have concurred to give this version a high place in the estimation of biblical critics; but, unfortunately, it has not come down to us entire. The only parts extant in print are, a fragment of the book of Nehemiah. a considerable portion of the four Gospels, and some portions of the apostolic epistles. The most distinguished manuscript of the Gothic version of Ulphilas is the justly celebrated CODEX ARGENTEUS, now preserved in the Library of the University of Upsal, in Sweden.” Hartwell Horne , vol. ii. p. 240. (I. B.)

[502] The order κἀγὼ αὐτὸν is supported by BD Δ Vulg. abc Orig. 1, 298 d , 3,543 b , Hil. 985, Cypr. But Rec. Text αὐτὸν κἀγὼ , with Orig. 1,296 b . Orig. 3,543 b puts the ἀρνήσομαι after. ED.

Verse 34

Matthew 10:34 . Εἰρήνην , peace ) sc. of the righteous with the wicked. μάχαιραν , a sword) i.e. , violent division (called διαμερισμὸν in Luke 12:51 ; Luk 22:36 ), proceeding from the discord of families, mentioned in Matthew 10:35 , to wars and murders.

Verse 35

Matthew 10:35 . Διχάσαι , to separate ) A necessary consequence of what precedes. ἄνθρωπον , a man ) sc. a son who loves Me: see Matthew 10:37 . κατὰ , against ) In this passage those are put in opposition, who are otherwise naturally most attached, to each other.

Verse 36

Matthew 10:36 . Ἐχθροὶ , enemies ) A man shall have them of his household his relations, servants, and acquaintances for enemies, if he believes in Me; see Micah 7:6 .

Verse 37

Matthew 10:37 . Ὁ φιλῶν , κ . τ . λ ., he that loveth , etc.) from aversion to the sword just mentioned. An ascending climax: to prefer Christ to parents, children, and, in the next verse, himself.

Verse 38

Matthew 10:38 . Τὸν σταυρὸν , his cross ) The cross, which was unused by the Jews as a punishment, was not employed proverbially to denote extreme adversity: our Lord therefore, in this passage, alludes to His own Cross, which He was already bearing in secret. λαμβάνει , taketh ) sc. willingly.

Verse 39

Matthew 10:39 . Ψυχὴν , soul) i.e. , man with respect to his natural life, himself; cf. Luke 9:24-25 . ἕνεκεν Ἐμοῦ , for My sake ) Many lose their soul for the sake of the world .

Verse 40

Matthew 10:40 . Ὑμᾶς , you ) A descending gradation: sc. you (apostles), a prophet , a righteous man, a little one . Ἐμὲ , Me ) It is not only of the same avail as if he received Me, but he actually does receive Me.

Verse 41

Matthew 10:41 . Εἰς ὄνομα , κ . τ . λ ., in the name , etc.) i.e. , on this ground, and on no other. [503] προφήτην δίκαιον , a prophet a righteous man ) A prophet is one who speaks, a righteous man one who acts, in the name of God, and is distinguished for his remarkable righteousness; see ch. Matthew 13:17 , Matthew 23:29 ; Hebrews 11:33 . μισθὸν , hire, reward ) for he shows himself as obedient to God as if he were a prophet himself. It may be asked how he who is not righteous himself can receive a righteous man as a righteous man? The reply is easy: Such a man, by the very act, abandons his evil way, and ceases to be the enemy of righteousness.

[503] So the French Version, published in Geneva in 1744 A.D., “En qualitè de Prophete.” The Latin expression, Prophetœ nomine , is similar. E. B.

Verse 42

Matthew 10:42 . Μικρῶν , little ones ) (see ch. Matthew 11:11 , and Zec 13:7 ). A sweet epithet for disciples (cf. Matthew 10:41 , for the double mention of prophet , etc.) The world cares not for such as these. From these little ones are made prophets and righteous men. ψυχροῦ , of cold water ) This is without expense, and may be done even on the road. A proverbial expression, and contrasted! with he that receiveth . [504] μὴ ἀπολέση , shall not lose ) A consolation which, arising from former good deeds, cheers the disciple even in the midst of subsequent dangers. [505] αὐτοῦ , his) i.e., of the little one , or rather his own . It is more to receive any one than to give him to drink , and therefore it has a greater reward. [506]

[504] i.e. to receive any one into the house as a guest this is an act of hospitality , whereas to give a cup of cold water to a wayfarer is merely an act of kindness . (I. B.)

[505] O the boundless riches of GOD, who both has it in His power and delights to pay in full such great rewards. V. g.

[506] Bengel, J. A. (1860). Vol. 1 : Gnomon of the New Testament (M. E. Bengel & J. C. F. Steudel, Ed.) (J. Bandinel & A. R. Fausset, Trans.) (185 250). Edinburgh: T&T Clark.

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Bibliographical Information
Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Matthew 10". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/jab/matthew-10.html. 1897.