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Bible Commentaries

John Trapp Complete Commentary
Leviticus 4

 

 

Verse 1

Leviticus 4:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,

Ver. 1. And the Lord spake.] At another time belike.


Verse 2

Leviticus 4:2 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, If a soul shall sin through ignorance against any of the commandments of the LORD [concerning things] which ought not to be done, and shall do against any of them:

Ver. 2. Shall sin through ignorance.] Or, infirmity; being suddenly surprised, preoccupated. [Galatians 6:1 Hebrews 5:2] {See Trapp on "Galatians 6:1"} {See Trapp on "Hebrews 5:2"}


Verse 3

Leviticus 4:3 If the priest that is anointed do sin according to the sin of the people; then let him bring for his sin, which he hath sinned, a young bullock without blemish unto the LORD for a sin offering.

Ver. 3. A young bullock.] The same sacrifice that should be offered for the sin of the whole people, [Leviticus 4:14] to note the heinousness of the priest’s sin above others. The sins of teachers are the teachers of sins.


Verse 4

Leviticus 4:4 And he shall bring the bullock unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation before the LORD and shall lay his hand upon the bullock’s head, and kill the bullock before the LORD.

Ver. 4. Shall lay his hand.] Confessing his sin, [Leviticus 5:5] and professing his faith in Christ, the true sin offering. [2 Corinthians 5:21]


Verse 5

Leviticus 4:5 And the priest that is anointed shall take of the bullock’s blood, and bring it to the tabernacle of the congregation:

Ver. 5. Shall take of the bullock’s blood.] See Hebrews 5:2-3; Hebrews 7:26-28. {See Trapp on "Hebrews 5:2"} {See Trapp on "Hebrews 5:3"} {See Trapp on "Hebrews 7:26"} {See Trapp on "Hebrews 7:27"} {See Trapp on "Hebrews 7:28"}


Verse 6

Leviticus 4:6 And the priest shall dip his finger in the blood, and sprinkle of the blood seven times before the LORD, before the vail of the sanctuary.

Ver. 6. Seven times before the Lord.] Because in this case there was need of much and great purgation.


Verse 7

Leviticus 4:7 And the priest shall put [some] of the blood upon the horns of the altar of sweet incense before the LORD, which [is] in the tabernacle of the congregation; and shall pour all the blood of the bullock at the bottom of the altar of the burnt offering, which [is at] the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.

Ver. 7. Upon the horns of the altar.] To signify, saith one, that the preaching of the gospel concerning the blood of Christ, should be published and proclaimed to the four corners of the earth. To show, saith another, that by faith in the blood of Christ, our prayers are acceptable unto God, and our infirmities pardoned and purged.


Verse 8

Leviticus 4:8 And he shall take off from it all the fat of the bullock for the sin offering; the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that [is] upon the inwards,

Ver. 8. All the fat.] Because, among other things, it signified hard heartedness and insensibleness of sin and danger. [Psalms 119:70] Dionysius the Heracleot felt not needles thrust into his fat belly, saith the history.


Verse 9

Leviticus 4:9 And the two kidneys, and the fat that [is] upon them, which [is] by the flanks, and the caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away,

Ver. 9. With the kidneys.] See Leviticus 3:4.


Verse 11

Leviticus 4:11 And the skin of the bullock, and all his flesh, with his head, and with his legs, and his inwards, and his dung,

Ver. 11. And the skin, &c.] {See Trapp on "Leviticus 1:9"}


Verse 12

Leviticus 4:12 Even the whole bullock shall he carry forth without the camp unto a clean place, where the ashes are poured out, and burn him on the wood with fire: where the ashes are poured out shall he be burnt.

Ver. 12. Shall he carry forth,] Hebrews 13:11-12. {See Trapp on "Hebrews 13:11"} {See Trapp on "Hebrews 13:12"}


Verse 13

Leviticus 4:13 And if the whole congregation of Israel sin through ignorance, and the thing be hid from the eyes of the assembly, and they have done [somewhat against] any of the commandments of the LORD [concerning things] which should not be done, and are guilty;

Ver. 13. And if the whole congregation.] Particular congregations, then, may err for a season; though not finally, fundamentally, if they be "the congregation of saints," [Psalms 89:5] and not "the congregation of hypocrites," [Job 15:34] the Church malignant.

And they have done somewhat.] Either by transgression or disobedience, [Hebrews 2:2] omission or commission.


Verse 14

Leviticus 4:14 When the sin, which they have sinned against it, is known, then the congregation shall offer a young bullock for the sin, and bring him before the tabernacle of the congregation.

Ver. 14. When the sin is known.] Sin may sleep a long time like a sleeping debt, not called for of many years. But, Nullum tempus occurrit regi. God may send out a summons for sleepers, and punish our bygone or secret sins.


Verse 15

Leviticus 4:15 And the elders of the congregation shall lay their hands upon the head of the bullock before the LORD: and the bullock shall be killed before the LORD.

Ver. 15. And the elders.] These, as the representative congregation, took upon them the guilt of their common errors, as those did in 2 Chronicles 29:23.


Verse 16

Leviticus 4:16 And the priest that is anointed shall bring of the bullock’s blood to the tabernacle of the congregation:

Ver. 16. And the priest that is anointed,] i.e., The high priest; a type of Christ, who was anointed, not with material oil, as they, but with the Spirit, that oil of gladness, both above and for his fellow brethren. [Psalms 45:1-17 Hebrews 1:9] See 1 John 2:27, 2 Corinthians 1:21-22. Howbeit his oil shines brightest, and swims aloft above all others.


Verse 17

Leviticus 4:17 And the priest shall dip his finger [in some] of the blood, and sprinkle [it] seven times before the LORD, [even] before the vail.

Ver. 17. Seven times.] A number of perfection; to note the most absolute sufficiency of Christ’s death to purge and reconcile us to God; and that he is able to save such to the uttermost ( εις το παντελες) that come unto God by him. [Hebrews 7:25]


Verse 18

Leviticus 4:18 And he shall put [some] of the blood upon the horns of the altar which [is] before the LORD, that [is] in the tabernacle of the congregation, and shall pour out all the blood at the bottom of the altar of the burnt offering, which [is at] the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.

Ver. 18. Upon the horns.] {See Trapp on "Leviticus 4:7"}

At the bottom of the altar.] To set forth the plenty and sufficiency of grace and merit in Christ’s death, for many more than are actually saved by it.


Verse 19

Leviticus 4:19 And he shall take all his fat from him, and burn [it] upon the altar.

Ver. 19. And he shall take all his fat.] Christ offered himself and the best parts he had, suffering in soul and body.


Verse 20

Leviticus 4:20 And he shall do with the bullock as he did with the bullock for a sin offering, so shall he do with this: and the priest shall make an atonement for them, and it shall be forgiven them.

Ver. 20. As he did with the bullock.] For even ignorance and infirmities are deadly sins, direct fruits of the flesh, [John 3:6] and such as for which Christ laid down his life, even "for the errors ( αγνοηματα) of the people." [Hebrews 9:7]


Verse 21

Leviticus 4:21 And he shall carry forth the bullock without the camp, and burn him as he burned the first bullock: it [is] a sin offering for the congregation.

Ver. 21. Without the camp.] Pointing to Christ, who carried our sins out of God’s sight. See Hebrews 13:12. {See Trapp on "Hebrews 13:12"}


Verse 22

Leviticus 4:22 When a ruler hath sinned, and done [somewhat] through ignorance [against] any of the commandments of the LORD his God [concerning things] which should not be done, and is guilty;

Ver. 22. When a ruler hath sinned.] Great men’s sins do more hurt, (1.) By imitation; for, Vita principis censura est, imo Cynosura; according to these glasses most men dress themselves: (2.) By imputation; for, plectuntur achivi; the poor people pay for it; as they did for David’s, whether ignorance or infirmity, in omitting that duty enjoined; [Exodus 30:12-15] thence the plague. [2 Samuel 24:13-17]


Verse 23

Leviticus 4:23 Or if his sin, wherein he hath sinned, come to his knowledge; he shall bring his offering, a kid of the goats, a male without blemish:

Ver. 23. Come to his knowledge.] As David’s did, [2 Samuel 24:11] who saw such volumes of infirmities, and so many erratas in all that he did, that he once cried out, "Who knoweth the errors of his life? Oh, cleanse me from secret sins." [Psalms 19:12] This he knew was the import of all these Levitical cleansings.


Verse 24

Leviticus 4:24 And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the goat, and kill it in the place where they kill the burnt offering before the LORD: it [is] a sin offering.

Ver. 24. Lay his hand.] {See Trapp on "Leviticus 4:4"}


Verse 25

Leviticus 4:25 And the priest shall take of the blood of the sin offering with his finger, and put [it] upon the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and shall pour out his blood at the bottom of the altar of burnt offering.

Ver. 25. At the bottom.] See Leviticus 4:18.


Verse 26

Leviticus 4:26 And he shall burn all his fat upon the altar, as the fat of the sacrifice of peace offerings: and the priest shall make an atonement for him as concerning his sin, and it shall be forgiven him.

Ver. 26. All his fat.] See Leviticus 4:19. The fat was burnt, saith one, because, among other things, it signified duricordium, hard heartedness. [Psalms 119:70]


Verse 27

Leviticus 4:27 And if any one of the common people sin through ignorance, while he doeth [somewhat against] any of the commandments of the LORD [concerning things] which ought not to be done, and be guilty;

Ver. 27. And if any soul sin.] As there is none that liveth and sinneth not. [1 Kings 8:46] Triste mortalitatis privilegium est licere aliquando peccare. (a)


Verse 28

Leviticus 4:28 Or if his sin, which he hath sinned, come to his knowledge: then he shall bring his offering, a kid of the goats, a female without blemish, for his sin which he hath sinned.

Ver. 28. Come to his knowledge.] By the check of his own conscience, awakened by the word or rod of God.


Verse 29

Leviticus 4:29 And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the sin offering, and slay the sin offering in the place of the burnt offering.

Ver. 29. And slay the sin offering.] That is, the priest shall: for no man might offer his own sacrifice upon pain of death; as is afore noted.


Verse 30

Leviticus 4:30 And the priest shall take of the blood thereof with his finger, and put [it] upon the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and shall pour out all the blood thereof at the bottom of the altar.

Ver. 30. And the priest shall take of the blood thereof with his finger.] See on Leviticus 4:18.


Verse 31

Leviticus 4:31 And he shall take away all the fat thereof, as the fat is taken away from off the sacrifice of peace offerings; and the priest shall burn [it] upon the altar for a sweet savour unto the LORD and the priest shall make an atonement for him, and it shall be forgiven him.

Ver. 31. For a sweet savour.] {See Trapp on "Leviticus 1:9"} The death of Christ is ever in the sight of his heavenly Father: and hence it was that those typical sacrifices and all our performances are still accepted.


Verse 32

Leviticus 4:32 And if he bring a lamb for a sin offering, he shall bring it a female without blemish.

Ver. 32. And if he bring a lamb.] This sacrifice hath not wholly the same fat as that of a goat, and therefore is spoken of apart.


Verse 33

Leviticus 4:33 And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the sin offering, and slay it for a sin offering in the place where they kill the burnt offering.

Ver. 33. And he shall lay his hand.] He that bringeth it shall: see Leviticus 4:4.

And he shall offer it.] The priest shall.


Verse 34

Leviticus 4:34 And the priest shall take of the blood of the sin offering with his finger, and put [it] upon the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and shall pour out all the blood thereof at the bottom of the altar:

Ver. 34. And the priest shall take.] See upon Leviticus 4:18.


Verse 35

Leviticus 4:35 And he shall take away all the fat thereof, as the fat of the lamb is taken away from the sacrifice of the peace offerings; and the priest shall burn them upon the altar, according to the offerings made by fire unto the LORD: and the priest shall make an atonement for his sin that he hath committed, and it shall be forgiven him.

Ver. 35. According to the offerings.] Or, Upon the offerings; or, Besides the burnt offerings daily offered to the Lord.

 


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Bibliography Information
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Leviticus 4:4". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/leviticus-4.html. 1865-1868.

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Sunday, December 8th, 2019
the Second Week of Advent
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