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Lev 5:1 And if a soul sin, and hear the voice of swearing, and [is] a witness, whether he hath seen or known [of it]; if he do not utter [it], then he shall bear his iniquity.
Ver. 1. He shall bear his iniquity, ] i.e., He shall suffer for his sinful silence; because he could, but would not, help the truth in necessity, but stand as if he were gagged by Satan, - possessed with a dumb devil.
Lev 5:2 Or if a soul touch any unclean thing, whether [it be] a carcase of an unclean beast, or a carcase of unclean cattle, or the carcase of unclean creeping things, and [if] it be hidden from him; he also shall be unclean, and guilty.
Ver. 2. And if it be hidden from him. ] Debt is debt, whether a man know of it or not.
Lev 5:3 Or if he touch the uncleanness of man, whatsoever uncleanness [it be] that a man shall be defiled withal, and it be hid from him; when he knoweth [of it], then he shall be guilty.
Ver. 3. Then he shall be guilty. ] Guilty he was before, Lev 5:2 but now shall see himself so, and be ready to say, as Proverbs 5:14 , "I was almost in all evil in the midst of the congregation and the assembly." "By the law is the knowledge of sin." Rom 3:20
Lev 5:4 Or if a soul swear, pronouncing with [his] lips to do evil, or to do good, whatsoever [it be] that a man shall pronounce with an oath, and it be hid from him; when he knoweth [of it], then he shall be guilty in one of these.
Ver. 4. To do evil. ] As David did to slay Nabal. 1Sa 25:22
Or to do good. ] As the same David did to do good to Mephibosheth, and yet he was not so good as his oath.
And it be hid from him. ] As is usual with your common swearers, who will swear that they swear not. If men had such distempers of body, as their excrements come from them when they knew not of it, it would trouble them; but they swear, and let go much filth, and it is hid from them.
Lev 5:5 And it shall be, when he shall be guilty in one of these [things], that he shall confess that he hath sinned in that [thing]:
Ver. 5. He shall confess. ] Homo agnoscit, Deus ignoscit, Man confesseth, and God pardoneth. In the courts of men it is the safest plea to say, Non feci , quoth Quintilian; "I am not guilty": not so here; but ego feci, miserere, "I did it; have mercy upon me."
“ Per miserere mei tollitur ira Dei. ”
Lev 5:6 And he shall bring his trespass offering unto the LORD for his sin which he hath sinned, a female from the flock, a lamb or a kid of the goats, for a sin offering; and the priest shall make an atonement for him concerning his sin.
Ver. 6. For his sin which he hath sinned. ] Bending his thoughts upon that particular sin. It is charged upon Israel, that they "remembered not that they lay in their blood." Eze 16:22
Lev 5:7 And if he be not able to bring a lamb, then he shall bring for his trespass, which he hath committed, two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, unto the LORD; one for a sin offering, and the other for a burnt offering.
Ver. 7. Two turtle doves. ] See Trapp on " Lev 1:14 "
Lev 5:8 And he shall bring them unto the priest, who shall offer [that] which [is] for the sin offering first, and wring off his head from his neck, but shall not divide [it] asunder:
Ver. 8. For the sin offering first. ] For till sin be expiated, no sacrifice or service can be accepted. Therefore "Wash you, cleanse you," and then, "Come, and let us reason." Isa 1:16-18
Lev 5:9 And he shall sprinkle of the blood of the sin offering upon the side of the altar; and the rest of the blood shall be wrung out at the bottom of the altar: it [is] a sin offering.
Ver. 9. Upon the side of the altar. ] The north side, and not upon the east: (1.) that Israel might not symbolise with the heathens, who worshipped toward the east; (2.) To signify that they had no more under the law than dark "shadows of good things to come," Heb 10:1 "until the time of reformation." Heb 9:10
Lev 5:10 And he shall offer the second [for] a burnt offering, according to the manner: and the priest shall make an atonement for him for his sin which he hath sinned, and it shall be forgiven him.
Ver. 10. According to the manner. ] That is, the forms and rites prescribed. So, Amo 8:14 "The manner of Beersheba," i.e, the forms and rites of worshipping in Beersheba, as the Chaldee paraphraseth it.
Lev 5:11 But if he be not able to bring two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, then he that sinned shall bring for his offering the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a sin offering; he shall put no oil upon it, neither shall he put [any] frankincense thereon: for it [is] a sin offering.
Ver. 11. But if he be not able. ] So low doth the Most High stoop to man’s meanness, that he will accept of a very small present from him that would bring a better, if it were in the power of his hand. Lycurgus enjoined his Lacedemonians to offer small sacrifices; for God, said he, respecteth more the internal devotion, than the external oblation.
Lev 5:12 Then shall he bring it to the priest, and the priest shall take his handful of it, [even] a memorial thereof, and burn [it] on the altar, according to the offerings made by fire unto the LORD: it [is] a sin offering.
Ver. 12. Even a memorial. ] This is spoken after the manner of men who have need of remembrancers. God sometimes seems to lose his mercy, and then we must find it for him, as they in Isaiah 63:15 ; sometimes to forget, sleep, delay, &c., and then we must in mind, awaken, quicken him. Isa 62:7
Lev 5:13 And the priest shall make an atonement for him as touching his sin that he hath sinned in one of these, and it shall be forgiven him: and [the remnant] shall be the priest’s, as a meat offering.
Ver. 13. And it shall be forgiven him. ] See a like promise made to our ministry, James 5:15 .
Lev 5:15 If a soul commit a trespass, and sin through ignorance, in the holy things of the LORD; then he shall bring for his trespass unto the LORD a ram without blemish out of the flocks, with thy estimation by shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary, for a trespass offering:
Ver. 15. In the holy things of the Lord. ] Things consecrate to him, by robbing and wronging of God and his priests; be it but through ignorance or error. For to do such a thing presumptuously was death, Num 15:30 and by the laws of the twelve tables in Rome, such were to be punished as parricides. a
a Sacrum qui clepserit, rapseritve, parricida esto.
Lev 5:16 And he shall make amends for the harm that he hath done in the holy thing, and shall add the fifth part thereto, and give it unto the priest: and the priest shall make an atonement for him with the ram of the trespass offering, and it shall be forgiven him.
Ver. 16. And he shall make amends. ] No remission without restitution. God abhors holocaustum ex rapina. And if ye make no restitution, ye shall cough in hell, said Father Latimer. a
a Latimer’s Sermons.
Lev 5:17 And if a soul sin, and commit any of these things which are forbidden to be done by the commandments of the LORD; though he wist [it] not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity.
Ver. 17. Though he wist it not. ] Ignorance, though invincible and unavoidable, well may excuse a tanto, but not a toto Luk 12:48
Lev 5:18 And he shall bring a ram without blemish out of the flock, with thy estimation, for a trespass offering, unto the priest: and the priest shall make an atonement for him concerning his ignorance wherein he erred and wist [it] not, and it shall be forgiven him.
Ver. 18. Shall make an atonement. ] See Trapp on " Lev 4:20 "
Lev 5:19 It [is] a trespass offering: he hath certainly trespassed against the LORD.
Ver. 19. It is a trespass offering. ] "The blood of Jesus Christ cleanseth us from all sin." 1 John 1:7 Heb 10:10-11
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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Leviticus 5". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 20 / Ordinary 25