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Bible Commentaries

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament
John 14

 

 

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Verse 1

Let not your heart be troubled (μη ταρασσεστω υμων η καρδιαmē tarassesthō humōn hē kardia). Not here the physical organ of life (Luke 21:34), but the seat of spiritual life (πνευμα πσυχηpneuma class="normal greek">ταρασσω — psuchē), the centre of feeling and faith (Romans 10:10), “the focus of the religious life” (Vincent) as in Matthew 22:37. See these words repeated in John 14:27. Jesus knew what it was to have a “troubled” heart (John 11:33; John 13:31) where πιστευετε και πιστευετεtarassō is used of him. Plainly the hearts of the disciples were tossed like waves in the wind by the words of Jesus in John 13:38.

Ye believe … believe also (πιστευωpisteuetekai pisteuete). So translated as present active indicative plural second person and present active imperative of pisteuō The form is the same. Both may be indicative (ye believe … and ye believe), both may be imperative (believe … and believe or believe also), the first may be indicative (ye believe) and the second imperative (believe also), the first may be imperative (keep on believing) and the second indicative (and ye do believe, this less likely). Probably both are imperatives (Mark 11:22), “keep on believing in God and in me.”


Verse 2

Mansions (μοναιmonai). Old word from μενωmenō to abide, abiding places, in N.T. only here and John 14:23. There are many resting-places in the Father‘s house (οικιαoikia). Christ‘s picture of heaven here is the most precious one that we possess. It is our heavenly home with the Father and with Jesus.

If it were not so (ει δε μηei de mē). Ellipsis of the verb (Mark 2:21; Revelation 2:5, Revelation 2:16; John 14:11). Here a suppressed condition of the second class (determined as unfulfilled) as the conclusion shows.

I would have told you
(ειπον αν υμινeipon an humin). Regular construction for this apodosis (ανan and aorist - second active - indicative).

For I go
(οτι πορευομαιhoti poreuomai). Reason for the consolation given, futuristic present middle indicative, and explanation of his words in John 13:33 that puzzled Peter so (John 13:36.).

To prepare a place for you
(ετοιμασαι τοπον υμινhetoimasai topon humin). First aorist active infinitive of purpose of ετοιμαζωhetoimazō to make ready, old verb from ετοιμοςhetoimos Here only in John, but in Mark 10:40 (Matthew 20:23). It was customary to send one forward for such a purpose (Numbers 10:33). So Jesus had sent Peter and John to make ready (this very verb) for the passover meal (Mark 14:12; Matthew 26:17). Jesus is thus our Forerunner (προδρομοςprodromos) in heaven (Hebrews 6:20).


Verse 3

If I go (εαν πορευτωean poreuthō). Third-class condition (εανean and first aorist passive subjunctive of πορευομαιporeuomai).

And prepare (και ετοιμασωkai hetoimasō). Same condition and first aorist active subjunctive of the same verb ετοιμαζωhetoimazō

I come again
(παλιν ερχομαιpalin erchomai). Futuristic present middle, definite promise of the second coming of Christ.

And will receive you unto myself
(και παραλημπσομαι υμας προς εμαυτονkai paralēmpsomai humas pros emauton). Future middle of παραλαμβανωparalambanō Literally, “And I shall take you along (παραpara -) to my own home” (cf. John 13:36). This blessed promise is fulfilled in death for all believers who die before the Second Coming. Jesus comes for us then also.

That where I am there ye may be also
(ινα οπου ειμι εγω και υμεις ητεhina hopou eimi egō kai humeis ēte). Purpose clause with ιναhina and present active subjunctive of ειμιeimi This the purpose of the departure and the return of Christ. And this is heaven for the believer to be where Jesus is and with him forever.


Verse 4

Ye know the way (οιδατε την οδονoidate tēn hodon). Definite allusion to the puzzle of Peter in John 13:36. The path to the Father‘s house is now plain.


Verse 5

Whither (πουpou) - how (πωςpōs). It is Thomas, not Peter (John 13:36.) who renews the doubt about the destination of Jesus including the path or way thither (την οδονtēn hodon). Thomas is the spokesman for the materialistic conception then and now.


Verse 6

I am the way, and the truth, and the life (Εγω ειμι η οδος και η αλητεια και η ζωηEgō eimi hē hodos kai hē alētheia kai hē zōē). Either of these statements is profound enough to stagger any one, but here all three together overwhelm Thomas. Jesus had called himself “the life” to Martha (John 11:25) and “the door” to the Pharisees (John 10:7) and “the light of the world” (John 8:12). He spoke “the way of God in truth” (Mark 12:14). He is the way to God and the only way (John 14:6), the personification of truth, the centre of life.

Except by me (ει μη δι εμουei mē di' emou). There is no use for the Christian to wince at these words of Jesus. If he is really the Incarnate Son of God (John 1:1, John 1:14, John 1:18), they are necessarily true.


Verse 7

If ye had known me (ει εγνωκειτε μεei egnōkeite me). Past perfect indicative of γινωσκωginōskō to know by personal experience, in condition of second class as is made plain by the conclusion (αν ηιδετεan ēidete) where οιδαoida not γινωσκωginōskō is used. Thomas and the rest had not really come to know Jesus, much as they loved him.

From henceforth ye know him (απ αρτι γινωσκετε αυτονap' arti ginōskete auton). Probably inchoative present active indicative, “ye are beginning to know the Father from now on.”

And have seen him
(και εωρακατεkai heōrakate). Perfect active indicative of οραωhoraō Because they had seen Jesus who is the Son of God, the Image of God, and like God (John 1:18). Hence God is like Jesus Christ. It is a bold and daring claim to deity. The only intelligible conception of God is precisely what Jesus here says. God is like Christ.


Verse 8

Show us (δειχον ημινdeixon hēmin). Philip now speaks up, possibly hoping for a theophany (Exodus 33:18.), certainly not grasping the idea of Jesus just expressed.


Verse 9

So long time (τοσουτον χρονονtosouton chronon). Accusative of extent of time.

And dost thou not know me? (και ουκ εγνωκας μεkai ouk egnōkas me). Perfect active indicative of γινωσκωginōskō Jesus patiently repeats his language to Philip with the crisp statement: “he that hath seen me hath seen the Father” (ο εωρακως εμε εωρακεν τον πατεραho heōrakōs eme eōraken ton patera). Perfect active participle and perfect active indicative of οραωhoraō state of completion.

Thou
(συsu). Emphatic - After these years together.


Verse 10

Believest thou not? (ου πιστευεισou pisteueis). Jesus had a right to expect greater faith from these men than from the blind man (John 9:35) or Martha (John 11:27). His words in John 14:1 are clearly needed. This oneness with the Father Jesus had already stated (John 10:38) as shown by his “words” (ρηματαrēmata) and his “works” (εργαerga). Cf. John 3:34; John 5:19; John 6:62.


Verse 11

Believe me (πιστευετε μοιpisteuete moi). Repeated appeal (present active imperative of πιστευωpisteuō) as in John 14:1 to his disciples and as he had done with the hostile Jews to be influenced by his “works” at any rate (John 10:38).


Verse 12

Shall he do also (κακεινος ποιησειkakeinos poiēsei). Emphatic pronoun εκεινοςekeinos “that one also.”

Greater works than these (μειζονα τουτωνmeizona toutōn). Comparative adjective neuter plural from μεγαςmegas with ablative case τουτωνtoutōn Not necessarily greater miracles and not greater spiritual works in quality, but greater in quantity. Cf. Peter at Pentecost and Paul‘s mission tours. “Because I go” (οτι εγω πορευορναιhoti egō poreuornai). Reason for this expansion made possible by the Holy Spirit as Paraclete (John 16:7).


Verse 13

Whatsoever ye shall ask (οτι αν αιτησητεhoti an aitēsēte). Indefinite relative clause with οτιhoti (neuter accusative singular of οστιςhostis), ανan and the aorist active subjunctive of αιτεωaiteō This is an advance thought over John 14:12.

In my name (εν τωι ονοματι μουen tōi onomati mou). First mention of his “name” as the open sesame to the Father‘s will. See also John 14:26; John 15:16; John 16:23, John 16:24, John 16:26.

That will I do
(τουτο ποιησωtouto poiēsō). The Father answers prayers (John 15:16; John 16:23), but so does the Son (here and John 14:14). The purpose (ιναhina clause with first aorist passive subjunctive of δοχαζωdoxazō) is “that the Father may be glorified in the Son.” Plead Christ‘s name in prayer to the Father.


Verse 14

If ye shall ask me anything in my name (εαν τι αιτησητε με εν τωι ονοματι μουean ti aitēsēte me en tōi onomati mou). Condition of third class with εανean and first aorist active subjunctive of αιτεωaiteō The use of μεme (me) here is supported by Aleph B 33 Vulgate Syriac Peshitta. Just this phrase does not occur elsewhere in John and seems awkward, but see John 16:23. If it is genuine, as seems likely, here is direct prayer to Jesus taught as we see it practiced by Stephen in Acts 7:59; and in Revelation 22:20.


Verse 15

If ye love me (εαν αγαπατε μεean agapāte me). Third-class condition “if ye keep on loving (present active subjunctive, same contract form as indicative) me.” Cf. John 14:23.

Ye will keep (τηρησετεtērēsete). Future active of τηρεωtēreō not aorist imperative τηρησατεtērēsate (keep) as some MSS. have. For this phrase see also John 8:51; John 14:23, John 14:24; John 15:20; 1 John 2:5. Continued love prevents disobedience.


Verse 16

And I will pray the Father (καγω ερωτησω τον πατεραkagō erōtēsō ton patera). ΕρωταωErōtaō for prayer, not question (the old use), also in John 16:23 (prayer to Jesus in same sense as αιτεωaiteō), John 14:26 (by Jesus as here); John 17:9 (by Jesus), “make request of.”

Another Comforter (αλλον παρακλητονallon paraklēton). Another of like kind (αλλονallon not ετερονheteron), besides Jesus who becomes our Paraclete, Helper, Advocate, with the Father (1 John 2:1, Cf. Romans 8:26.). This old word (Demosthenes), from παρακαλεωparakaleō was used for legal assistant, pleader, advocate, one who pleads another‘s cause (Josephus, Philo, in illiterate papyrus), in N.T. only in John‘s writings, though the idea of it is in Romans 8:26-34. Cf. Deissmann, Light, etcp. 336. So the Christian has Christ as his Paraclete with the Father, the Holy Spirit as the Father‘s Paraclete with us (John 14:16, John 14:26; John 15:26; John 16:7; 1 John 2:1).

For ever
(εις τον αιωναeis ton aiōna). This the purpose (ιναhina) in view and thus Jesus is to be with his people here forever (Matthew 28:20). See John 4:14 for the idiom.


Verse 17

The Spirit of truth (το πνευμα της αλητειαςto pneuma tēs alētheias). Same phrase in John 15:27; John 16:13; 1 John 4:6, “a most exquisite title” (Bengel). The Holy Spirit is marked by it (genitive case), gives it, defends it (cf. John 1:17), in contrast to the spirit of error (1 John 4:6).

Whom (οho). Grammatical neuter gender (οho) agreeing with πνευμαpneuma (grammatical), but rightly rendered in English by “whom” and note masculine εκεινοςekeinos (John 14:26). He is a person, not a mere influence.

Cannot receive
(ου δυναται λαβεινou dunatai labein). Left to itself the sinful world is helpless (1 Corinthians 2:14; Romans 8:7.), almost Paul‘s very language on this point. The world lacks spiritual insight (ου τεωρειou theōrei) and spiritual knowledge (ουδε γινωσκειoude ginōskei). It failed to recognize Jesus (John 1:10) and likewise the Holy Spirit.

Ye know him
(υμεις γινωσκετε αυτοhumeis ginōskete auto). Emphatic position of υμειςhumeis (ye) in contrast with the world (John 15:19), because they have seen Jesus the Revealer of the Father (John 14:9).

Abides
(μενειmenei). Timeless present tense.

With you
(παρ υμινpar' humin). “By your side,” “at home with you,” not merely “with you” (μετ υμωνmeth' humōn) “in the midst of you.”

In you
(εν υμινen humin). In your hearts. So note μεταmeta (John 14:16), παρα ενpara class="translit"> en f0).


Verse 18

I will not leave (ουκ απησωouk aphēsō). Future active of απιημιaphiēmi to send away, to leave behind.

Desolate (ορπανουςorphanous). Old word (ορποςorphos Latin orbus), bereft of parents, and of parents bereft of children. Common in papyri of orphan children. In John 13:33 Jesus called the disciples τεκνιαteknia (little children), and so naturally the word means “orphans” here, but the meaning may be “helpless” (without the other Paraclete, the Holy Spirit). The only other N.T. example is in James 1:27 where it means “fatherless.”

I come
(ερχομαιerchomai). Futuristic present as in John 14:3.


Verse 19

But ye behold me (υμεις δε τεωρειτε μεhumeis de theōreite me). Emphatic position of υμειςhumeis (ye) in contrast to the blind, unseeing world. Cf. John 13:33; John 16:10, John 16:16.

Because I live, ye shall live also (οτι εγω ζω και υμεις ζησετεhoti egō zō kai humeis zēsete). This is our blessed guarantee of immortal, eternal life, the continued living of Jesus. He is the surety of a better covenant (Hebrews 7:22), the Risen Christ Jesus. He had said it before (John 6:57).


Verse 20

In that day (εν εκεινηι τηι ημεραιen ekeinēi tēi hēmerāi). The New Dispensation of the Holy Spirit, beginning with Christ‘s Resurrection and the Coming of the Holy Spirit at pentecost.

Shall know (γνωσεστεgnōsesthe). Future middle of γινωσκωginōskō Chapter 1 to chapter 3 of Acts bear eloquent witness to these words.


Verse 21

He it is that loveth me (εκεινος εστιν ο αγαπων μεekeinos estin ho agapōn me). Emphatic demonstrative pronoun εκεινοςekeinos “that is the one who loves me.”

And will manifest myself unto him (και εμπανισω αυτωι εμαυτονkai emphanisō autōi emauton). Future active of εμπανιζωemphanizō old verb from εμπανηςemphanēs (Acts 10:40; Romans 10:20). The Unseen and Risen Christ will be a real and spiritual Presence to the obedient and loving believer.


Verse 22

Not Iscariot (ουχ ο Ισκαριωτηςouch ho Iskariōtēs). Judas Iscariot had gone (John 13:30), but John is anxious to make it clear that this Judas (common name, two apostles also named James) was not the infamous traitor. He is also called Thaddaeus or Lebbaeus (Mark 3:17; Matthew 10:3) and the brother (or son) of James (Luke 6:16; Acts 1:13). This is the fourth interruption of the talk of Jesus (by Peter, John 13:36; by Thomas, John 14:5; by Philip, John 14:8; by Judas, John 14:22).

And not to the world (και ουχι τωι κοσμωιkai ouchi tōi kosmōi). Judas caught at the word εμπανιζωemphanizō in John 14:21 as perhaps a Messianic theophany visible to all the world as at the judgment (John 5:27.). He seems to suspect a change of plan on the part of Jesus (τι γεγονεν οτιti gegonen hoti = how has it happened that).


Verse 23

If a man love me (εαν τις αγαπαι μεean tis agapāi me). Condition of third class with εανean and present active subjunctive, “if one keep on loving me.” That is key to the spiritual manifestation (εμπανιζωemphanizō).

We will come (ελευσομεταeleusometha). Future middle of ερχομαιerchomai and first person plural (the Father and I), not at the judgment, but here and now.

And make our abode with him
(και μονην παρ αυτωι ποιησομεταkai monēn par' autōi poiēsometha). See John 14:2 for the word μονηmonē (dwelling, abiding place). If the Holy Spirit “abides” (μενειmenei John 14:17) in you, that heart becomes a temple (ναοςnaos) of the Holy Spirit (1 Corinthians 3:16.), and so a fit dwelling place for the Father and the Son, a glorious and uplifting reality.


Verse 24

He that loveth me not (ο μη αγαπων μεho mē agapōn me). Present active articular participle of αγαπαωagapaō with negative μηmē “the one who keeps on not loving me.”

Is not mine, but the Father‘s (ουκ εστιν εμοσ αλλα του πατροςouk estin emos class="normal greek">εμος — alla tou patros). Predicative possessive pronoun πατροςemos and the predicate genitive of possession patros f0).


Verse 25

Have I spoken (λελαληκαlelalēka). Perfect active indicative of λαλεωlaleō for permanent keeping (τηρεωtēreō John 14:23).

While yet abiding with you (παρ υμιν μενωνpar' humin menōn). Present active participle, no “yet” (ετιeti) in the Greek, “while remaining beside (παρpar') you” before departing for the coming of the other Paraclete.


Verse 26

Whom (οho). Grammatical neuter, but “whom” is correct translation. The Father will send the Holy Spirit (John 14:16; Luke 24:49; Acts 2:33), but so will the Son (John 15:26; John 16:7) as Jesus breathes the Holy Spirit upon the disciples (John 20:22). There is no contradiction in this relation of the Persons in the Trinity (the Procession of the Holy Spirit). Here the Holy Spirit (full title as in Mark 3:29; Matthew 12:32; Luke 12:10) is identified with the Paraclete.

He (εκεινοςekeinos). Emphatic demonstrative pronoun and masculine like παρακλητοςparaklētos

Shall teach you all things
(υμας διδαχει πανταhumas didaxei panta). The Holy Spirit knows “the deep things of God” (1 Corinthians 2:10) and he is our Teacher in the Dispensation of the Holy Spirit of both new truth (John 14:25) and old.

Bring to your remembrance
(υπομνησει υμαςhupomnēsei humas). Future active indicative of υπομιμνησκωhupomimnēskō old verb to remind, to recall, here only in this Gospel (cf. 3 John 1:10; 2 Timothy 2:14) and with two accusatives (person and thing). After pentecost the disciples will be able better to recall and to understand what Jesus had said (how dull they had been at times) and to be open to new revelations from God (cf. Peter at Joppa and Caesarea).


Verse 27

My peace (ειρηνην την εμηνeirēnēn tēn emēn). This is Christ‘s bequest to the disciples before he goes, the μεδη δειλιατωshalom of the orient for greeting and parting, used by Jesus in his appearances after the resurrection (John 20:19, John 20:21, John 20:26) as in 2 John 1:3; 3 John 1:14, but here and in John 16:33 in the sense of spiritual peace such as only Christ can give and which his Incarnation offers to men (Luke 2:14).

Neither let it be fearful (δειλιαωmedē deiliatō). Added to the prohibition in John 14:1, only N.T. example of δειλοςdeiliaō (rare word in Aristotle, in a papyrus of one condemned to death), common in lxx, like palpitating of the heart (from deilos).


Verse 28

I go away, and I come (υπαγω και ερχομαιhupagō kai erchomai), both futuristic presents (John 7:33; John 14:3, John 14:18).

If ye loved me (ει ηγαπατε μεei ēgapāte me). Second-class condition with the imperfect active of αγαπαωagapaō referring to present time, implying that the disciples are not loving Jesus as they should.

Ye would have rejoiced
(εχαρητε ανecharēte an). Second aorist passive indicative of χαιρωchairō with ανan conclusion of second-class condition referring to past time, “Ye would already have rejoiced before this” at Christ‘s going to the Father (John 14:12).

Greater than I
(μειζων μουmeizōn mou). Ablative case μουmou after the comparative μειζωνmeizōn (from positive μεγαςmegas). The filial relation makes this necessary. Not a distinction in nature or essence (cf. John 10:30), but in rank in the Trinity. No Arianism or Unitarianism here. The very explanation here is proof of the deity of the Son (Dods).


Verse 30

The prince of the world (ο του κοσμου αρχωνho tou kosmou archōn). Satan as in John 12:31 which see.


Verse 31

But that the world may know (αλλ ινα γνωι ο κοσμοςall' hina gnōi ho kosmos). Purpose clause with ιναhina and the second aorist active subjunctive of γινωσκωginōskō Elliptical construction (cf. John 9:3; John 13:18; John 15:25). “But I surrendered myself to death,” etc., before ιναhina

Arise, let us go hence (εγειρεστε αγωμεν εντευτενegeiresthe class="normal greek">εγειρω — agōmen enteuthen). Imperative present middle of αγωμενegeirō and the volitive (hortatory) subjunctive agōmen (the word used in John 11:7, John 11:16) of going to meet death. Apparently the group arose and walked out into the night and the rest of the talk (chs. 15 and 16) and prayer (ch. 17) was in the shadows on the way to Gethsemane.

 


Copyright Statement
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on John 14:4". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/john-14.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Lectionary Calendar
Saturday, October 19th, 2019
the Week of Proper 23 / Ordinary 28
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