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Bible Commentaries

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament
Luke 7

 

 

Verse 1

After (επειδη επει ανδ δηepeidē επει δηepei and dē). This conjunction was written επειepei dē in Homer and is simple δηepei with the intensive επει δη περdē added and even επειδηepei dē per once in N.T. (Luke 1:1). This is the only instance of the temporal use of επειepeidē in the N.T. The causal sense occurs only in Luke and Paul, for επληρωσενepei is the correct text in Matthew 21:46.

Had ended (εις τας ακοας του λαουeplērōsen). First aorist active indicative. There is here a reference to the conclusion of the Sermon on the Mount, but with nothing concerning the impression produced by the discourse such as is seen in Matthew 7:28. This verse really belongs as the conclusion of Chapter 6, not as the beginning of Chapter 7.

In the ears of the people (Ακοηeis tas akoas tou laou). ακουωAkoē from akouō to hear, is used of the sense of hearing (1 Corinthians 12:17), the ear with which one hears (Mark 7:35; Hebrews 5:11), the thing heard or the report (Romans 10:16) or oral instruction (Galatians 3:2, Galatians 3:5). Both Matthew 8:5-13; Luke 7:1-10 locate the healing of the centurion‘s servant in Capernaum where Jesus was after the Sermon on the Mount.


Verse 2

Centurion‘s servant (εκατονταρχου τινος δουλοςHekatontarchou tinos doulos). Slave of a certain centurion (Latin word centurio, commander of a century or hundred). Mark 15:39, Mark 15:44 has the Latin word in Greek letters, χεντυριοkenturiōn The centurion commanded a company which varied from fifty to a hundred. Each cohort had six centuries. Each legion had ten cohorts or bands (Acts 10:1). The centurions mentioned in the N.T. all seem to be fine men as Polybius states that the best men in the army had this position. See also Luke 23:47. The Greek has two forms of the word, both from κεντυριωνhekaton hundred, and εκατονarchō to rule, and they appear to be used interchangeably. So we have αρχωhekatontarchos here, the form is -εκατονταρχοςarchos and αρχοςhekatontarchēs the form is -εκατονταρχηςarchēs in Luke 7:6. The manuscripts differ about it in almost every instance. The -αρχηςarchos form is accepted by Westcott and Hort only in the nominative save the genitive singular here in Luke 7:2 and the accusative singular in Acts 22:25. See like variation between them in Matthew 8:5, Matthew 8:8 (-αρχοςarchos) and Matthew 8:13 (αρχοςarchēi). So also -αρχηιarchon (Acts 22:25) and -αρχονarchēs (Acts 22:26).

Dear to him (αρχηςautōi entimos). Held in honour, prized, precious, dear (Luke 14:8; 1 Peter 2:4; Philemon 2:29), common Greek word. Even though a slave he was dear to him.

Was sick (αυτωι εντιμοςkakōs echōn). Having it bad. Common idiom. See note on Matthew 4:24; Matthew 8:16; Mark 2:17; Luke 5:31, etc. Matthew 8:6 notes that the slave was a paralytic.

And at the point of death (κακως εχωνēmellen teleutāin). Imperfect active of ημελλεν τελευταινmellō (note double augment μελλω) which is used either with the present infinitive as here, the aorist (Revelation 3:16), or even the future because of the future idea in ηmellō (Acts 11:28; Acts 24:15). He was about to die.


Verse 3

Sent unto him elders of the Jews (απεστειλεν προς αυτον πρεσβουτερους των Ιουδαιωνapesteilen pros auton presbouterous tōn Ioudaiōn). Matthew 8:5 says “the centurion came unto him.” For discussion of this famous case of apparent discrepancy see note on Matthew 8:7. One possible solution is that Luke tells the story as it happened with the details, whereas Matthew simply presents a summary statement without the details. What one does through another he does himself.

Asking him (ερωτων αυτονerōtōn auton). Present active participle, masculine singular nominative, of the verb ερωταωerōtaō common for asking a question as in the old Greek (Luke 22:68). But more frequently in the N.T. the verb has the idea of making a request as here. This is not a Hebraism or an Aramaism, but is a common meaning of the verb in the papyri (Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, p. 168). It is to be noted here that Luke represents the centurion himself as “asking” through the elders of the Jews (leading citizens). In Matthew 8:6 the verb is παρακαλωνparakalōn (beseeching).

That he would come and save (οπως ελτων διασωσηιhopōs elthōn diasōsēi). ιναHina is the more common final or sub-final (as here) conjunction, but οπωςhopōs still occurs. ΔιασωσηιDiasōsēi is effective aorist active subjunctive, to bring safe through as in a storm (Acts 28:1, Acts 28:4). Common word.


Verse 4

Besought (παρεκαλουνparekaloun). Imperfect active, began and kept on beseeching. This is the same verb used by Matthew in Matthew 8:5 of the centurion himself.

Earnestly (σπουδαιωςspoudaiōs). From σπουδηspoudē haste. So eagerly, earnestly, zealously, for time was short.

That thou shouldst do this for him (ωι παρεχηι τουτοhōi parexēi touto). Second future middle singular of παρεχωparechō Old and common verb, furnish on thy part. ωιHōi is relative in dative case almost with notion of contemplated result (Robertson, Grammar, p. 961).


Verse 5

For (γαρgar). This clause gives the reason why the elders of the Jews consider him “worthy” (αχιοςaxios drawing down the scale, αχιςaxis αγοago). He was hardly a proselyte, but was a Roman who had shown his love for the Jews.

Himself (αυτοςautos). All by himself and at his own expense.

Us (ημινhēmin). Dative case, for us.

It is held by some archaeologists that the black basalt ruins in Tell Hum are the remains of the very synagogue (την συναγωγηνtēn sunagōgēn). Literally, the synagogue, the one which we have, the one for us.


Verse 6

Went with them (επορευετο συν αυτοιςeporeueto sun autois). Imperfect indicative middle. He started to go along with them.

Now (ηδηēdē). Already like Latin jam. In 1 Corinthians 4:8 νυν ηδηnun ēdē like jam nunc.

Sent friends (επεμπσεν πιλουςepempsen philous). This second embassy also, wanting in Matthew‘s narrative. He “puts the message of both into the mouth of the centurion himself” (Plummer). Note saying (λεγωνlegōn), present active singular participle, followed by direct quotation from the centurion himself.

Trouble not thyself (Μη σκυλλουMē skullou). Present middle (direct use) imperative of σκυλλωskullō old verb originally meaning to skin, to mangle, and then in later Greek to vex, trouble, annoy. Frequent in the papyri in this latter sense.

For I am not worthy that (ου γαρ ικανος ειμι ιναou gar hikanos eimi hina). The same word ικανοςhikanos not αχιοςaxios as in Matthew 8:8, which see, from ικω ικανωhikō ιναhikanō to fit, to reach, be adequate for. στεγηνHina in both places as common in late Greek.

See note on Mark 2:4 for “roof” (stegēn covering).


Verse 7

Wherefore neither thought I myself worthy to come unto thee (διο ουδε εμαυτον ηχιωσα προς σε ελτεινdio oude emauton ēxiōsa pros se elthein). Not in Matthew because he represents the centurion as coming to Jesus.

Speak the word (ειπε λογωιeipe logōi). As in Matthew 8:8. Second aorist active imperative with instrumental case, speak with a word.

My servant shall be healed (ιατητω ο παις μουiathētō ho pais mou). Imperative first aorist passive, let be healed. ΠαιςPais literally means “boy,” an affectionate term for the “slave,” δουλοςdoulos (Luke 7:2), who was “dear” to him.


Verse 8

“Set”(τασσομενοςtassomenos). Genuine here, though doubtful in Matthew 8:9 where see note on this vivid and characteristic speech of the centurion.


Verse 9

Turned (στραπειςstrapheis). Second aorist passive participle of στρεπωstrephō to turn. Common verb. A vivid touch not in Matthew‘s account. In both Matthew and Luke Jesus marvels at the great faith of this Roman centurion beyond that among the Jews. As a military man he had learned how to receive orders and to execute them and hence to expect obedience to his commands, He recognized Jesus as Master over disease with power to compel obedience.


Verse 10

Whole (υγιαινονταhugiainonta). Sound, well. See note on Luke 5:31.


Verse 11

Soon afterwards (εν τοι εχηςen toi hexēs). According to this reading supply χρονωιchronōi time. Other MSS. read τηι εχηςtēi hexēs (supply ημεραιhēmerāi day). εχηςHexēs occurs in Luke and Acts in the N.T. though old adverb of time.

That (οτιHoti). Not in the Greek, the two verbs εγενετοegeneto and επορευτηeporeuthē having no connective (asyndeton).

Went with him (συνεπορευοντο αυτωιsuneporeuonto autōi). Imperfect middle picturing the procession of disciples and the crowd with Jesus. Nain is not mentioned elsewhere in the N.T. There is today a hamlet about two miles west of Endor on the north slope of Little Hermon. There is a burying-place still in use. Robinson and Stanley think that the very road on which the crowd with Jesus met the funeral procession can be identified.


Verse 12

Behold (και ιδουkai idou). The καιkai introduces the apodosis of the temporal sentence and has to be left out in translations. It is a common idiom in Luke, και ιδουkai idou was carried out (εχεκομιζετοexekomizeto). Imperfect passive indicative. Common verb in late Greek for carrying out a body for burial, though here only in the N.T. (εκκομιζωekkomizō). Rock tombs outside of the village exist there today.

One that was dead (τετνηκωςtethnēkōs). Perfect active participle of τνησκωthnēskō to die.

The only son of his mother (μονογενης υιος τηι μητρι αυτοmonogenēs huios tēi mētri autoū). Only begotten son to his mother (dative case). The compound adjective μονογενηςmonogenēs (μονοςmonos and γενοςgenos) is common in the old Greek and occurs in the N.T. about Jesus (John 3:16, John 3:18). The “death of a widow‘s only son was the greatest misfortune conceivable” (Easton).

And she was a widow (και αυτη ην χηραkai autē ēn chēra). This word χηραchēra gives the finishing touch to the pathos of the situation. The word is from χηροςchēros bereft. The mourning of a widow for an only son is the extremity of grief (Plummer).

Much people (οχλος ικανοςochlos hikanos). Considerable crowd as often with this adjective ικανοςhikanos Some were hired mourners, but the size of the crowd showed the real sympathy of the town for her.


Verse 13

The Lord saw her (ιδων αυτην ο κυριοςidōn autēn ho kurios). The Lord of Life confronts death (Plummer) and Luke may use ΚυριοςKurios here purposely.

Had compassion (εσπλαγχτηesplagchthē). First aorist (ingressive) passive indicative of σπλαγχνιζομαιsplagchnizomai Often love and pity are mentioned as the motives for Christ‘s miracles (Matthew 14:14; Matthew 15:32, etc.). It is confined to the Synoptics in the N.T. and about Christ save in the parables by Christ.

Weep not (μη κλαιεmē klaie). Present imperative in a prohibition. Cease weeping.


Verse 14

Touched the bier (ηπσατο του σορουhēpsato tou sorou). An urn for the bones or ashes of the dead in Homer, then the coffin (Genesis 5:26), then the funeral couch or bier as here. Only here in the N.T. Jesus touched the bier to make the bearers stop, which they did (stood still, εστησανestēsan), second aorist active indicative of ιστημιhistēmi f0).


Verse 15

Sat up (ανεκατισενanekathisen). First aorist active indicative. The verb in the N.T. only here and Acts 9:40. Medical writers often used it of the sick sitting up in bed (Hobart, Med. Lang. of St. Luke, p. 11). It is objected that the symmetry of these cases (daughter of Jairus raised from the death-bed, this widow‘s son raised from the bier, Lazarus raised from the tomb) is suspicious, but no one Gospel gives all three (Plummer).

Gave him to his mother (εδωκεν αυτον τηι μητρι αυτουedōken auton tēi mētri autou). Tender way of putting it. “For he had already ceased to belong to his mother” (Bengel). So in Luke 9:42.


Verse 16

Fear seized all (ελαβεν δε ποβος πανταςelaben de phobos pantas). Aorist active indicative. At once.

They glorified God (εδοχαζον τον τεονedoxazon ton theon). Imperfect active, inchoative, began and increased.


Verse 17

This report (ο λογος ουτοςho logos houtos). That God had raised up a great prophet who had shown his call by raising the dead.


Verse 18

And the disciples of John told him (και απηγγειλαν Ιωανηι οι ματηται αυτουkai apēggeilan Iōanēi hoi mathētai autou). Literally, and his disciples announced to John. Such news (Luke 7:17) was bound to come to the ears of the Baptist languishing in the dungeon of Machaerus (Luke 3:20). Luke 7:18-35 runs parallel with Matthew 11:2-19, a specimen of Q, the non-Marcan portion of Matthew and Luke.


Verse 19

Calling unto him (προσκαλεσαμενοςproskalesamenos). First aorist middle (indirect) participle.

Two (δυο τιναςduo tinas). Certain two. Not in Matthew 11:2.

Saying (λεγωνlegōn). John saying by the two messengers. The message is given precisely alike in Matthew 11:3, which see note. In both we have ετερονheteron for “another,” either a second or a different kind. In Luke 7:20 Westcott and Hort read αλλονallon in the text, ετερονheteron in the margin. ΠροσδοκωμενProsdokōmen may be present indicative or present subjunctive (deliberative), the same contract form (αο ω αω ωao = aō ō).


Verse 21

In that hour he cured (εν εκεινηι τηι οραι ετεραπευσενen ekeinēi tēi horāi etherapeusen). This item is not in Matthew. Jesus gave the two disciples of John an example of the direct method. They had heard. Then they saw for themselves.

Diseases (νοσωνnosōn), plagues (μαστιγωνmastigōn), evil spirits (πνευματων πονηρωνpneumatōn ponērōn), all kinds of bodily ills, and he singles out the blind (τυπλοιςtuphlois) to whom in particular he bestowed sight (εχαριζατο βλεπεινecharizato blepein), gave as a free gift (from χαριςcharis grace) seeing (βλεπεινblepein).


Verse 22

What things ye have seen and heard (α ειδετε και ηκουσατεha eidete kai ēkousate). In Matthew 11:4, present tense “which ye do hear and see.” Rest of Luke 7:22, Luke 7:23 as in Matthew 11:4-6, which see notes for details. Luke mentions no raisings from the dead in Luke 7:21, but the language is mainly general, while here it is specific. ΣκανδαλιζομαιSkandalizomai used here has the double notion of to trip up and to entrap and in the N.T. always means causing to sin.


Verse 24

When the messengers of John were departed (απελτοντων των αγγελων Ιωανουapelthontōn tōn aggelōn Iōanou). Genitive absolute of aorist active participle. Matthew 11:7 has the present middle participle πορευομενωνporeuomenōn suggesting that Jesus began his eulogy of John as soon as the messengers (angels, Luke calls them) were on their way. The vivid questions about the people‘s interest in John are precisely alike in both Matthew and Luke.


Verse 25

Gorgeously apparelled (εν ιματισμωι ενδοχωιen himatismōi endoxōi). In splendid clothing. Here alone in this sense in the N.T.

And live delicately (τρυπηιtruphēi). From τρυπτωthruptō to break down, to enervate, an old word for luxurious living. See the verb τρυπαωtruphaō in James 5:5.

In kings‘ courts (εν τοις βασιλειοιςen tois basileiois). Only here in the N.T. Matthew 11:8 has it “in kings‘ houses.” Luke 7:26, Luke 7:27 are precisely alike in Matthew 11:9, Matthew 11:10. See note on Matthew 11:9 for discussion.


Verse 26

A prophet? (προπητηνprophētēṉ). A real prophet will always get a hearing if he has a message from God. He is a for-speaker, forth-teller (προπητηςpro -phētēs). He may or may not be a fore-teller. The main thing is for the prophet to have a message from God which he is willing to tell at whatever cost to himself. The word of God came to John in the wilderness of Judea (Luke 3:2). That made him a prophet. There is a prophetic element in every real preacher of the Gospel. Real prophets become leaders and moulders of men.


Verse 28

There is none (ουδεις εστινoudeis estin). No one exists, this means. Matthew 11:11 has ουκ εγηγερταιouk egēgertai (hath not arisen). See note on Matthew 11:11 for discussion of “but little” and “greater.”


Verse 29

Justified God (εδικαιωσαν τον τεονedikaiōsan ton theon). They considered God just or righteous in making these demands of them. Even the publicans did. They submitted to the baptism of John (βαπτιστεντες το βαπτισμα του Ιωανουbaptisthentes to baptisma tou Iōanou First aorist passive participle with the cognate accusative retained in the passive. Some writers consider Luke 7:29, Luke 7:30 a comment of Luke in the midst of the eulogy of John by Jesus. This would be a remarkable thing for so long a comment to be interjected. It is perfectly proper as the saying of Jesus.


Verse 30

Rejected for themselves (ητετησαν εις εαυτουςēthetēsan eis heautous). The first aorist active of ατετεωatheteō first seen in lxx and Polybius. Occurs in the papyri. These legalistic interpreters of the law refused to admit the need of confession of sin on their part and so set aside the baptism of John. They annulled God‘s purposes of grace so far as they applied to them.

Being not baptized by him (μη βαπτιστεντες υπ αυτουmē baptisthentes hup' autou). First aorist passive participle. ΜηMē is the usual negative of the participle in the Koiné.


Verse 31

And to what are they like? (και τινι εισιν ομοιοιkai tini eisin homoioi̱). This second question is not in Matthew 11:16. It sharpens the point. The case of τινιtini is associative instrumental after ομοιοιhomoioi See note on details in Matthew 11:17.


Verse 32

And ye did not weep (και ουκ εκλαυσατεkai ouk eklausate). Here Matthew 1:17 has “and ye did not mourn (or beat your breast, ουκ εκοπσαστεouk ekopsasthe). They all did it at funerals. These children would not play wedding or funeral.


Verse 33

John the Baptist is come (εληλυτενelēluthen). Second perfect active indicative where Matthew 11:18 has ηλτενēlthen second aorist active indicative. So as to Luke 7:34. Luke alone has “bread” and “wine.” Otherwise these verses like Matthew 11:18, Matthew 11:19. See note on Matthew 11:19 for discussion of details. There are actually critics today who say that Jesus was called the friend of sinners and even of harlots because he loved them and their ways and so deserved the slur cast upon him by his enemies. If men can say that today we need not wonder that the Pharisees and lawyers said it then to justify their own rejection of Jesus.


Verse 35

Of all her children (απο παντων των τεκνων αυτηςapo pantōn tōn teknōn autēs). Here Matthew 11:19 has “by her works” (απο των εργων αυτηςapo tōn ergōn autēs). Aleph has εργωνergōn here. The use of “children” personifies wisdom as in Proverbs 8; 9.


Verse 36

That he would eat with him (ινα παγηι μετ αυτουhina phagēi met' autou). Second aorist active subjunctive. The use of ιναhina after ερωταωerōtaō (see also Luke 16:27) is on the border between the pure object clause and the indirect question (Robertson, Grammar, p. 1046) and the pure final clause. Luke has two other instances of Pharisees who invited Jesus to meals (Luke 11:37; Luke 14:1) and he alone gives them. This is the Gospel of Hospitality (Ragg). Jesus would dine with a Pharisee or with a publican (Luke 5:29; Mark 2:15; Matthew 9:10) and even invited himself to be the guest of Zaccheus (Luke 9:5). This Pharisee was not as hostile as the leaders in Jerusalem. It is not necessary to think this Pharisee had any sinister motive in his invitation though he was not overly friendly (Plummer).


Verse 37

A woman which was in the city, a sinner (γυνη ητις εν τηι πολει αμαρτωλοςgunē hētis en tēi polei hamartōlos). Probably in Capernaum. The use of ητιςhētis means “Who was of such a character as to be” (cf. Luke 8:3) and so more than merely the relative ηhē who, that is, “who was a sinner in the city,” a woman of the town, in other words, and known to be such. αμαρτωλοςHamartōlos from αμαρτανωhamartanō to sin, means devoted to sin and uses the same form for feminine and masculine. It is false and unjust to Mary Magdalene, introduced as a new character in Luke 8:2, to identify this woman with her. Luke would have no motive in concealing her name here and the life of a courtesan would be incompatible with the sevenfold possession of demons. Still worse is it to identify this courtesan not only with Mary Magdalene, but also with Mary of Bethany simply because it is a Simon who gives there a feast to Jesus when Mary of Bethany does a beautiful deed somewhat like this one here (Mark 14:3-9; Matthew 26:6-13; John 12:2-8). Certainly Luke knew full well the real character of Mary of Bethany (Luke 10:38-42) so beautifully pictured by him. But a falsehood, once started, seems to have more lives than the cat‘s proverbial nine. The very name Magdalene has come to mean a repentant courtesan. But we can at least refuse to countenance such a slander on Mary Magdalene and on Mary of Bethany. This sinful woman had undoubtedly repented and changed her life and wished to show her gratitude to Jesus who had rescued her. Her bad reputation as a harlot clung to her and made her an unwelcome visitor in the Pharisee‘s house.

When she knew (επιγνουσαepignousa). Second aorist active participle from επιγινωσκωepiginōskō to know fully, to recognize. She came in by a curious custom of the time that allowed strangers to enter a house uninvited at a feast, especially beggars seeking a gift. This woman was an intruder whereas Mary of Bethany was an invited guest. “Many came in and took their places on the side seats, uninvited and yet unchallenged. They spoke to those at table on business or the news of the day, and our host spoke freely to them” (Trench in his Parables, describing a dinner at a Consul‘s house at Damietta).

He was sitting at meat (κατακειταιkatakeitai). Literally, he is reclining (present tense retained in indirect discourse in Greek).

An alabaster cruse of ointment (αλαβαστρον μυρουalabastron murou). See note on Matthew 26:7 for discussion of alabastron and murou f0).


Verse 38

Standing behind at his feet (στασα οπισω παρα τους ποδας αυτουstāsa opisō para tous podas autou). Second aorist active participle from ιστημιhistēmi and intransitive, first aorist εστησαestēsa being transitive. The guest removed his sandals before the meal and he reclined on the left side with the feet outward. She was standing beside (παραpara) his feet weeping (κλαιουσαklaiousa). She was drawn irresistibly by gratitude to Jesus and is overcome with emotion before she can use the ointment; her tears (τοις δακρυσινtois dakrusin instrumental case of δακρυdakru) take the place of the ointment.

Wiped them with the hair of her head (ταις τριχιν της κεπαλης αυτης εχεμασσενtais thrixin tēs kephalēs autēs exemassen). Inchoative imperfect of an old verb εκμασσωekmassō to rub out or off, began to wipe off, an act of impulse evidently and of embarrassment. “Among the Jews it was a shameful thing for a woman to let down her hair in public; but she makes this sacrifice” (Plummer). So Mary of Bethany wiped the feet of Jesus with her hair (John 12:3) with a similar sacrifice out of her great love for Jesus. This fact is relied on by some to prove that Mary of Bethany had been a woman of bad character, surely an utter failure to recognize Mary‘s motive and act.

Kissed (κατεπιλειkatephilei). Imperfect active of καταπιλεωkataphileō to kiss repeatedly (force of καταkata), and accented by the tense of continued action here. The word in the N.T. occurs here, of the prodigal‘s father (Luke 15:20), of the kiss of Judas (Mark 14:45; Matthew 26:49), of the Ephesians esian elders (Acts 20:37). “ Kissing the feet was a common mark of deep reverence, especially to leading rabbis” (Plummer).

Anointed them with the ointment (ηλειπεν τωι μυρωιēleiphen tōi murōi). Imperfect active again of αλειπωaleiphō a very common verb. ΧριωChriō has a more religious sense. The anointing came after the burst of emotional excitement.


Verse 39

This man (ουτοςhoutos). Contemptuous, this fellow.

If he were a (the) prophet (ει ην ο προπητηςei ēn [εγινωσκεν ανho ] ανprophētēs). Condition of the second class, determined as unfulfilled. The Pharisee assumes that Jesus is not a prophet (or the prophet, reading of B, that he claims to be). A Greek condition puts the thing from the standpoint of the speaker or writer. It does not deal with the actual facts, but only with the statement about the facts.

Would have perceived (τις και ποταπη η γυνηeginōsken an). Wrong translation, would now perceive or know (which he assumes that Jesus does not do). The protasis is false and the conclusion also. He is wrong in both. The conclusion (apodosis), like the condition, deals here with the present situation and so both use the imperfect indicative (an in the conclusion, a mere device for making it plain that it is not a condition of the first class).

Who and what manner of woman (tis kai potapē hē gunē). She was notorious in person and character.


Verse 40

Answering (αποκριτειςapokritheis). First aorist passive participle, redundant use with ειπενeipen Jesus answers the thoughts and doubts of Simon and so shows that he knows all about the woman also. Godet notes a tone of Socratic irony here.


Verse 41

A certain lender (δανιστηι τινιdanistēi tini). A lender of money with interest. Here alone in the N.T. though a common word.

Debtors (χρεοπιλεταιchreophiletai). From χρεωchreō (debt, obligation) and οπειλωopheilō to owe. Only here and Luke 16:5 in the N.T., though common in late Greek writers.

Owed (ωπειλενōpheilen). Imperfect active and so unpaid. Five hundred δηναριαdēnaria and fifty like two hundred and fifty dollars and twenty-five dollars.


Verse 42

Will love him most (πλειον αγαπησει αυτονpleion agapēsei auton). Strictly, comparative more, πλειονpleion not superlative πλεισταpleista but most suits the English idiom best, even between two. Superlative forms are vanishing before the comparative in the Koiné. This is the point of the parable, the attitude of the two debtors toward the lender who forgave both of them (Plummer).


Verse 43

I suppose (υπολαμβανωhupolambanō). Old verb, originally to take up from under, to bear away as on high, to take up in speech (Luke 10:30), to take up in mind or to assume as here and Acts 2:15. Here with an air of supercilious indifference (Plummer).

The most (το πλειονto pleion). The more.

Rightly (ορτωςorthōs). Correctly. Socrates was fond of πανυ ορτωςpanu orthōs The end of the argument.


Verse 44

Turning (στραπειςstrapheis). Second aorist passive participle.

Seest thou (βλεπειςblepeis). For the first time Jesus looks at the woman and he asks the Pharisee to look at her. She was behind Jesus. Jesus was an invited guest. The Pharisee had neglected some points of customary hospitality. The contrasts here made have the rhythm of Hebrew poetry. In each contrast the first word is the point of defect in Simon: water (Luke 7:44), kiss (Luke 7:45), oil (Luke 7:46).


Verse 45

Hath not ceased to kiss (ου διελιπεν καταπιλουσαou dielipen kataphilousa). Supplementary participle.


Verse 46

With ointment (μυρωιmurōi). Instrumental case. She used the costly ointment even for the feet of Jesus.


Verse 47

Are forgiven (απεωνταιapheōntai). Doric perfect passive form. See Luke 5:21, Luke 5:23.

For she loved much (οτι ηγαπησεν πολυhoti ēgapēsen polu). Illustration or proof, not reason for the forgiveness. Her sins had been already forgiven and remained forgiven.

But to whom little is forgiven, the same loveth little (ωι δε ολιγον απιεται ολιγον αγαπαιHōi de oligon aphietai oligon agapāi). This explanation proves that the meaning of οτιhoti preceding is proof, not cause.


Verse 48

Are forgiven (απεωνταιapheōntai). As in Luke 7:47. Remain forgiven, Jesus means, in spite of the slur of the Pharisee.


Verse 49

Who even forgiveth sins (ος και αμαρτιας απιησινhos kai hamartias aphiēsin). Present indicative active of same verb, απιημιaphiēmi Once before the Pharisees considered Jesus guilty of blasphemy in claiming the power to forgive sins (Luke 5:21). Jesus read their inmost thoughts as he always does.

 


Copyright Statement
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Luke 7:4". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/luke-7.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

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Sunday, December 15th, 2019
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