Bible Commentaries

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Luke 8

Verse 1

Soon afterwards (εν τωι κατεχηςen tōi kathexēs). In Luke 7:11 we have εν τωι εχηςen tōi hexēs This word means one after the other, successively, but that gives no definite data as to the time, only that this incident in Luke 8:1-3 follows that in Luke 7:36-50. Both in Luke alone.

That (καιkai). One of Luke‘s idioms with και εγενετοkai egeneto like Hebrew διωδευενwav Went about (διοδευωdiōdeuen). Imperfect active of δια οδοςdiodeuō to make one‘s way through (κατα πολιν και κωμηνdia καταhodos), common in late Greek writers. In the N.T. here only and Acts 17:1.

Through cities and villages (διωδευενkata polin kai kōmēn). Distributive use of κηρυσσωνkata (up and down). The clause is amphibolous and goes equally well with και ευαγγελιζομενοςdiōdeuen or with kērussōn (heralding) kai euaggelizomenos (evangelizing, gospelizing). This is the second tour of Galilee, this time the Twelve with him.

Verse 2

Which had been healed (αι ησαν τετεραπευμεναιhai ēsan tetherapeumenai). Periphrastic past perfect passive, suggesting that the healing had taken place some time before this tour. These women all had personal grounds of gratitude to Jesus.

From whom seven devils (demons) had gone out (απ ης δαιμονια επτα εχεληλυτειaph' hēs daimonia hepta exelēluthei). Past perfect active third singular for the δαιμονιαdaimonia are neuter plural. This first mention of Mary Magdalene describes her special cause of gratitude. This fact is stated also in Mark 16:9 in the disputed close of the Gospel. The presence of seven demons in one person indicates special malignity (Mark 5:9). See Matthew 12:45 for the parable of the demon who came back with seven other demons worse than the first. It is not known where Magdala was, whence Mary came.

Verse 3

Joanna (ΙωαναIōana). Her husband ΧυζαChuzā steward (επιτροπουepitropou) of Herod, is held by some to be the nobleman (βασιλικοςbasilikos) of John 4:46-53 who believed and all his house. At any rate Christ had a follower from the household of Herod Antipas who had such curiosity to see and hear him. One may recall also Manaen (Acts 13:1), Herod‘s foster brother. Joanna is mentioned again with Mary Magdalene in Luke 24:10.

Who ministered unto them (αιτινες διηκονουν αυτοιςhaitines diēkonoun autois). Imperfect active of διακονεωdiakoneō common verb, but note augment as if from διαdia and ακονεωakoneō but from διακονοςdiakonos and that from διαdia and κονιςkonis (dust). The very fact that Jesus now had twelve men going with him called for help from others and the women of means responded to the demand.

Of their substance (εκ των υπαρχοντων αυταιςek tōn huparchontōn autais). From the things belonging to them. This is the first woman‘s missionary society for the support of missionaries of the Gospel. They had difficulties in their way, but they overcame these, so great was their gratitude and zeal.

Verse 4

By a parable (δια παραβοληςdia parabolēs). Mark 4:2 says “in parables” as does Matthew 13:3. This is the beginning of the first great group of parables as given in Mark 4:1-34 and Matthew 13:1-53. There are ten of these parables in Mark and Matthew and only two in Luke 8:4-18 (The Sower and the Lamp, Luke 8:16) though Luke also has the expression “in parables” (Luke 8:10). See notes on Matthew 13 and notes on Mark 4 for discussion of the word parable and the details of the Parable of the Sower. Luke does not locate the place, but he mentions the great crowds on hand, while both Mark and Matthew name the seaside as the place where Jesus was at the start of the series of parables.

Verse 5

His seed (τον σπορον αυτουton sporon autou). Peculiar to Luke.

Was trodden under foot (κατεπατητηkatepatēthē). First aorist passive indicative of καταπατεωkatapateō Peculiar to Luke here.

Of the heavens (του ουρανουtou ouranou). Added in Luke.

Verse 6

Upon the rock (επι την πετρανepi tēn petran). Mark 4:5 “the rocky ground” (επι το πετρωδεςepi to petrōdes), Matthew 13:5 “the rocky places.

As soon as it grew (πυενphuen). Second aorist passive participle of πυωphuō an old verb to spring up like a sprout.

Withered away (εχηραντηexēranthē). First aorist passive indicative of ζηραινωzērainō old verb, to dry up.

Moisture (ικμαδαikmada). Here only in the N.T., though common word.

Verse 7

Amidst the thorns (εν μεσωι των ακαντωνen mesōi tōn akanthōn). Mark 4:7 has ειςeis (among) and Matthew 13:7 has επιepi “upon.”

Grew with it (συνπυεισαιsunphueisai). Same participle as πυενphuen above with συνsun - (together).

Choked (απεπνιχανapepnixan). From αποπνιγωapopnigō to choke off as in Matthew 13:7. In Mark 4:7 the verb is συνεπνιχανsunepnixan (choked together).

Verse 8

A hundredfold (εκατονπλασιοναhekatonplasiona). Luke omits the thirty and sixty of Mark 4:8; Matthew 13:8.

He cried (επωνειephōnei). Imperfect active, and in a loud voice, the verb means. The warning about hearing with the ears occurs also in Mark 4:9; Matthew 13:9.

Verse 9

Asked (επηρωτωνepērōtōn). Imperfect of επερωταωeperōtaō (επιepi and ερωταωerōtaō) where Mark 4:10 has ηρωτωνērōtōn (uncompounded imperfect), both the tense and the use of επιepi indicate eager and repeated questions on the part of the disciples, perhaps dimly perceiving a possible reflection on their own growth.

What this parable might be (τις αυτη ειη η παραβοληtis hautē eiē hē parabolē). A mistranslation, What this parable was (or meant). The optative ειηeiē is merely due to indirect discourse, changing the indicative εστινestin (is) of the direct question to the optative ειηeiē of the indirect, a change entirely with the writer or speaker and without any change of meaning (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 1043f.).

Verse 10

The mysteries (τα μυστηριαta mustēria). See for this word on Matthew 13:11; Mark 4:11. Part of the mystery here explained is how so many people who have the opportunity to enter the kingdom fail to do so because of manifest unfitness.

That (hina). Here Mark 4:11 also has hina while Matthew 13:13 has ιναhoti (because). On the so-called causal use of ιναhina as here equal to οτιhoti see note on Matthew 13:13 and note on Mark 4:11. Plummer sensibly argues that there is truth both in the causal ιναhoti of Matthew and the final οτιhina of Mark and Matthew. “But the principle that he who hath shall receive more, while he who hath not shall be deprived of what he seemeth to have, explains both the οτιhina and the ιναhoti Jesus speaks in parables because the multitudes see without seeing and hear without hearing. But He also speaks in parable in order that they may see without seeing and hear without hearing.” Only for “hearing” Luke has “understand” ιναsuniōsin present subjunctive from a late omega form οτιsuniō instead of the -συνιωσινmi verb συνιωsuniēmi f0).

Verse 11

Is this (εστιν δε αυτηestin de hautē). Means this. Jesus now proceeds to interpret his own parable.

The seed is the word of God (ο σπορος εστιν ο λογος του τεουho sporos estin ho logos tou theou). The article with both subject and predicate as here means that they are interchangeable and can be turned round: The word of God is the seed. The phrase “the word of God” does not appear in Matthew and only once in Mark (Mark 7:13) and John (John 10:35), but four times in Luke (Luke 5:1; Luke 8:11, Luke 8:21; Luke 11:28) and twelve times in Acts. In Mark 4:14 we have only “the word.” In Mark 3:31 we have “the will of God,” and in Matthew 12:46 “the will of my Father” where Luke 8:21 has “the word of God.” This seems to show that Luke has the subjective genitive here and means the word that comes from God.

Verse 12

Those by the wayside (οι παρα την οδονhoi para tēn hodon). As in Mark 4:15; Matthew 13:19 so here the people who hear the word = the seed are discussed by metonymy.

The devil (ο διαβολοςho diabolos). The slanderer. Here Mark 4:15 has Satan.

From their heart (απο της καρδιας αυτωνapo tēs kardias autōn). Here Mark has “in them.” It is the devil‘s business to snatch up the seed from the heart before it sprouts and takes root. Every preacher knows how successful the devil is with his auditors. Matthew 13:19 has it “sown in the heart.”

That they may not believe and be saved (ινα μη πιστευσαντες σωτωσινhina mē pisteusantes sōthōsin). Peculiar to Luke. Negative purpose with aorist active participle and first aorist (ingressive) passive subjunctive. Many reasons are offered today for the failure of preachers to win souls. Here is the main one, the activity of the devil during and after the preaching of the sermon. No wonder then that the sower must have good seed and sow wisely, for even then he can only win partial success.

Verse 13

Which for a while believe (οι προς καιρον πιστευουσινhoi pros kairon pisteuousin). Ostensibly they are sincere and have made a real start in the life of faith.

They fall away (απιστανταιaphistantai). Present middle indicative. They stand off, lose interest, stop coming to church, drop out of sight. It is positively amazing the number of new church members who “stumble” as Mark 4:17 has it (σκανδαλιζονταιskandalizontai), do not like the pastor, take offence at something said or done by somebody, object to the appeals for money, feel slighted. The “season of trial” becomes a “season of temptation” (εν καιρωι πειρασμουen kairōi peirasmou) for these superficial, emotional people who have to be periodically rounded up if kept within the fold.

Verse 14

They are choked (συνπνιγονταιsunpnigontai). Present passive indicative of this powerfully vivid compound verb συνπνιγωsunpnigō used in Mark 4:19; Matthew 13:22, only there these worldly weeds choke the word while here the victims themselves are choked. Both are true. Diphtheria will choke and strangle the victim. Who has not seen the promise of fair flower and fruit choked into yellow withered stalk without fruit “as they go on their way” (πορευομενοιporeuomenoi).

Bring no fruit to perfection (ου τελεσπορουσινou telesphorousin). Compound verb common in the late writers (τελοσ πορεωtelos phoreō). To bring to completion. Used of fruits, animals, pregnant women. Only here in the N.T.

Verse 15

In an honest and good heart (εν καρδιαι καληι και αγατηιen kardiāi kalēi kai agathēi). Peculiar to Luke. In Luke 8:8 the land (γηνgēn) is called αγατηνagathēn (really good, generous) and in Luke 8:15 we have εν τηι καληι γηιen tēi kalēi gēi (in the beautiful or noble land). So Luke uses both adjectives of the heart. The Greeks used καλος κ αγατοςkalos k' agathos of the high-minded gentleman. It is probable that Luke knew this idiom. It occurs here alone in the N.T. It is not easy to translate. We have such phrases as “good and true,” “sound and good,” “right and good,” no one of which quite suits the Greek. Certainly Luke adds new moral qualities not in the Hellenic phrase. The English word “honest” here is like the Latin honestus (fair, noble). The words are to be connected with “hold fast” (κατεχουσινkatechousin), “hold it down” so that the devil does not snatch it away, having depth of soil so that it does not shrivel up under the sun, and is not choked by weeds and thorns. It bears fruit (καρποπορουσινkarpophorousin an old expressive verb, καρποςkarpos and πορεωphoreō). That is the proof of spiritual life.

In patience (εν υπομονηιen hupomonēi). There is no other way for real fruit to come. Mushrooms spring up overnight, but they are usually poisonous. The best fruits require time, cultivation, patience.

Verse 16

When he hath lighted a lamp (λυχνον απσαςluchnon hapsas). It is a portable lamp (λυχνονluchnon) that one lights (απσαςhapsas aorist active participle of απτωhaptō to kindle, fasten to, light).

With a vessel (σκευειskeuei instrumental case of σκευοςskeuos). Here Mark 4:21 has the more definite figure “under the bushel” as has Matthew 5:15.

Under the bed (υποκατω κλινηςhupokatō klinēs). Here Mark 4:21 has the regular υπο την κλινηνhupo tēn klinēn instead of the late compound υποκατωhupokatō Ragg notes that Matthew distributes the sayings of Jesus given here by Luke 8:16-18; Mark 4:21-25 concerning the parable of the lamp and gives them in three separate places (Matthew 5:15; Matthew 10:26; Matthew 13:12). That is true, but it does not follow that Mark and Luke have bunched together separate sayings or that Matthew has scattered sayings delivered only on one occasion. One of the slowest lessons for some critics to learn is that Jesus repeated favourite sayings on different occasions and in different groupings just as every popular preacher and teacher does today. See note on Mark 4:21 for further discussion of the lamp and stand.

May see the light (Blepōsin to phōs). In Matthew 5:16 Jesus has it “may see your good works.” The purpose of light is to let one see something else, not the light. Note present subjunctive (blepōsin), linear action “Jesus had kindled a light within them. They must not hide it, but must see that it spreads to others” (Plummer). The parable of the lamp throws light on the parable of the sower.

Verse 17

That shall not be known (ο ου μη γνωστηιho ou mē gnōsthēi). Peculiar to Luke. First aorist passive subjunctive of γινωσκωginōskō with the strong double negative ου μηou mē See note on Mark 4:22 for discussion of krupton and apokruphon f0).

Verse 18

How ye hear (πως ακουετεpōs akouete). The manner of hearing. Mark 4:24 has “what ye hear” (τι ακουετεti akouete), the matter that is heard. Both are supremely important. Some things should not be heard at all. Some that are heard should be forgotten. Others should be treasured and practised.

For whosoever hath (ος αν γαρ εχηιHos an gar echēi). Present active subjunctive of the common verb εχωechō which may mean “keep on having” or “acquiring.” See note on Mark 4:25 for discussion.

Thinketh he hath (dokei echein), or seems to acquire or to hold. Losses in business illustrate this saying as when we see their riches take wings and fly away. So it is with hearing and heeding. Self-deception is a common complaint.

Verse 19

His mother and brethren (η μητηρ και οι αδελποι αυτουhē mētēr kai hoi adelphoi autou). Mark 3:31-35; Matthew 12:46-50 place the visit of the mother and brothers of Jesus before the parable of the sower. Usually Luke follows Mark‘s order, but he does not do so here. At first the brothers of Jesus (younger sons of Joseph and Mary, I take the words to mean, there being sisters also) were not unfriendly to the work of Jesus as seen in John 2:12 when they with the mother of Jesus are with him and the small group (half dozen) disciples in Capernaum after the wedding in Cana. But as Jesus went on with his work and was rejected at Nazareth (Luke 4:16-31), there developed an evident disbelief in his claims on the part of the brothers who ridiculed him six months before the end (John 7:5). At this stage they have apparently come with Mary to take Jesus home out of the excitement of the crowds, perhaps thinking that he is beside himself (Mark 3:21). They hardly believed the charge of the rabbis that Jesus was in league with Beelzebub. Certainly the mother of Jesus could give no credence to that slander. But she herself was deeply concerned and wanted to help him if possible. See discussion of the problem in my little book The Mother of Jesus and also on Mark 3:31 and Matthew 12:46.

Come to him (συντυχεινsuntuchein). Second aorist active infinitive of συντυγχανωsuntugchanō an old verb, though here alone in the N.T., meaning to meet with, to fall in with as if accidentally, here with associative instrumental case αυτωιautōi f0).

Verse 20

Was told (απηγγεληapēggelē). Second aorist passive indicative of απαγγελλωapaggellō to bring word or tidings. Common verb. See Mark 3:32 and Matthew 12:47 for details.

Verse 21

These which hear the word of God and do it (οι τον λογον του τεου ακουοντες και ποιουντεςhoi ton logon tou theou akouontes kai poiountes). The absence of the article with “mother” and “brothers” probably means, as Plummer argues, “Mother to me and brothers to me are those who &c.” No one is a child of God because of human parentage (John 1:13). “Family ties are at best temporal; spiritual ties are eternal” (Plummer). Note the use of “hear and do” together here as in Matthew 7:24; Luke 6:47 at the close of the Sermon on the Mount. The parable of the sower is almost like a footnote to that sermon. Later Jesus will make “doing” a test of friendship for him (John 15:14).

Verse 22

And they launched forth (και ανηχτησανkai anēchthēsan). First aorist passive indicative of αναγωanagō an old verb, to lead up, to put out to sea (looked at as going up from the land). This nautical sense of the verb occurs only in Luke in the N.T. and especially in the Acts (Acts 13:13; Acts 16:11; Acts 18:21; Acts 20:3, Acts 20:13; Acts 21:1, Acts 21:2; Acts 27:2, Acts 27:4, Acts 27:12, Acts 27:21; Acts 28:10.).

Verse 23

He fell asleep (απυπνωσενaphupnōsen). First aorist (ingressive) active indicative of απυπνοωaphupnoō to put to sleep, to fall off to sleep, a late verb for which the older Greek used κατυπνοωkathupnoō Originally απυπνοωaphupnoō meant to waken from sleep, then to fall off to sleep (possibly a medical use). This is the only passage which speaks of the sleep of Jesus. Here only in the N.T.

Came down (κατεβηkatebē). Second aorist active indicative of καταβαινωkatabainō common verb. It was literally true. These wind storms (λαιλαπςlailaps So also Mark 4:37) rushed from Hermon down through the Jordan gorge upon the Sea of Galilee and shook it like a tempest (Matthew 8:24). Mark‘s (Mark 4:37) vivid use of the dramatic present γινεταιginetai (ariseth) is not so precise as Luke‘s “came down.” See note on Matthew 8:24. These sudden squalls were dangerous on this small lake.

They were filling (συνεπληρουντοsuneplērounto). Imperfect passive. It was the boat that was being filled (Mark 4:37) and it is here applied to the navigators as sailors sometimes spoke. An old verb, but in the N.T. used only by Luke (Luke 8:23; Luke 9:51; Acts 2:1).

Were in jeopardy (εκινδυνευονekinduneuon). Imperfect active, vivid description. Old verb, but in the N.T. only here, Acts 19:27; 1 Corinthians 15:30.

Verse 24

Master, Master (Επιστατα επισταταEpistata epistata). See note on Luke 5:5 for discussion. Mark 4:38 has Teacher (Didaskale), Matthew 8:25 has Lord (ΔιδασκαλεKurie). The repetition here shows the uneasiness of the disciples.

We perish (Κυριεapollumetha). So in Mark 4:38; Matthew 8:25. Linear present middle indicative, we are perishing.

The raging of the water (απολλυμεταtōi kludoni tou hudatos). τωι κλυδονι του υδατοςKludōn common Greek word, is a boisterous surge, a violent agitation. Here only in the N.T. save James 1:6. ΚλυδωνKuma (Mark 4:37) is the regular swell or wave. A calm (Κυμαgalēnē). Only in the parallels in the N.T., though common word. Here Mark 4:39; Matthew 8:26 add great (γαληνηmegalē).

That (μεγαληhoti). This use of οτιhoti as explanatory of the demonstrative pronoun οτιhoutos occurs in the parallels Mark 4:36; Matthew 8:27 and also in Luke 4:36. It is almost result.

He commandeth (ουτοςepitassei). Peculiar to Luke.

Verse 26

They arrived (κατεπλευσανkatepleusan). First aorist active indicative of καταπλεωkatapleō common verb, but here only in the N.T. Literally, they sailed down from the sea to the land, the opposite of launched forth (ανηχτησανanēchthēsan) of Luke 8:22. So we today use like nautical terms, to bear up, to bear down.

The Gerasenes (τον Γερασηνωνton Gerasēnōn). This is the correct text here as in Mark 5:1 while Gadarenes is correct in Matthew 8:28. See there for explanation of this famous discrepancy, now cleared up by Thomson‘s discovery of Khersa (ΓερσαGersa) on the steep eastern bank and in the vicinity of Gadara.

Over against Galilee (αντιπερα της Γαλιλαιαςantipera tēs Galilaias). Only here in the N.T. The later Greek form is αντιπερανantiperan (Polybius, etc.). Some MSS. here have περανperan like Mark 5:1; Matthew 8:28.

Verse 27

And for a long time (και χρονωι ικανωιkai chronōi hikanōi). The use of the associative instrumental case in expressions of time is a very old Greek idiom that still appears in the papyri (Robertson, Grammar, p. 527).

He had worn no clothes (ουκ ενεδυσατο ιματιονouk enedusato himation). First aorist middle indicative, constative aorist, viewing the “long time” as a point. Not pluperfect as English has it and not for the pluperfect, simply “and for a long time he did not put on himself (indirect middle) any clothing.” The physician would naturally note this item. Common verb ενδυωenduō or ενδυνωendunō This item in Luke alone, though implied by Mark 5:15 “clothed” (ιματισμενονhimatismenon).

And abode not in any house (και εν οικιαι ουκ εμενενkai en oikiāi ouk emenen). Imperfect active. Peculiar to Luke, though implied by the mention of tombs in all three (Mark 5:3; Matthew 8:28; Luke 8:27).

Verse 28

Fell down (προσεπεσενprosepesen). Second aorist active of προσπιπτωprospiptō to fall forward, towards, prostrate before one as here. Common verb. Mark 5:6 has προσεκυνησενprosekunēsen (worshipped).

The Most High God (του τεου του υπσιστουtou theou tou hupsistou). Uncertain whether του τεουtou theou genuine or not. But “the Most High” clearly means God as already seen (Luke 1:32, Luke 1:35, Luke 1:36; Luke 6:35). The phrase is common among heathen (Numbers 24:16; Micah 6:6; Isaiah 14:14). The demoniac may have been a Gentile, but it is the demon here speaking. See note on Mark 5:7; note on Matthew 8:29 for the Greek idiom (ti emoi kai soi). “What have I to do with thee?” See there also for “Torment me not.”

Verse 29

For he commanded (παρηγγελλεν γαρparēggellen gar). Imperfect active, correct text, for he was commanding.

Often times (πολλοις χρονοιςpollois chronois). Or “for a long time” like χρονωι πολλωιchronōi pollōi of Luke 8:27 (see Robertson, Grammar, p. 537, for the plural here).

It had seized (συνηρπακειsunērpakei). Past perfect active of συναρπαζωsunarpazō to lay hold by force. An old verb, but only in Luke in the N.T. (Luke 8:29; Acts 6:12; Acts 19:29; Acts 27:15).

Was kept under guard (εδεσμευετοedesmeueto). Imperfect passive of δεσμευωdesmeuō to put in chains, from δεσμοςdesmos bond, and that from δεωdeō to bind. Old, but rather rare verb. Only here and Acts 22:4 in this sense. In Matthew 23:4 it means to bind together. Some MSS. read δεσμεωdesmeō in Luke 8:29.

Breaking the bands asunder (διαρησσων τα δεσμαdiarēssōn ta desma). Old verb, the preposition διαdia (in two) intensifying the meaning of the simple verb ρησσωrēssō or ρηγνυμιrēgnumi to rend.

Was driven (ηλαυνετοēlauneto). Imperfect passive of ελαυνωelaunō to drive, to row, to march (Xenophon). Only five times in the N.T. Here alone in Luke and peculiar to Luke in this incident.

Verse 30

Legion (ΛεγιωνLegiōn). See note on Mark 5:9.

Verse 31

Into the abyss (εις την αβυσσονeis tēn abusson). Rare old word common in lxx from αa privative and βατςbathūs (deep). So bottomless place (supply χωραchōra). The deep sea in Genesis 1:2; Genesis 7:11. The common receptacle of the dead in Romans 10:7 and especially the abode of demons as here and Revelation 9:1-11; Revelation 11:7; Revelation 17:8; Revelation 20:1, Revelation 20:3.

Verse 32

A herd of many swine (αγελη χοιρων ικανωνagelē choirōn hikanōn). Word herd (αγεληagelē) old as Homer, but in N.T. only here and parallels (Mark 5:11; Matthew 8:30). Luke shows his fondness for adjective ικανοςhikanos here again (see Luke 8:27) where Mark has μεγαληmegalē and Matthew πολλωνpollōn f0).

Verse 33

Rushed down the steep (ωρμησεν κατα του κρημνουhōrmēsen kata tou krēmnou). Ablative with καταkata as in Mark 5:13; Matthew 8:32 and the same vivid verb in each account, to hurl impetuously, to rush.

Were choked (απεπνιγηapepnigē). Second aorist (constative) passive indicative third singular (collective singular) where Mark 5:13 has the picturesque imperfect επνιγοντοepnigonto f0).

Verse 34

Saw what had come to pass (ιδοντες το γεγονοςidontes to gegonos). This item only in Luke. Note the neat Greek idiom το γεγονοςto gegonos articular second perfect active participle of γινομαιginomai Repeated in Luke 8:35 and in Mark 5:14. Note numerous participles here in Luke 8:35 as in Mark 5:15.

Verse 36

He that was possessed with devils (demons) (only two words in Greek, ο δαιμονιστειςho daimonistheis the demonized).

Was made whole (εσωτηesōthē). First aorist passive indicative of σωζωsōzō to save from σωςsōs (safe and sound). This is additional information to the news carried to them in Luke 8:34.

Verse 37

Were holden with great fear (ποβωι μεγαλωι συνειχοντοphobōi megalōi suneichonto). Imperfect passive of συνεχωsunechō with the instrumental case of ποβοςphobos See a similar use of this vigorous verb in Luke 12:50 of Jesus and in Philemon 1:23 of Paul.

Verse 38

From whom the devils (demons) were gone out (απ ου εχεληλυτει τα δαιμονιαaph' hou exelēluthei ta daimonia). Past perfect active of εχερχομαιexerchomai state of completion in the past.

Prayed him (εδεειτο αυτουedeeito autou). Imperfect middle, kept on begging.

Verse 39

Throughout the whole city (κατ ολην την πολινkath' holēn tēn polin). Mark 5:20 has it “in Decapolis.” He had a great story to tell and he told it with power. The rescue missions in our cities can match this incident with cases of great sinners who have made witnesses for Christ.

Verse 40

Welcomed (απεδεχατοapedexato). Peculiar to Luke. To receive with pleasure, from αποδεχομαιapodechomai a common verb.

For they were all waiting for him (ησαν γαρ παντες προσδοκωντες αυτονēsan gar pantes prosdokōntes auton). Periphrastic imperfect active of prosdokaō an old verb for eager expectancy, a vivid picture of the attitude of the people towards Jesus. Driven from Decapolis, he is welcomed in Capernaum.

Verse 41

Was (υπηρχενhupērchen). Imperfect of υπαρχωhuparchō in sense of ηνēn as in modern Greek. Common in Luke, and Acts, but not in other Gospels.

Verse 42

An only daughter (τυγατηρ μονογενηςthugatēr monogenēs). The same adjective used of the widow‘s son (Luke 7:12) and the epileptic boy (Luke 9:38) and of Jesus (John 1:18; John 3:16).

She lay a dying (απετνησκενapethnēsken). Imperfect active, she was dying. Matthew 9:18 has it that she has just died.

Thronged (συνεπνιγονsunepnigon). Imperfect active of συμπνιγωsumpnigō to press together, the verb used of the thorns choking the growing grain (Luke 8:14). It was a jam.

Verse 43

Had spent all her living upon physicians (εις ιατρους προσαναλωσασα ολον τον βιονeis iatrous prosanalōsasa holon ton bion). First aorist active participle of an old verb προσαναλισκωprosanaliskō only here in the N.T. But Westcott and Hort reject this clause because it is not in B D Syriac Sinaitic. Whether genuine or not, the other clause in Mark 5:26 certainly is not in Luke: “had suffered many things of many physicians.” Probably both are not genuine in Luke who takes care of the physicians by the simple statement that it was a chronic case: could not be healed of any (ουκ ισχυσεν απ ουδενος τεραπευτηναιouk ischusen ap' oudenos therapeuthēnai). He omitted also what Mark has: “and was nothing bettered but rather grew worse.”

Verse 44

The border of his garment (του κρασπεδου του ιματιουtou kraspedou tou himatiou). Probably the tassel of the overgarment. Of the four corners two were in front and two behind. See note on Matthew 9:20.

Stanched (estē). Second aorist active indicative, stopped at once (effective aorist).

Verse 45

Press thee and crush thee (συνεχουσιν σε και αποτλιβουσινsunechousin se kai apothlibousin). Hold thee together, hold thee in (συνεχωsunechō see Luke 8:37).

Crush thee (αποτλιβωapothlibō) here only in the N.T., a verb used of pressing out grapes in Diodorus and Josephus. Mark 5:31 has συντλιβωsunthlibō to press together.

Verse 46

For I perceived that power had gone forth from me (εγω γαρ εγνων δυναμιν εχεληλυτυιαν απ εμουegō gar egnōn dunamin exelēluthuian ap' emou). ΕγνωνEgnōn is second aorist active indicative of γινωσκωginōskō knowledge by personal experience as here. It is followed by the second perfect active participle εχεληλυτυιανexelēluthuian in indirect discourse (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 1040-42). Jesus felt the sensation of power already gone. Who does not know what this sense of “goneness” or exhaustion of nervous energy means?

Verse 47

Trembling (τρεμουσαtremousa). Vivid touch of the feeling of this sensitive woman who now had to tell everybody of her cure, “in the presence of all the people” (ενωπιον παντος του λαουenōpion pantos tou laou). She faced the widest publicity for her secret cure.

Verse 49

From the ruler of the synagogue‘s house (παρα του αρχισυναγωγουpara tou archisunagōgou). The word “house” is not in the Greek here as in Mark 5:35 where αποapo is used rather than παραpara as here. But the ruler himself had come to Jesus (Luke 8:41) and this is the real idea.

Trouble not (μηκετι σκυλλεmēketi skulle). See note on Luke 7:6 for this verb and also the note on Mark 5:35; and the note on Matthew 9:36.

Verse 50

And she shall be made whole (και σωτησεταιkai sōthēsetai). This promise in addition to the words in Mark 5:36. See for discussion of details.

Verse 53

Knowing that she was dead (ειδοτες οτι απετανενeidotes hoti apethanen). That she died (απετανενapethanen), second aorist active indicative of αποτνησκωapothnēskō f0).

Verse 54

Called (επωνησενephōnēsen). Certainly not to wake up the dead, but to make it plain to all that she rose in response to his elevated tone of voice. Some think that the remark of Jesus in Luke 8:52 (Mark 5:39; Matthew 9:24) proves that she was not really dead, but only in a trance. It matters little. The touch of Christ‘s hand and the power of his voice restored her to life.

Maiden (η παιςhē pais) rather than Mark‘s (Mark 5:41) το κορασιονto korasion (vernacular Koiné).

Verse 55

Her spirit returned (επεστρεπσεν το πνευμα αυτηςepestrepsen to pneuma autēs). The life came back to her at once.

Be given her to eat (αυτηι δοτηναι παγεινautēi dothēnai phagein). The first infinitive δοτηναιdothēnai is an indirect command. The second παγεινphagein (second aorist active of εστιωesthiō) is epexegetic purpose.

Copyright Statement
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Bibliographical Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Luke 8". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.