Soon afterwards (εν τωι κατεχης en tōi kathexēs). In Luke 7:11 we have εν τωι εχης en tōi hexēs This word means one after the other, successively, but that gives no definite data as to the time, only that this incident in Luke 8:1-3 follows that in Luke 7:36-50. Both in Luke alone.That (και kai). One of Luke‘s idioms with και εγενετο kai egeneto like Hebrew διωδευεν wav Went about (διοδευω diōdeuen). Imperfect active of δια οδος diodeuō to make one‘s way through (κατα πολιν και κωμην dia κατα hodos), common in late Greek writers. In the N.T. here only and Acts 17:1. Through cities and villages (διωδευεν kata polin kai kōmēn). Distributive use of κηρυσσων kata (up and down). The clause is amphibolous and goes equally well with και ευαγγελιζομενος diōdeuen or with kērussōn (heralding) kai euaggelizomenos (evangelizing, gospelizing). This is the second tour of Galilee, this time the Twelve with him.
Which had been healed (αι ησαν τετεραπευμεναι hai ēsan tetherapeumenai). Periphrastic past perfect passive, suggesting that the healing had taken place some time before this tour. These women all had personal grounds of gratitude to Jesus.From whom seven devils (demons) had gone out (απ ης δαιμονια επτα εχεληλυτει aph' hēs daimonia hepta exelēluthei). Past perfect active third singular for the δαιμονια daimonia are neuter plural. This first mention of Mary Magdalene describes her special cause of gratitude. This fact is stated also in Mark 16:9 in the disputed close of the Gospel. The presence of seven demons in one person indicates special malignity (Mark 5:9). See Matthew 12:45 for the parable of the demon who came back with seven other demons worse than the first. It is not known where Magdala was, whence Mary came.
Joanna (Ιωανα Iōana). Her husband Χυζα Chuzā steward (επιτροπου epitropou) of Herod, is held by some to be the nobleman (βασιλικος basilikos) of John 4:46-53 who believed and all his house. At any rate Christ had a follower from the household of Herod Antipas who had such curiosity to see and hear him. One may recall also Manaen (Acts 13:1), Herod‘s foster brother. Joanna is mentioned again with Mary Magdalene in Luke 24:10.Who ministered unto them (αιτινες διηκονουν αυτοις haitines diēkonoun autois). Imperfect active of διακονεω diakoneō common verb, but note augment as if from δια dia and ακονεω akoneō but from διακονος diakonos and that from δια dia and κονις konis (dust). The very fact that Jesus now had twelve men going with him called for help from others and the women of means responded to the demand. Of their substance (εκ των υπαρχοντων αυταις ek tōn huparchontōn autais). From the things belonging to them. This is the first woman‘s missionary society for the support of missionaries of the Gospel. They had difficulties in their way, but they overcame these, so great was their gratitude and zeal.
By a parable (δια παραβολης dia parabolēs). Mark 4:2 says “in parables” as does Matthew 13:3. This is the beginning of the first great group of parables as given in Mark 4:1-34 and Matthew 13:1-53. There are ten of these parables in Mark and Matthew and only two in Luke 8:4-18 (The Sower and the Lamp, Luke 8:16) though Luke also has the expression “in parables” (Luke 8:10). See notes on Matthew 13 and notes on Mark 4 for discussion of the word parable and the details of the Parable of the Sower. Luke does not locate the place, but he mentions the great crowds on hand, while both Mark and Matthew name the seaside as the place where Jesus was at the start of the series of parables.
His seed (τον σπορον αυτου ton sporon autou). Peculiar to Luke.Was trodden under foot (κατεπατητη katepatēthē). First aorist passive indicative of καταπατεω katapateō Peculiar to Luke here. Of the heavens (του ουρανου tou ouranou). Added in Luke.
Upon the rock (επι την πετραν epi tēn petran). Mark 4:5 “the rocky ground” (επι το πετρωδες epi to petrōdes), Matthew 13:5 “the rocky places.As soon as it grew (πυεν phuen). Second aorist passive participle of πυω phuō an old verb to spring up like a sprout. Withered away (εχηραντη exēranthē). First aorist passive indicative of ζηραινω zērainō old verb, to dry up. Moisture (ικμαδα ikmada). Here only in the N.T., though common word.
Amidst the thorns (εν μεσωι των ακαντων en mesōi tōn akanthōn). Mark 4:7 has εις eis (among) and Matthew 13:7 has επι epi “upon.”Grew with it (συνπυεισαι sunphueisai). Same participle as πυεν phuen above with συν sun - (together). Choked (απεπνιχαν apepnixan). From αποπνιγω apopnigō to choke off as in Matthew 13:7. In Mark 4:7 the verb is συνεπνιχαν sunepnixan (choked together).
A hundredfold (εκατονπλασιονα hekatonplasiona). Luke omits the thirty and sixty of Mark 4:8; Matthew 13:8.He cried (επωνει ephōnei). Imperfect active, and in a loud voice, the verb means. The warning about hearing with the ears occurs also in Mark 4:9; Matthew 13:9.
Asked (επηρωτων epērōtōn). Imperfect of επερωταω eperōtaō (επι epi and ερωταω erōtaō) where Mark 4:10 has ηρωτων ērōtōn (uncompounded imperfect), both the tense and the use of επι epi indicate eager and repeated questions on the part of the disciples, perhaps dimly perceiving a possible reflection on their own growth.What this parable might be (τις αυτη ειη η παραβολη tis hautē eiē hē parabolē). A mistranslation, What this parable was (or meant). The optative ειη eiē is merely due to indirect discourse, changing the indicative εστιν estin (is) of the direct question to the optative ειη eiē of the indirect, a change entirely with the writer or speaker and without any change of meaning (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 1043f.).
The mysteries (τα μυστηρια ta mustēria). See for this word on Matthew 13:11; Mark 4:11. Part of the mystery here explained is how so many people who have the opportunity to enter the kingdom fail to do so because of manifest unfitness.That (hina). Here Mark 4:11 also has hina while Matthew 13:13 has ινα hoti (because). On the so-called causal use of ινα hina as here equal to οτι hoti see note on Matthew 13:13 and note on Mark 4:11. Plummer sensibly argues that there is truth both in the causal ινα hoti of Matthew and the final οτι hina of Mark and Matthew. “But the principle that he who hath shall receive more, while he who hath not shall be deprived of what he seemeth to have, explains both the οτι hina and the ινα hoti Jesus speaks in parables because the multitudes see without seeing and hear without hearing. But He also speaks in parable in order that they may see without seeing and hear without hearing.” Only for “hearing” Luke has “understand” ινα suniōsin present subjunctive from a late omega form οτι suniō instead of the -συνιωσιν mi verb συνιω suniēmi f0).
Is this (εστιν δε αυτη estin de hautē). Means this. Jesus now proceeds to interpret his own parable.The seed is the word of God (ο σπορος εστιν ο λογος του τεου ho sporos estin ho logos tou theou). The article with both subject and predicate as here means that they are interchangeable and can be turned round: The word of God is the seed. The phrase “the word of God” does not appear in Matthew and only once in Mark (Mark 7:13) and John (John 10:35), but four times in Luke (Luke 5:1; Luke 8:11, Luke 8:21; Luke 11:28) and twelve times in Acts. In Mark 4:14 we have only “the word.” In Mark 3:31 we have “the will of God,” and in Matthew 12:46 “the will of my Father” where Luke 8:21 has “the word of God.” This seems to show that Luke has the subjective genitive here and means the word that comes from God.
Those by the wayside (οι παρα την οδον hoi para tēn hodon). As in Mark 4:15; Matthew 13:19 so here the people who hear the word = the seed are discussed by metonymy.The devil (ο διαβολος ho diabolos). The slanderer. Here Mark 4:15 has Satan. From their heart (απο της καρδιας αυτων apo tēs kardias autōn). Here Mark has “in them.” It is the devil‘s business to snatch up the seed from the heart before it sprouts and takes root. Every preacher knows how successful the devil is with his auditors. Matthew 13:19 has it “sown in the heart.” That they may not believe and be saved (ινα μη πιστευσαντες σωτωσιν hina mē pisteusantes sōthōsin). Peculiar to Luke. Negative purpose with aorist active participle and first aorist (ingressive) passive subjunctive. Many reasons are offered today for the failure of preachers to win souls. Here is the main one, the activity of the devil during and after the preaching of the sermon. No wonder then that the sower must have good seed and sow wisely, for even then he can only win partial success.
Which for a while believe (οι προς καιρον πιστευουσιν hoi pros kairon pisteuousin). Ostensibly they are sincere and have made a real start in the life of faith.They fall away (απιστανται aphistantai). Present middle indicative. They stand off, lose interest, stop coming to church, drop out of sight. It is positively amazing the number of new church members who “stumble” as Mark 4:17 has it (σκανδαλιζονται skandalizontai), do not like the pastor, take offence at something said or done by somebody, object to the appeals for money, feel slighted. The “season of trial” becomes a “season of temptation” (εν καιρωι πειρασμου en kairōi peirasmou) for these superficial, emotional people who have to be periodically rounded up if kept within the fold.
They are choked (συνπνιγονται sunpnigontai). Present passive indicative of this powerfully vivid compound verb συνπνιγω sunpnigō used in Mark 4:19; Matthew 13:22, only there these worldly weeds choke the word while here the victims themselves are choked. Both are true. Diphtheria will choke and strangle the victim. Who has not seen the promise of fair flower and fruit choked into yellow withered stalk without fruit “as they go on their way” (πορευομενοι poreuomenoi).Bring no fruit to perfection (ου τελεσπορουσιν ou telesphorousin). Compound verb common in the late writers (τελοσ πορεω telos phoreō). To bring to completion. Used of fruits, animals, pregnant women. Only here in the N.T.
In an honest and good heart (εν καρδιαι καληι και αγατηι en kardiāi kalēi kai agathēi). Peculiar to Luke. In Luke 8:8 the land (γην gēn) is called αγατην agathēn (really good, generous) and in Luke 8:15 we have εν τηι καληι γηι en tēi kalēi gēi (in the beautiful or noble land). So Luke uses both adjectives of the heart. The Greeks used καλος κ αγατος kalos k' agathos of the high-minded gentleman. It is probable that Luke knew this idiom. It occurs here alone in the N.T. It is not easy to translate. We have such phrases as “good and true,” “sound and good,” “right and good,” no one of which quite suits the Greek. Certainly Luke adds new moral qualities not in the Hellenic phrase. The English word “honest” here is like the Latin honestus (fair, noble). The words are to be connected with “hold fast” (κατεχουσιν katechousin), “hold it down” so that the devil does not snatch it away, having depth of soil so that it does not shrivel up under the sun, and is not choked by weeds and thorns. It bears fruit (καρποπορουσιν karpophorousin an old expressive verb, καρπος karpos and πορεω phoreō). That is the proof of spiritual life.In patience (εν υπομονηι en hupomonēi). There is no other way for real fruit to come. Mushrooms spring up overnight, but they are usually poisonous. The best fruits require time, cultivation, patience.
When he hath lighted a lamp (λυχνον απσας luchnon hapsas). It is a portable lamp (λυχνον luchnon) that one lights (απσας hapsas aorist active participle of απτω haptō to kindle, fasten to, light).With a vessel (σκευει skeuei instrumental case of σκευος skeuos). Here Mark 4:21 has the more definite figure “under the bushel” as has Matthew 5:15. Under the bed (υποκατω κλινης hupokatō klinēs). Here Mark 4:21 has the regular υπο την κλινην hupo tēn klinēn instead of the late compound υποκατω hupokatō Ragg notes that Matthew distributes the sayings of Jesus given here by Luke 8:16-18; Mark 4:21-25 concerning the parable of the lamp and gives them in three separate places (Matthew 5:15; Matthew 10:26; Matthew 13:12). That is true, but it does not follow that Mark and Luke have bunched together separate sayings or that Matthew has scattered sayings delivered only on one occasion. One of the slowest lessons for some critics to learn is that Jesus repeated favourite sayings on different occasions and in different groupings just as every popular preacher and teacher does today. See note on Mark 4:21 for further discussion of the lamp and stand. May see the light (Blepōsin to phōs). In Matthew 5:16 Jesus has it “may see your good works.” The purpose of light is to let one see something else, not the light. Note present subjunctive (blepōsin), linear action “Jesus had kindled a light within them. They must not hide it, but must see that it spreads to others” (Plummer). The parable of the lamp throws light on the parable of the sower.
That shall not be known (ο ου μη γνωστηι ho ou mē gnōsthēi). Peculiar to Luke. First aorist passive subjunctive of γινωσκω ginōskō with the strong double negative ου μη ou mē See note on Mark 4:22 for discussion of krupton and apokruphon f0).
How ye hear (πως ακουετε pōs akouete). The manner of hearing. Mark 4:24 has “what ye hear” (τι ακουετε ti akouete), the matter that is heard. Both are supremely important. Some things should not be heard at all. Some that are heard should be forgotten. Others should be treasured and practised.For whosoever hath (ος αν γαρ εχηι Hos an gar echēi). Present active subjunctive of the common verb εχω echō which may mean “keep on having” or “acquiring.” See note on Mark 4:25 for discussion. Thinketh he hath (dokei echein), or seems to acquire or to hold. Losses in business illustrate this saying as when we see their riches take wings and fly away. So it is with hearing and heeding. Self-deception is a common complaint.
His mother and brethren (η μητηρ και οι αδελποι αυτου hē mētēr kai hoi adelphoi autou). Mark 3:31-35; Matthew 12:46-50 place the visit of the mother and brothers of Jesus before the parable of the sower. Usually Luke follows Mark‘s order, but he does not do so here. At first the brothers of Jesus (younger sons of Joseph and Mary, I take the words to mean, there being sisters also) were not unfriendly to the work of Jesus as seen in John 2:12 when they with the mother of Jesus are with him and the small group (half dozen) disciples in Capernaum after the wedding in Cana. But as Jesus went on with his work and was rejected at Nazareth (Luke 4:16-31), there developed an evident disbelief in his claims on the part of the brothers who ridiculed him six months before the end (John 7:5). At this stage they have apparently come with Mary to take Jesus home out of the excitement of the crowds, perhaps thinking that he is beside himself (Mark 3:21). They hardly believed the charge of the rabbis that Jesus was in league with Beelzebub. Certainly the mother of Jesus could give no credence to that slander. But she herself was deeply concerned and wanted to help him if possible. See discussion of the problem in my little book The Mother of Jesus and also on Mark 3:31 and Matthew 12:46.Come to him (συντυχειν suntuchein). Second aorist active infinitive of συντυγχανω suntugchanō an old verb, though here alone in the N.T., meaning to meet with, to fall in with as if accidentally, here with associative instrumental case αυτωι autōi f0).
Was told (απηγγελη apēggelē). Second aorist passive indicative of απαγγελλω apaggellō to bring word or tidings. Common verb. See Mark 3:32 and Matthew 12:47 for details.
These which hear the word of God and do it (οι τον λογον του τεου ακουοντες και ποιουντες hoi ton logon tou theou akouontes kai poiountes). The absence of the article with “mother” and “brothers” probably means, as Plummer argues, “Mother to me and brothers to me are those who &c.” No one is a child of God because of human parentage (John 1:13). “Family ties are at best temporal; spiritual ties are eternal” (Plummer). Note the use of “hear and do” together here as in Matthew 7:24; Luke 6:47 at the close of the Sermon on the Mount. The parable of the sower is almost like a footnote to that sermon. Later Jesus will make “doing” a test of friendship for him (John 15:14).
And they launched forth (και ανηχτησαν kai anēchthēsan). First aorist passive indicative of αναγω anagō an old verb, to lead up, to put out to sea (looked at as going up from the land). This nautical sense of the verb occurs only in Luke in the N.T. and especially in the Acts (Acts 13:13; Acts 16:11; Acts 18:21; Acts 20:3, Acts 20:13; Acts 21:1, Acts 21:2; Acts 27:2, Acts 27:4, Acts 27:12, Acts 27:21; Acts 28:10.).
He fell asleep (απυπνωσεν aphupnōsen). First aorist (ingressive) active indicative of απυπνοω aphupnoō to put to sleep, to fall off to sleep, a late verb for which the older Greek used κατυπνοω kathupnoō Originally απυπνοω aphupnoō meant to waken from sleep, then to fall off to sleep (possibly a medical use). This is the only passage which speaks of the sleep of Jesus. Here only in the N.T.Came down (κατεβη katebē). Second aorist active indicative of καταβαινω katabainō common verb. It was literally true. These wind storms (λαιλαπς lailaps So also Mark 4:37) rushed from Hermon down through the Jordan gorge upon the Sea of Galilee and shook it like a tempest (Matthew 8:24). Mark‘s (Mark 4:37) vivid use of the dramatic present γινεται ginetai (ariseth) is not so precise as Luke‘s “came down.” See note on Matthew 8:24. These sudden squalls were dangerous on this small lake. They were filling (συνεπληρουντο suneplērounto). Imperfect passive. It was the boat that was being filled (Mark 4:37) and it is here applied to the navigators as sailors sometimes spoke. An old verb, but in the N.T. used only by Luke (Luke 8:23; Luke 9:51; Acts 2:1). Were in jeopardy (εκινδυνευον ekinduneuon). Imperfect active, vivid description. Old verb, but in the N.T. only here, Acts 19:27; 1 Corinthians 15:30.
Master, Master (Επιστατα επιστατα Epistata epistata). See note on Luke 5:5 for discussion. Mark 4:38 has Teacher (Didaskale), Matthew 8:25 has Lord (Διδασκαλε Kurie). The repetition here shows the uneasiness of the disciples.We perish (Κυριε apollumetha). So in Mark 4:38; Matthew 8:25. Linear present middle indicative, we are perishing. The raging of the water (απολλυμετα tōi kludoni tou hudatos). τωι κλυδονι του υδατος Kludōn common Greek word, is a boisterous surge, a violent agitation. Here only in the N.T. save James 1:6. Κλυδων Kuma (Mark 4:37) is the regular swell or wave. A calm (Κυμα galēnē). Only in the parallels in the N.T., though common word. Here Mark 4:39; Matthew 8:26 add great (γαληνη megalē). That (μεγαλη hoti). This use of οτι hoti as explanatory of the demonstrative pronoun οτι houtos occurs in the parallels Mark 4:36; Matthew 8:27 and also in Luke 4:36. It is almost result. He commandeth (ουτος epitassei). Peculiar to Luke.
They arrived (κατεπλευσαν katepleusan). First aorist active indicative of καταπλεω katapleō common verb, but here only in the N.T. Literally, they sailed down from the sea to the land, the opposite of launched forth (ανηχτησαν anēchthēsan) of Luke 8:22. So we today use like nautical terms, to bear up, to bear down.The Gerasenes (τον Γερασηνων ton Gerasēnōn). This is the correct text here as in Mark 5:1 while Gadarenes is correct in Matthew 8:28. See there for explanation of this famous discrepancy, now cleared up by Thomson‘s discovery of Khersa (Γερσα Gersa) on the steep eastern bank and in the vicinity of Gadara. Over against Galilee (αντιπερα της Γαλιλαιας antipera tēs Galilaias). Only here in the N.T. The later Greek form is αντιπεραν antiperan (Polybius, etc.). Some MSS. here have περαν peran like Mark 5:1; Matthew 8:28.
And for a long time (και χρονωι ικανωι kai chronōi hikanōi). The use of the associative instrumental case in expressions of time is a very old Greek idiom that still appears in the papyri (Robertson, Grammar, p. 527).He had worn no clothes (ουκ ενεδυσατο ιματιον ouk enedusato himation). First aorist middle indicative, constative aorist, viewing the “long time” as a point. Not pluperfect as English has it and not for the pluperfect, simply “and for a long time he did not put on himself (indirect middle) any clothing.” The physician would naturally note this item. Common verb ενδυω enduō or ενδυνω endunō This item in Luke alone, though implied by Mark 5:15 “clothed” (ιματισμενον himatismenon). And abode not in any house (και εν οικιαι ουκ εμενεν kai en oikiāi ouk emenen). Imperfect active. Peculiar to Luke, though implied by the mention of tombs in all three (Mark 5:3; Matthew 8:28; Luke 8:27).
Fell down (προσεπεσεν prosepesen). Second aorist active of προσπιπτω prospiptō to fall forward, towards, prostrate before one as here. Common verb. Mark 5:6 has προσεκυνησεν prosekunēsen (worshipped).The Most High God (του τεου του υπσιστου tou theou tou hupsistou). Uncertain whether του τεου tou theou genuine or not. But “the Most High” clearly means God as already seen (Luke 1:32, Luke 1:35, Luke 1:36; Luke 6:35). The phrase is common among heathen (Numbers 24:16; Micah 6:6; Isaiah 14:14). The demoniac may have been a Gentile, but it is the demon here speaking. See note on Mark 5:7; note on Matthew 8:29 for the Greek idiom (ti emoi kai soi). “What have I to do with thee?” See there also for “Torment me not.”
For he commanded (παρηγγελλεν γαρ parēggellen gar). Imperfect active, correct text, for he was commanding.Often times (πολλοις χρονοις pollois chronois). Or “for a long time” like χρονωι πολλωι chronōi pollōi of Luke 8:27 (see Robertson, Grammar, p. 537, for the plural here). It had seized (συνηρπακει sunērpakei). Past perfect active of συναρπαζω sunarpazō to lay hold by force. An old verb, but only in Luke in the N.T. (Luke 8:29; Acts 6:12; Acts 19:29; Acts 27:15). Was kept under guard (εδεσμευετο edesmeueto). Imperfect passive of δεσμευω desmeuō to put in chains, from δεσμος desmos bond, and that from δεω deō to bind. Old, but rather rare verb. Only here and Acts 22:4 in this sense. In Matthew 23:4 it means to bind together. Some MSS. read δεσμεω desmeō in Luke 8:29. Breaking the bands asunder (διαρησσων τα δεσμα diarēssōn ta desma). Old verb, the preposition δια dia (in two) intensifying the meaning of the simple verb ρησσω rēssō or ρηγνυμι rēgnumi to rend. Was driven (ηλαυνετο ēlauneto). Imperfect passive of ελαυνω elaunō to drive, to row, to march (Xenophon). Only five times in the N.T. Here alone in Luke and peculiar to Luke in this incident.
Legion (Λεγιων Legiōn). See note on Mark 5:9.
Into the abyss (εις την αβυσσον eis tēn abusson). Rare old word common in lxx from α a privative and βατς bathūs (deep). So bottomless place (supply χωρα chōra). The deep sea in Genesis 1:2; Genesis 7:11. The common receptacle of the dead in Romans 10:7 and especially the abode of demons as here and Revelation 9:1-11; Revelation 11:7; Revelation 17:8; Revelation 20:1, Revelation 20:3.
A herd of many swine (αγελη χοιρων ικανων agelē choirōn hikanōn). Word herd (αγελη agelē) old as Homer, but in N.T. only here and parallels (Mark 5:11; Matthew 8:30). Luke shows his fondness for adjective ικανος hikanos here again (see Luke 8:27) where Mark has μεγαλη megalē and Matthew πολλων pollōn f0).
Rushed down the steep (ωρμησεν κατα του κρημνου hōrmēsen kata tou krēmnou). Ablative with κατα kata as in Mark 5:13; Matthew 8:32 and the same vivid verb in each account, to hurl impetuously, to rush.Were choked (απεπνιγη apepnigē). Second aorist (constative) passive indicative third singular (collective singular) where Mark 5:13 has the picturesque imperfect επνιγοντο epnigonto f0).
Saw what had come to pass (ιδοντες το γεγονος idontes to gegonos). This item only in Luke. Note the neat Greek idiom το γεγονος to gegonos articular second perfect active participle of γινομαι ginomai Repeated in Luke 8:35 and in Mark 5:14. Note numerous participles here in Luke 8:35 as in Mark 5:15.
He that was possessed with devils (demons) (only two words in Greek, ο δαιμονιστεις ho daimonistheis the demonized).Was made whole (εσωτη esōthē). First aorist passive indicative of σωζω sōzō to save from σως sōs (safe and sound). This is additional information to the news carried to them in Luke 8:34.
Were holden with great fear (ποβωι μεγαλωι συνειχοντο phobōi megalōi suneichonto). Imperfect passive of συνεχω sunechō with the instrumental case of ποβος phobos See a similar use of this vigorous verb in Luke 12:50 of Jesus and in Philemon 1:23 of Paul.
From whom the devils (demons) were gone out (απ ου εχεληλυτει τα δαιμονια aph' hou exelēluthei ta daimonia). Past perfect active of εχερχομαι exerchomai state of completion in the past.Prayed him (εδεειτο αυτου edeeito autou). Imperfect middle, kept on begging.
Throughout the whole city (κατ ολην την πολιν kath' holēn tēn polin). Mark 5:20 has it “in Decapolis.” He had a great story to tell and he told it with power. The rescue missions in our cities can match this incident with cases of great sinners who have made witnesses for Christ.
Welcomed (απεδεχατο apedexato). Peculiar to Luke. To receive with pleasure, from αποδεχομαι apodechomai a common verb.For they were all waiting for him (ησαν γαρ παντες προσδοκωντες αυτον ēsan gar pantes prosdokōntes auton). Periphrastic imperfect active of prosdokaō an old verb for eager expectancy, a vivid picture of the attitude of the people towards Jesus. Driven from Decapolis, he is welcomed in Capernaum.
Was (υπηρχεν hupērchen). Imperfect of υπαρχω huparchō in sense of ην ēn as in modern Greek. Common in Luke, and Acts, but not in other Gospels.
An only daughter (τυγατηρ μονογενης thugatēr monogenēs). The same adjective used of the widow‘s son (Luke 7:12) and the epileptic boy (Luke 9:38) and of Jesus (John 1:18; John 3:16).She lay a dying (απετνησκεν apethnēsken). Imperfect active, she was dying. Matthew 9:18 has it that she has just died. Thronged (συνεπνιγον sunepnigon). Imperfect active of συμπνιγω sumpnigō to press together, the verb used of the thorns choking the growing grain (Luke 8:14). It was a jam.
Had spent all her living upon physicians (εις ιατρους προσαναλωσασα ολον τον βιον eis iatrous prosanalōsasa holon ton bion). First aorist active participle of an old verb προσαναλισκω prosanaliskō only here in the N.T. But Westcott and Hort reject this clause because it is not in B D Syriac Sinaitic. Whether genuine or not, the other clause in Mark 5:26 certainly is not in Luke: “had suffered many things of many physicians.” Probably both are not genuine in Luke who takes care of the physicians by the simple statement that it was a chronic case: could not be healed of any (ουκ ισχυσεν απ ουδενος τεραπευτηναι ouk ischusen ap' oudenos therapeuthēnai). He omitted also what Mark has: “and was nothing bettered but rather grew worse.”
The border of his garment (του κρασπεδου του ιματιου tou kraspedou tou himatiou). Probably the tassel of the overgarment. Of the four corners two were in front and two behind. See note on Matthew 9:20.Stanched (estē). Second aorist active indicative, stopped at once (effective aorist).
Press thee and crush thee (συνεχουσιν σε και αποτλιβουσιν sunechousin se kai apothlibousin). Hold thee together, hold thee in (συνεχω sunechō see Luke 8:37).Crush thee (αποτλιβω apothlibō) here only in the N.T., a verb used of pressing out grapes in Diodorus and Josephus. Mark 5:31 has συντλιβω sunthlibō to press together.
For I perceived that power had gone forth from me (εγω γαρ εγνων δυναμιν εχεληλυτυιαν απ εμου egō gar egnōn dunamin exelēluthuian ap' emou). Εγνων Egnōn is second aorist active indicative of γινωσκω ginōskō knowledge by personal experience as here. It is followed by the second perfect active participle εχεληλυτυιαν exelēluthuian in indirect discourse (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 1040-42). Jesus felt the sensation of power already gone. Who does not know what this sense of “goneness” or exhaustion of nervous energy means?
Trembling (τρεμουσα tremousa). Vivid touch of the feeling of this sensitive woman who now had to tell everybody of her cure, “in the presence of all the people” (ενωπιον παντος του λαου enōpion pantos tou laou). She faced the widest publicity for her secret cure.
From the ruler of the synagogue‘s house (παρα του αρχισυναγωγου para tou archisunagōgou). The word “house” is not in the Greek here as in Mark 5:35 where απο apo is used rather than παρα para as here. But the ruler himself had come to Jesus (Luke 8:41) and this is the real idea.Trouble not (μηκετι σκυλλε mēketi skulle). See note on Luke 7:6 for this verb and also the note on Mark 5:35; and the note on Matthew 9:36.
And she shall be made whole (και σωτησεται kai sōthēsetai). This promise in addition to the words in Mark 5:36. See for discussion of details.
Knowing that she was dead (ειδοτες οτι απετανεν eidotes hoti apethanen). That she died (απετανεν apethanen), second aorist active indicative of αποτνησκω apothnēskō f0).
Called (επωνησεν ephōnēsen). Certainly not to wake up the dead, but to make it plain to all that she rose in response to his elevated tone of voice. Some think that the remark of Jesus in Luke 8:52 (Mark 5:39; Matthew 9:24) proves that she was not really dead, but only in a trance. It matters little. The touch of Christ‘s hand and the power of his voice restored her to life.Maiden (η παις hē pais) rather than Mark‘s (Mark 5:41) το κορασιον to korasion (vernacular Koiné).
Her spirit returned (επεστρεπσεν το πνευμα αυτης epestrepsen to pneuma autēs). The life came back to her at once.Be given her to eat (αυτηι δοτηναι παγειν autēi dothēnai phagein). The first infinitive δοτηναι dothēnai is an indirect command. The second παγειν phagein (second aorist active of εστιω esthiō) is epexegetic purpose.
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright © Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Luke 8". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/
the Second Week after Epiphany