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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge
1 Kings 4



1Solomon's princes.
7His twelve officers for provision.
20The peace and largeness of his kingdom.
22His daily provision.
26His stables.
29His wisdom.

Verse 1
So king Solomon was king over all Israel.
over all Israel
11:13,35,36; 12:19,20; 2 Samuel 5:5; 1 Chronicles 12:38; 2 Chronicles 9:30; Ecclesiastes 1:12

Verse 2
And these were the princes which he had; Azariah the son of Zadok the priest,
the princes
That is, great, chief, or principal men; for none of them were princes, in the common acceptation of the word.
Exodus 18:21; 2 Samuel 8:15-18; 20:23-26; 1 Corinthians 12:28
1 Chronicles 6:8-10; 27:17
or, chief officer.

Verse 3
Elihoreph and Ahiah, the sons of Shisha, scribes; Jehoshaphat the son of Ahilud, the recorder.
2 Samuel 20:25
1 Chronicles 18:6
scribes. or, secretaries. recorder. or, remembrancer.
2 Samuel 8:16; 20:24; 1 Chronicles 18:15; Isaiah 62:6; *margins

Verse 4
And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada was over the host: and Zadok and Abiathar were the priests:

Verse 5
And Azariah the son of Nathan was over the officers: and Zabud the son of Nathan was principal officer, and the king's friend:
son of Nathan
1:10-53; 2 Samuel 7:2; 12:1-15,25
the officers
the principal
2 Samuel 8:18; 20:26
the king's
2 Samuel 15:37; 16:16; 19:37,38; 1 Chronicles 27:33; Proverbs 22:11; John 13:23; John 15:14,15; James 2:23

Verse 6
And Ahishar was over the household: and Adoniram the son of Abda was over the tribute.
12:18; 2 Samuel 20:24
tribute. or, levy.
5:13,14; 9:15

Verse 7
And Solomon had twelve officers over all Israel, which provided victuals for the king and his household: each man his month in a year made provision.
These are doubtless to be considered as general receivers; for, as Sir John Chardin observes, "the revenues of the princes of the East are paid in the fruits and productions of the earth: there are no other taxes on the peasants."
each man
1 Chronicles 27:1-15

Verse 8
And these are their names: The son of Hur, in mount Ephraim:
The son of Hur
or, Ben-hur.
Judges 17:1; 19:1

Verse 9
The son of Dekar, in Makaz, and in Shaalbim, and Bethshemesh, and Elonbethhanan:
The son of Dekar
or, Ben-dekar. Shaalbim.
Joshua 19:42
1 Samuel 6:12,20

Verse 10
The son of Hesed, in Aruboth; to him pertained Sochoh, and all the land of Hepher:
The son of Hesed
or, Ben-hesed. Sochoh.
Joshua 15:35
Joshua 12:17; 17:2

Verse 11
The son of Abinadab, in all the region of Dor; which had Taphath the daughter of Solomon to wife:
The son of Abinadab
or, Ben-abinadab. Dor.
Joshua 12:23; 17:11; Judges 1:27

Verse 12
Baana the son of Ahilud; to him pertained Taanach and Megiddo, and all Bethshean, which is by Zartanah beneath Jezreel, from Bethshean to Abelmeholah, even unto the place that is beyond Jokneam:
Joshua 17:11; Judges 5:19
2 Kings 23:29,30
1 Samuel 31:10,12
Joshua 3:16

Verse 13
The son of Geber, in Ramothgilead; to him pertained the towns of Jair the son of Manasseh, which are in Gilead; to him also pertained the region of Argob, which is in Bashan, threescore great cities with walls and brasen bars:
The son of Geber
or, Ben-geber. Ramoth-gilead.
22:3; Deuteronomy 4:43; Joshua 20:8; 21:38; 2 Kings 9:1,14
the towns
Numbers 32:41; Deuteronomy 3:14
Deuteronomy 3:4,8,13,14; Psalms 22:12; 68:15
threescore great cities
These were the fortified cities; their gates and bars being covered with plates of brass.

Verse 14
Ahinadab the son of Iddo had Mahanaim:
or, to Mahanaim.
Genesis 32:2; 2 Samuel 2:8; 17:24,27

Verse 15
Ahimaaz was in Naphtali; he also took Basmath the daughter of Solomon to wife:
Joshua 19:32-39
the daughter
11; 1 Samuel 18:18

Verse 16
Baanah the son of Hushai was in Asher and in Aloth:
Joshua 19:24-31

Verse 17
Jehoshaphat the son of Paruah, in Issachar:
Joshua 19:17-23

Verse 18
Shimei the son of Elah, in Benjamin:
1:8; Zechariah 12:13
Joshua 18:20-28

Verse 19
Geber the son of Uri was in the country of Gilead, in the country of Sihon king of the Amorites, and of Og king of Bashan; and he was the only officer which was in the land.
the country of Sihon
Numbers 21:21-35; Deuteronomy 2:26-37; 3:1-17; Joshua 13:9-12

Verse 20
Judah and Israel were many, as the sand which is by the sea in multitude, eating and drinking, and making merry.
as the sand
3:8; Genesis 13:16; 15:5; 22:17; Proverbs 14:28
1 Samuel 30:16; 1 Chronicles 12:39; Job 1:18; Psalms 72:3-7; Ecclesiastes 2:24; Isaiah 22:13; Micah 4:4; Zechariah 3:10; 9:15; Acts 2:46

Verse 21
And Solomon reigned over all kingdoms from the river unto the land of the Philistines, and unto the border of Egypt: they brought presents, and served Solomon all the days of his life.
24; Genesis 15:18; Exodus 23:31; Deuteronomy 11:24; Joshua 1:4; 2 Chronicles 9:26-31; Ezra 4:20; Psalms 72:8-11
1 Samuel 10:27; 2 Kings 17:3; 2 Chronicles 17:5; 32:23; Psalms 68:29; 72:10,11; 76:11

Verse 22
And Solomon's provision for one day was thirty measures of fine flour, and threescore measures of meal,
Heb. bread. measures. Heb. cors.

Verse 23
Ten fat oxen, and twenty oxen out of the pastures, and an hundred sheep, beside harts, and roebucks, and fallowdeer, and fatted fowl.
Ten fat
Nehemiah 5:17,18
Dr. Shaw understands ayil as the name of the genus, including all the species of the deer kind, whether they are distinguished by round horns, as the stag, or by flat ones, as the fallow deer, or by the smallness of the branches, as the roe.
See note on De 15:22.
Yachmur, rendered bubalus by the Vulgate, probably the buffalo; and though "the flesh of a buffalo does not seem so well tasted as beef, being harder and more coarse," yet in our times, "persons of distinction, as well as the common people, and even the European merchants, eat a good deal of it, in the countries where that animal abounds." Niebuhr, Descrip. de l'Arab p. 146.

Verse 24
For he had dominion over all the region on this side the river, from Tiphsah even to Azzah, over all the kings on this side the river: and he had peace on all sides round about him.
Genesis 10:19; Judges 16:1
all the kings.
21; Psalms 72:8,11
had peace
5:4; 1 Chronicles 22:9; Psalms 72:3,7; Isaiah 9:7; Luke 2:14; Hebrews 7:1,2

Verse 25
And Judah and Israel dwelt safely, every man under his vine and under his fig tree, from Dan even to Beersheba, all the days of Solomon.
Heb. confidently.
Isaiah 60:18; Jeremiah 23:5,6; 33:15,16; Ezekiel 38:11; *marg:
every man
2 Kings 18:31; Micah 4:4; Zechariah 3:10
from Dan
Judges 20:1; 2 Samuel 17:11; 24:15

Verse 26
And Solomon had forty thousand stalls of horses for his chariots, and twelve thousand horsemen.
forty thousand
10:25,26; Deuteronomy 17:16; 2 Samuel 8:4; 2 Chronicles 1:14; 9:25; Psalms 20:7

Verse 27
And those officers provided victual for king Solomon, and for all that came unto king Solomon's table, every man in his month: they lacked nothing.
those officers

Verse 28
Barley also and straw for the horses and dromedaries brought they unto the place where the officers were, every man according to his charge.
or, mules, or swift beasts.
Esther 8:10,14; Micah 1:13

Verse 29
And God gave Solomon wisdom and understanding exceeding much, and largeness of heart, even as the sand that is on the sea shore.
3:12,28; 10:23,24; 2 Chronicles 1:10-12; Psalms 119:34; Proverbs 2:6; Ecclesiastes 1:16; 2:26; James 1:5,17; 3:17
Isaiah 60:5
as the sand
20; Genesis 41:49; Judges 7:12; Jeremiah 33:22; Habakkuk 1:9

Verse 30
And Solomon's wisdom excelled the wisdom of all the children of the east country, and all the wisdom of Egypt.
the children
Genesis 25:6; Job 1:3; Daniel 1:20; 4:7; 5:11,12; Matthew 2:1,16
the wisdom of Egypt
Isaiah 19:11,12; Acts 7:22

Verse 31
For he was wiser than all men; than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, and Chalcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol: and his fame was in all nations round about.
3:12; Matthew 12:42; Luke 11:31; Colossians 2:3
1 Chronicles 15:19; Psalms 89:1; *title
1 Chronicles 2:6; 6:33; 15:17; Psalms 88:1; *title
his fame
5:7; 10:1,6; 2 Chronicles 9:23; Matthew 4:24

Verse 32
And he spake three thousand proverbs: and his songs were a thousand and five.
he spake
Proverbs 1:1-31; Ecclesiastes 12:9; Matthew 13:35
Song of Solomon 1:1-17

Verse 33
And he spake of trees, from the cedar tree that is in Lebanon even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall: he spake also of beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping things, and of fishes.
the cedar tree
The word airez, whence the Chaldee and Syriac arzo, and the Arabic and Ethiopic arz, and Spanish alerze, unquestionably denotes the cedar; it is thus rendered by the LXX. and other versions, [kedros] and by the Vulgate cedrus; and the inhabitants of mount Lebanon still call it ars. The cedar is a large and nobel evergreen tree, and grows on the most elevated part of the mountain, is taller than the pine, and so thick that five men together could scarcely fathom one. It shoots out its branches at ten or twelve feet from the ground; they are large and distant from each other, and are perpetually green. The wood is of a brown colour, very solid and incorruptible, if preserved from wet. The tree bears a small cone, like that of the pine.
Numbers 24:6; 2 Kings 19:23; Psalms 92:12
the hyssop
Exodus 12:22; Numbers 19:18; Psalms 51:7; Hebrews 9:19
of beasts
Genesis 1:20-25

Verse 34
And there came of all people to hear the wisdom of Solomon, from all kings of the earth, which had heard of his wisdom.
10:1; 2 Chronicles 9:1,23; Isaiah 2:2; Zechariah 8:23


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of Used by Permission.

Bibliography Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Kings 4:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge".

Lectionary Calendar
Friday, October 23rd, 2020
the Week of Proper 24 / Ordinary 29
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