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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge
Exodus 10



1God threatens to send locusts.
7Pharaoh moved by his servants, inclines to let the Israelites go.
12The plague of the locusts.
16Pharaoh entreats Moses.
21The plague of darkness.
24Pharaoh again entreats Moses, but yet is hardened.

Verse 1
And the LORD said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh: for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I might shew these my signs before him:
I have hardened
4:21; 7:13,14; 9:27,34,35; Psalms 7:11
that I
3:20; 7:4; 9:16; 14:17,18; 15:14,15; Joshua 2:9,10; 4:23,24; 1 Samuel 4:8; Romans 9:17

Verse 2
And that thou mayest tell in the ears of thy son, and of thy son's son, what things I have wrought in Egypt, and my signs which I have done among them; that ye may know how that I am the LORD.
And that
13:8,9,14; Deuteronomy 4:9; 6:20-22; Psalms 44:1; 71:18; 78:5,6; Joel 1:3; Ephesians 6:4
that ye
7:17; Psalms 58:11; Ezekiel 20:26,28

Verse 3
And Moses and Aaron came in unto Pharaoh, and said unto him, Thus saith the LORD God of the Hebrews, How long wilt thou refuse to humble thyself before me? let my people go, that they may serve me.
How long
9:17; 16:28; Numbers 14:27; 1 Kings 18:21; Proverbs 1:22,24; Jeremiah 13:10; Ezekiel 5:6; Hebrews 12:25
1 Kings 21:29; 2 Chronicles 7:14; 33:12,19; 34:27; Job 42:6; Proverbs 18:12; Isaiah 1:5; Isaiah 2:11; Jeremiah 13:18; Romans 2:4; James 4:10; 1 Peter 5:6

Verse 4
Else, if thou refuse to let my people go, behold, to morrow will I bring the locusts into thy coast:
8:10,23; 9:5,18; 11:4,5
The word arbeh, Locust, is derived from ravah, to multiply, be numerous, etc., because they are more prolific than any other insect, and because of the immense swarms of them by which different countries, especially the East, are infested. The locust, in entomology, belongs to a genus of insects known among naturalists by the name of Grylli; which includes three species, crickets, grasshoppers, and locusts. The common great brown locust is about three inches in length; has two antennæ about an inch long, and two pair of wings. The head and horns are brown; the mouth and inside of the larger legs bluish; the upper side of the body and upper wings brown, the former spotted with black, and the latter with dusky spots. The back is defended by a shield of a greenish hue: the under wings are of a light brown, tinctured with green, and nearly transparent. It has a large open mouth, in the two jaws of which it has four teeth, which traverse each other like scissors, being calculated, from their mechanism, to gripe or cut. The general appearance of the insect is that of the grasshopper. The Egyptians had gods in whom they trusted to deliver them from these terrible invaders; but by this judgment they were taught that it was impossible to stand before Moses, the servant of Jehovah.
Proverbs 30:27; Joel 1:4-7; 2:2-11,25; Revelation 9:3

Verse 5
And they shall cover the face of the earth, that one cannot be able to see the earth: and they shall eat the residue of that which is escaped, which remaineth unto you from the hail, and shall eat every tree which groweth for you out of the field:
Heb. eye.
the residue
9:32; Joel 1:4; 2:25

Verse 6
And they shall fill thy houses, and the houses of all thy servants, and the houses of all the Egyptians; which neither thy fathers, nor thy fathers' fathers have seen, since the day that they were upon the earth unto this day. And he turned himself, and went out from Pharaoh.
14,15; 9:24; 11:6; Joel 2:2
And he
11; 11:8; Hebrews 11:27

Verse 7
And Pharaoh's servants said unto him, How long shall this man be a snare unto us? let the men go, that they may serve the LORD their God: knowest thou not yet that Egypt is destroyed?
How long
23:33; Joshua 23:13; 1 Samuel 18:21; Proverbs 29:6; Ecclesiastes 7:26; 1 Corinthians 7:35
that Egypt
Psalms 107:34; Isaiah 14:20; 51:9; Jeremiah 48:4; 51:8; Zephaniah 1:18

Verse 8
And Moses and Aaron were brought again unto Pharaoh: and he said unto them, Go, serve the LORD your God: but who are they that shall go?
16,24; 12:31
Heb. who, and who, etc.

Verse 9
And Moses said, We will go with our young and with our old, with our sons and with our daughters, with our flocks and with our herds will we go; for we must hold a feast unto the LORD.
We will go
Genesis 50:8; Deuteronomy 31:12,13; Joshua 24:15; Psalms 148:12,13; Ecclesiastes 12:1; Ephesians 6:4
our flocks
Proverbs 3:9
a feast
3:18; 5:1,3; 8:25-28; 13:6; Numbers 29:12; 1 Corinthians 5:7,8

Verse 10
And he said unto them, Let the LORD be so with you, as I will let you go, and your little ones: look to it; for evil is before you.
be so
12:30,31; 13:21
look to it
2 Chronicles 32:15; Lamentations 3:37

Verse 11
Not so: go now ye that are men, and serve the LORD; for that ye did desire. And they were driven out from Pharaoh's presence.
for that
Psalms 52:3,4; 119:69
And they
28; 5:4

Verse 12
And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the land of Egypt for the locusts, that they may come up upon the land of Egypt, and eat every herb of the land, even all that the hail hath left.
eat every

Verse 13
And Moses stretched forth his rod over the land of Egypt, and the LORD brought an east wind upon the land all that day, and all that night; and when it was morning, the east wind brought the locusts.
east wind
14:21; Genesis 41:6; Psalms 78:26; 107:25-28; 148:8; Jonah 1:4; 4:8; Matthew 8:27

Verse 14
And the locusts went up over all the land of Egypt, and rested in all the coasts of Egypt: very grievous were they; before them there were no such locusts as they, neither after them shall be such.
the locusts
Deuteronomy 28:42; 1 Kings 8:37; Psalms 78:46; 105:34,35; Revelation 9:3-7
very grievous
5; Joel 1:2-4
6; 11:6; Joel 2:2

Verse 15
For they covered the face of the whole earth, so that the land was darkened; and they did eat every herb of the land, and all the fruit of the trees which the hail had left: and there remained not any green thing in the trees, or in the herbs of the field, through all the land of Egypt.
For they
5; Joel 1:6,7; 2:1-11,25
did eat
Psalms 78:46; 105:35

Verse 16
Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron in haste; and he said, I have sinned against the LORD your God, and against you.
called for
Heb. hastened to call. I have.
9:27; Numbers 21:7; 22:34; 1 Samuel 15:24,30; 26:21; 2 Samuel 19:20; Job 34:31,32; Proverbs 28:13; Matthew 27:4

Verse 17
Now therefore forgive, I pray thee, my sin only this once, and intreat the LORD your God, that he may take away from me this death only.
1 Samuel 15:25
and intreat
8:8; 9:28; 1 Kings 13:6; Isaiah 26:16; Romans 15:30; Acts 8:24
this death
2 Kings 4:40; 2 Corinthians 1:10

Verse 18
And he went out from Pharaoh, and intreated the LORD.
and intreated
8:9,28,29; Matthew 5:44; Luke 6:28

Verse 19
And the LORD turned a mighty strong west wind, which took away the locusts, and cast them into the Red sea; there remained not one locust in all the coasts of Egypt.
a mighty
Heb. fastened. the Red sea.
13:18; 15:4; Joel 2:20; Hebrews 11:29

Verse 20
But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let the children of Israel go.
4:21; 7:13,14; 9:12; 11:10; Deuteronomy 2:30; Isaiah 6:9,10; John 12:39,40; Romans 9:18; 2 Thessalonians 2:11,12

Verse 21
And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand toward heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, even darkness which may be felt.
As the Egyptians not only worshipped the light and sun, but also paid the same veneration to night and darkness, nothing could be more terrible than this punishment of palpable and coercive darkness, such as their luminary Osiris could not dispel. See Bryant, pp. 141-160.
Psalms 35:6; 78:49; 105:28; Proverbs 4:19; Ecclesiastes 2:14; 6:4; Isaiah 8:21,22; Matthew 27:45; Mark 15:33; Luke 23:44; 2 Peter 2:4,17; Jude 1:6,13; Revelation 16:10,11
even darkness which may be felt
Heb. that one may feel darkness.

Verse 22
And Moses stretched forth his hand toward heaven; and there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days:
thick darkness
20:21; Deuteronomy 4:11; 5:22; Psalms 105:28; Joel 2:2,31; Amos 4:13; Revelation 16:10

Verse 23
They saw not one another, neither rose any from his place for three days: but all the children of Israel had light in their dwellings.
but all
8:22; 9:4,26; 14:20; Joshua 24:7; Isaiah 42:16; 60:1-3; 65:13,14; Malachi 3:18; Colossians 1:13; 1 Peter 2:9

Verse 24
And Pharaoh called unto Moses, and said, Go ye, serve the LORD; only let your flocks and your herds be stayed: let your little ones also go with you.
Go ye
8,9; 8:28; 9:28
Genesis 34:23
little ones

Verse 25
And Moses said, Thou must give us also sacrifices and burnt offerings, that we may sacrifice unto the LORD our God.
Heb. into our hands. sacrifices.
29:1-46; 36:1-40; Leviticus 9:22; 16:9

Verse 26
Our cattle also shall go with us; there shall not an hoof be left behind; for thereof must we take to serve the LORD our God; and we know not with what we must serve the LORD, until we come thither.
12:32; Isaiah 23:18; 60:5-10; Hosea 5:6; Zechariah 14:20; Acts 2:44,45; 2 Corinthians 8:5
and we
Proverbs 3:9; Hebrews 11:8

Verse 27
But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he would not let them go.
1,20; 4:21; 14:4,8; Revelation 9:20; 16:10,11

Verse 28
And Pharaoh said unto him, Get thee from me, take heed to thyself, see my face no more; for in that day thou seest my face thou shalt die.
Get thee
for in that
2 Chronicles 16:10; 25:16; Amos 7:13

Verse 29
And Moses said, Thou hast spoken well, I will see thy face again no more.
I will see
11:4-8; 12:30,31; Hebrews 11:27


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of Used by Permission.

Bibliography Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Exodus 10:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge".

Lectionary Calendar
Thursday, October 29th, 2020
the Week of Proper 25 / Ordinary 30
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