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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge
Exodus 12



1The beginning of the year is changed.
3The passover is instituted.
11The import of the rite of the passover.
15Unleavened bread, etc.
29The firstborn are slain.
31The Israelites are driven out of the land.
37They come to Succoth.
41The time of their sojourning.
43The ordinance of the passover.

Verse 2
This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you.
A. M. 2513. B.C. 1491. An. Exod. Isr. 1. Abib or Nisan
13:4; 23:15; 34:18; Leviticus 23:5; Numbers 28:16; Deuteronomy 16:1; Esther 3:7

Verse 3
Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for an house:
Speak ye
4:30; 6:6; 14:15; 20:19; Leviticus 1:2
in the tenth
6; John 12:1,12
take to
Genesis 4:4; 22:8; 1 Samuel 7:9; John 1:29,36; 1 Corinthians 5:7; Revelation 5:6-13; 7:9-14; 13:8
or, kid. The word seh means the young of both sheep and goats, and may be indifferently rendered either lamb or kid. It is evident from ver. 5 that the Hebrews might take either; but they generally preferred a lamb, from being of a more gentle nature.
Leviticus 5:6; Numbers 15:11; 2 Chronicles 35:7
an house
The Israelites were divided into twelve tribes, these tribes into families, the families into houses, and the houses into particular persons.
Numbers 1:1-54; Joshua 7:14

Verse 5
Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year: ye shall take it out from the sheep, or from the goats:
be without
Leviticus 1:3,10; 22:19-24; Deuteronomy 17:1; Malachi 1:7,8,14; Hebrews 7:26; 9:13,14; 1 Peter 1:18,19
a male of the first year
Heb. son of a year.
Leviticus 23:12; 1 Samuel 13:1; *marg:

Verse 6
And ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening.
Leviticus 23:5; Numbers 9:3; 28:16,18; Deuteronomy 16:1-6; 2 Chronicles 30:15; Ezekiel 45:21
the whole
2 Chronicles 30:15-18; Isaiah 53:6; Matthew 27:20,25; Mark 15:1,8,11,25,33,34; Luke 23:1,18; Acts 2:23; 3:14; 4:27
in the evening
Heb. between the two evenings. The Jews divided the day into morning and evening: till the sun passed the meridian, all was morning or forenoon; after that, all was evening or afternoon. Their first evening began just after twelve o'clock, and continued till sunset; their second evening began at sunset, and continued till night, i.e., during the whole time of twilight; between twelve o'clock, therefore, and the termination of twilight, the passover was to be offered. See Parallel Passages.
16:12; Matthew 27:46-50

Verse 7
And they shall take of the blood, and strike it on the two side posts and on the upper door post of the houses, wherein they shall eat it.
22,23; Ephesians 1:7; Hebrews 9:13,14,22; 10:14,29; 11:28; 1 Peter 1:2

Verse 8
And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; and with bitter herbs they shall eat it.
eat the
Matthew 26:26; John 6:52-57
Deuteronomy 16:7; Psalms 22:14; Isaiah 53:10
13:3,7; 34:25; Numbers 9:11; Deuteronomy 16:3; Amos 4:5; Matthew 16:12; 1 Corinthians 5:6-8; Galatians 5:9
with bitter
1:14; Numbers 9:11; Zechariah 12:10; 1 Thessalonians 1:6

Verse 9
Eat not of it raw, nor sodden at all with water, but roast with fire; his head with his legs, and with the purtenance thereof.
but roast with fire
8; Deuteronomy 16:7; Lamentations 1:13

Verse 10
And ye shall let nothing of it remain until the morning; and that which remaineth of it until the morning ye shall burn with fire.
23:18; 29:34; 34:25; Leviticus 7:15-17; 22:30; Deuteronomy 16:4,5

Verse 11
And thus shall ye eat it; with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste: it is the LORD'S passover.
Matthew 26:19,20; Luke 12:35; Ephesians 6:15; 1 Peter 1:13
Luke 7:38; 15:22; Ephesians 6:15
it is the
27; Leviticus 23:5; Numbers 28:16; Deuteronomy 16:2-6; 1 Corinthians 5:7

Verse 12
For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD.
23; 11:4,5; Amos 5:17
will smite
29,30; 11:4-6
Numbers 33:4; 1 Samuel 5:3; 6:5; 1 Chronicles 14:12; Isaiah 19:1; Jeremiah 43:13; Zephaniah 2:11
or, princes.
21:6; 22:28; Psalms 82:1,6; John 10:34,35
I am the Lord
6:2; Isaiah 43:11-15; Ezekiel 12:16

Verse 13
And the blood shall be to you for a token upon the houses where ye are: and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and the plague shall not be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt.
the blood
23; Genesis 17:11; Joshua 2:12; Hebrews 11:28
and when
1 Thessalonians 1:10; 1 John 1:7
to destroy you
Heb. for a destruction.

Verse 14
And this day shall be unto you for a memorial; and ye shall keep it a feast to the LORD throughout your generations; ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance for ever.
13:9; Numbers 16:40; Joshua 4:7; Psalms 111:4; 135:13; Zechariah 6:14; Matthew 26:13; Luke 22:19; 1 Corinthians 11:23-26
a feast
5:1; Deuteronomy 16:11; Nehemiah 8:9-12
by an ordinance
17,24,43; 13:10; Leviticus 23:4,5; Numbers 10:8; 18:8; Deuteronomy 16:1; 1 Samuel 30:25; 2 Kings 23:21; Ezekiel 46:14; 1 Corinthians 5:7,8

Verse 15
Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread; even the first day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses: for whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel.
8; 13:6,7-10; 23:15; 34:18,25; Leviticus 23:5-8; Numbers 28:17; Deuteronomy 16:3,5,8; Matthew 16:12; Luke 12:1; Acts 12:3
that soul
19,20; 31:14; Genesis 17:14; Leviticus 17:10,14; Numbers 9:13; Malachi 2:12; Galatians 5:12

Verse 16
And in the first day there shall be an holy convocation, and in the seventh day there shall be an holy convocation to you; no manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done of you.
first day
Leviticus 23:2,3,7,8,21,24,25,27,35; Numbers 28:18,25; 29:1,12
no manner
16:5,23,29; 20:10; 35:2,3; Jeremiah 17:21,22
man Heb

Verse 17
And ye shall observe the feast of unleavened bread; for in this selfsame day have I brought your armies out of the land of Egypt: therefore shall ye observe this day in your generations by an ordinance for ever.
in this selfsame
7:5; 13:8; Numbers 20:16
an ordinance

Verse 18
In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month at even.
1,15; Leviticus 23:5,6; Numbers 28:16

Verse 19
Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses: for whosoever eateth that which is leavened, even that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a stranger, or born in the land.
23:15; 34:18; Deuteronomy 16:3; 1 Corinthians 5:7,8
even that
15; Numbers 9:13

Verse 21
Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said unto them, Draw out and take you a lamb according to your families, and kill the passover.
3:16; 17:5; 19:7; Numbers 11:16
and take
3; Numbers 9:2-5; Joshua 5:10; 2 Kings 23:21; 2 Chronicles 30:15-17; 35:5,6; Ezra 6:20; Matthew 26:17-19; Mark 14:12-16; Luke 22:7-13; 1 Corinthians 10:4
or, kid.
3; *marg:
the passover
That is, the lamb which was called the paschal, or passover lamb; the animal sacrificed obtaining the name of the institution. St. Paul copies the expression in 1 Co 5:7.

Verse 22
And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the bason, and strike the lintel and the two side posts with the blood that is in the bason; and none of you shall go out at the door of his house until the morning.
a bunch
Leviticus 14:6,7; Numbers 19:18; Psalms 51:7; Hebrews 9:1,14,19; 11:28; 12:24; 1 Peter 1:2
and none
Matthew 26:30

Verse 23
For the LORD will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when he seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side posts, the LORD will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you.
will pass through
and will not
2 Samuel 24:16; Isaiah 37:36; Ezekiel 9:4,6; 1 Corinthians 10:10; Hebrews 11:28; 12:24; Revelation 7:3; 9:4

Verse 24
And ye shall observe this thing for an ordinance to thee and to thy sons for ever.
14; Genesis 17:8-10

Verse 25
And it shall come to pass, when ye be come to the land which the LORD will give you, according as he hath promised, that ye shall keep this service.
Deuteronomy 4:5; 12:8,9; 16:5-9; Joshua 5:10-12; Psalms 105:44,45

Verse 26
And it shall come to pass, when your children shall say unto you, What mean ye by this service?
your children
13:8,9,14,15,22; Deuteronomy 6:7; 11:19; 32:7; Joshua 4:6,7,21-24; Psalms 78:3-6; Psalms 145:4; Isaiah 38:19; Ephesians 6:4

Verse 27
That ye shall say, It is the sacrifice of the LORD'S passover, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when he smote the Egyptians, and delivered our houses. And the people bowed the head and worshipped.
It is the sacrifice
11,23; 34:25; Deuteronomy 16:2,5; 1 Corinthians 5:7
4:31; 34:8; 1 Chronicles 29:20; 2 Chronicles 20:18; 29:30; Nehemiah 8:6

Verse 28
And the children of Israel went away, and did as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.
Hebrews 11:28

Verse 29
And it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle.
at midnight
12; 11:4; 13:15; Job 34:20; 1 Thessalonians 5:2,3
the Lord smote
The infliction of this judgment on the Egyptians was most equitable; because, after their nation had been preserved by one of the Israelitish family, they had, contrary to all right, and in defiance of original stipulation, enslaved the people to whom they had been so much indebted, had murdered their offspring, and made their bondage intolerable. See Bryant, p. 160.
Numbers 3:13; 8:17; 33:4; Psalms 78:51; 105:36; 135:8; 136:10; Hebrews 11:28; Hebrews 12:23
the first-born of Pharaoh
4:23; 11:5
Heb. house of the pit.
Isaiah 24:22; 51:14; Jeremiah 38:6,13; Zechariah 9:11

Verse 30
And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house where there was not one dead.
and there was a great cry
No people were more remarkable and frantic in their mournings than the Egyptians. When a relative died, every one left the house, and the women, with their hair loose, and their bosoms bare, ran wild about the street. The men also, with their apparel equally disordered, kept them company; all shrieking, howling, and beating themselves. What a scene of horror and distress must now have presented itself, when there was not a family in Egypt where there was not one dead!
11:6; Proverbs 21:13; Amos 5:17; Matthew 25:6; James 2:13

Verse 31
And he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve the LORD, as ye have said.
Rise up
3:19,20; 6:1; 11:1,8; Psalms 105:38
the children

Verse 32
Also take your flocks and your herds, as ye have said, and be gone; and bless me also.
your flocks
bless me
8:28; 9:28; Genesis 27:34,38

Verse 33
And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people, that they might send them out of the land in haste; for they said, We be all dead men.
11:1; Psalms 105:38
We be all
Genesis 20:3; Numbers 17:12,13

Verse 34
And the people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneadingtroughs being bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders.
kneading troughs
or, dough.
8:3; Probably like the kneading-troughs of the Arabs; comparatively small wooden bowls, which also serve them for dishes. Their being bound up in their clothes may mean no more than their being wrapped up in their {hykes,} or long, loose, garments. See Shaw's Travels, p. 224, 4to. edit.

Verse 35
And the children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment:
3:21,22; 11:2,3; Genesis 15:14; Psalms 105:37

Verse 36
And the LORD gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they lent unto them such things as they required. And they spoiled the Egyptians.
the Lord
3:21; 11:3; Genesis 39:21; Proverbs 16:7; Daniel 1:9; Acts 2:47; 7:10
they spoiled
3:22; Genesis 15:14; Psalms 105:37

Verse 37
And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot that were men, beside children.
the children
Numbers 33:3,5
1:11; Genesis 47:11
six hundred
38:26; Genesis 12:2; 15:5; 46:3; Numbers 1:46; 11:21

Verse 38
And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle.
And a mixed multitude
Heb. a great mixture.
Numbers 11:4; Zechariah 8:23

Verse 39
And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought forth out of Egypt, for it was not leavened; because they were thrust out of Egypt, and could not tarry, neither had they prepared for themselves any victual.
33; 6:1; 11:1

Verse 40
Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.
Acts 13:17; Hebrews 11:9
four hundred
Genesis 12:1-3; 15:13; Acts 7:6; Galatians 3:16,17

Verse 41
And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt.
Psalms 102:13; Daniel 9:24; Habakkuk 2:3; John 7:8; Acts 1:7
51; 7:4; Joshua 5:14

Verse 42
It is a night to be much observed unto the LORD for bringing them out from the land of Egypt: this is that night of the LORD to be observed of all the children of Israel in their generations.
a night to be much observed
Heb. a night of observations. observed.
14; Deuteronomy 16:1-6

Verse 43
And the LORD said unto Moses and Aaron, This is the ordinance of the passover: There shall no stranger eat thereof:
There shall
48; Leviticus 22:10; Numbers 9:14; Ephesians 2:12

Verse 44
But every man's servant that is bought for money, when thou hast circumcised him, then shall he eat thereof.
Genesis 17:12,13,23

Verse 45
A foreigner and an hired servant shall not eat thereof.
Leviticus 22:10; Ephesians 2:12

Verse 46
In one house shall it be eaten; thou shalt not carry forth ought of the flesh abroad out of the house; neither shall ye break a bone thereof.
one house
1 Corinthians 12:12; Ephesians 2:19-22
Numbers 9:12; John 19:33,36

Verse 47
All the congregation of Israel shall keep it.
All the
3,6; Numbers 9:13
keep it
Heb. do it.

Verse 48
And when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land: for no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof.
a stranger
43; Numbers 9:14; 15:15,16
let all
Genesis 17:12; Ezekiel 44:9; 47:22
shall be
Galatians 3:28; Colossians 3:11

Verse 49
One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among you.
Leviticus 24:22; Numbers 9:14; 15:15,16,29; Galatians 3:28; Colossians 3:11

Verse 50
Thus did all the children of Israel; as the LORD commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.
as the Lord
Deuteronomy 4:1,2; 12:32; Matthew 7:24,25; 28:20; John 2:5; 13:17; 15:14; Revelation 22:15
by their armies
41; 6:26; 7:4

Verse 51
And it came to pass the selfsame day, that the LORD did bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their armies.


Copyright Statement
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Bibliography Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Exodus 12:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge".

Lectionary Calendar
Wednesday, October 21st, 2020
the Week of Proper 24 / Ordinary 29
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