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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge
Exodus 23

 

 

Introduction
1Of slander, false witness, and partiality.
4Of charitableness.
6Of justice in judgment.
8Of taking bribes.
9Of oppressing a stranger.
10Of the year of rest.
12Of the sabbath.
13Of idolatry.
14Of the three feasts.
18Of the blood and the fat of the sacrifice.
20An angel is promised, with a blessing, if they obey him.

Verse 1
Thou shalt not raise a false report: put not thine hand with the wicked to be an unrighteous witness.
shalt not
7; 20:16; Leviticus 19:16; 2 Samuel 16:3; 19:27; Psalms 15:3; 101:5; 120:3; Proverbs 10:18; 17:4; 25:23; Jeremiah 20:10; Matthew 28:14,15; Romans 3:8
raise
or, receive. an unrighteous witness.
Deuteronomy 5:20; 19:16-21; 1 Kings 21:10-13; Psalms 27:12; 35:11; Proverbs 6:19; 12:17; Proverbs 19:5,9,28; 21:28; 24:28; 25:18; Matthew 19:18; 26:59-61; Luke 3:14; 19:8; Acts 6:11-13; Ephesians 4:25; 2 Timothy 3:3; 1 Peter 3:16; Revelation 12:10

Verse 2
Thou shalt not follow a multitude to do evil; neither shalt thou speak in a cause to decline after many to wrest judgment:
follow
32:1-5; Genesis 6:12; 7:1; 19:4,7-9; Numbers 14:1-10; Joshua 24:15; 1 Samuel 15:9; 1 Kings 19:10; Job 31:34; Proverbs 1:10,11,15; 4:14; Matthew 27:24-26; Mark 15:15; Luke 23:23,24,51; John 7:50,51; Acts 24:27; 25:9; Romans 1:32; Galatians 2:11-13
speak
or, answer. to decline.
6,7; Leviticus 19:15; Deuteronomy 1:17; Psalms 72:2; Jeremiah 37:15,21; 38:5,6,9; Ezekiel 9:9; Haggai 1:4

Verse 3
Neither shalt thou countenance a poor man in his cause.
Psalms 82:2,3; James 3:17

Verse 4
If thou meet thine enemy's ox or his ass going astray, thou shalt surely bring it back to him again.
Deuteronomy 22:1-4; Job 31:29,30; Proverbs 24:17,18; 25:21; Matthew 5:44; Luke 6:27,28; Romans 12:17-21; 1 Thessalonians 5:15

Verse 5
If thou see the ass of him that hateth thee lying under his burden, and wouldest forbear to help him, thou shalt surely help with him.
If thou see
Deuteronomy 22:4
and wouldest forbear to help him
or, Wilt thou cease to help him? or, wouldest cease to leave thy business for him; thou shalt surely leave it to join with him.

Verse 6
Thou shalt not wrest the judgment of thy poor in his cause.
2,3; Deuteronomy 16:19; 27:19; 2 Chronicles 19:7; Job 31:13,21,22; Psalms 82:3,4; Ecclesiastes 5:8; Isaiah 10:1,2; Jeremiah 5:28; 6:28; 7:6; Amos 5:11,12; Micah 3:1-4; Zephaniah 3:1-4; Malachi 3:5; James 2:5,6

Verse 7
Keep thee far from a false matter; and the innocent and righteous slay thou not: for I will not justify the wicked.
far from
1; Leviticus 19:11; Deuteronomy 19:16-21; Job 22:23; Proverbs 4:14,15; Isaiah 33:15; Luke 3:14; Ephesians 4:25; 1 Thessalonians 5:22
the innocent
Deuteronomy 27:25
for I will not
34:7; Proverbs 17:15; Nahum 1:3; Romans 1:18; 2:5,6

Verse 8
And thou shalt take no gift: for the gift blindeth the wise, and perverteth the words of the righteous.
thou shalt take
Deuteronomy 16:19; 1 Samuel 8:3; 12:3; Psalms 26:10; Proverbs 15:27; 17:8,23; 19:4; Ecclesiastes 7:7; Isaiah 1:13; 5:23; Ezekiel 22:12; Hosea 4:18; Amos 5:12; Micah 7:3
the wise
Heb. the seeing.

Verse 9
Also thou shalt not oppress a stranger: for ye know the heart of a stranger, seeing ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
thou shalt not
21:21; Deuteronomy 10:19; 24:14-18; 27:19; Psalms 94:6; Ezekiel 22:7
ye know
Matthew 18:33; Hebrews 2:17,18
heart
Heb. soul.

Verse 10

six years: Leviticus 25:3, Leviticus 25:4; Nehemiah href="/desk/?q=ne+10:31&sr=1">Nehemiah 10:31


Verse 11
But the seventh year thou shalt let it rest and lie still; that the poor of thy people may eat: and what they leave the beasts of the field shall eat. In like manner thou shalt deal with thy vineyard, and with thy oliveyard.
the seventh
Leviticus 25:2-7,11,12,20,22; 26:34,35
olive-yard
or, olive-trees.

Verse 12
Six days thou shalt do thy work, and on the seventh day thou shalt rest: that thine ox and thine ass may rest, and the son of thy handmaid, and the stranger, may be refreshed.
Six days
20:8-11; 31:15,16; Luke 13:14
and the son
Deuteronomy 5:13-15; Isaiah 58:3

Verse 13
And in all things that I have said unto you be circumspect: and make no mention of the name of other gods, neither let it be heard out of thy mouth.
be circumspect
Deuteronomy 4:9,15; Joshua 22:5; 23:11; 1 Chronicles 28:7-9; Psalms 39:1; Ephesians 5:15; 1 Timothy 4:16; Hebrews 12:15
make no mention
Numbers 32:38; Deuteronomy 12:3; Joshua 23:7; Psalms 16:4; Jeremiah 10:11; Hosea 2:17; Zechariah 13:2; Ephesians 5:12

Verse 14
Three times thou shalt keep a feast unto me in the year.
34:22; Leviticus 23:5,16,34; Deuteronomy 16:16

Verse 15
Thou shalt keep the feast of unleavened bread: (thou shalt eat unleavened bread seven days, as I commanded thee, in the time appointed of the month Abib; for in it thou camest out from Egypt: and none shall appear before me empty:)
the feast
12:14-28,43-49; 13:6,7; 34:18; Leviticus 23:5-8; Numbers 9:2-14; 28:16-25; Deuteronomy 16:1-8; Joshua 5:10,11; 2 Kings 23:21-23; Mark 14:12; Luke 22:7; 1 Corinthians 5:7,8
and none
34:20; Leviticus 23:10; Deuteronomy 16:16; Proverbs 3:9,10

Verse 16
And the feast of harvest, the firstfruits of thy labours, which thou hast sown in the field: and the feast of ingathering, which is in the end of the year, when thou hast gathered in thy labours out of the field.
feast of harvest
22:29; 34:22; Leviticus 23:9-21; Numbers 28:26-31; Deuteronomy 16:9-12; Acts 2:1
in-gathering
34:22; Leviticus 23:34-44; Numbers 29:12-39; Deuteronomy 16:13-15; Nehemiah 8:14-18; Zechariah 14:16-19; John 7:2,37

Verse 17
Three times in the year all thy males shall appear before the Lord GOD.
34:23; Deuteronomy 12:5; 16:16; 31:11; Psalms 84:7; Luke 2:42

Verse 18
Thou shalt not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leavened bread; neither shall the fat of my sacrifice remain until the morning.
blood
12:8,15; 34:25; Leviticus 2:11; 7:12; Deuteronomy 16:4
sacrifice
or, feast. remain.
12:10; Leviticus 7:15

Verse 19
The first of the firstfruits of thy land thou shalt bring into the house of the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in his mother's milk.
first of the
22:29; 34:26; Leviticus 23:10-17; Numbers 18:12,13; Deuteronomy 12:5-7; 26:10; Nehemiah 10:35; 1 Corinthians 15:20; Revelation 14:4
Thou shalt not seethe a kid
The true sense of this passage seems to be that assigned by Dr. Cudworth, from a MS. comment of a Karaïte Jew. "It was a custom with the ancient heathens, when they had gathered in all their fruits, to take a kid, and boil it in the dam's milk; and then in a magical way, to go about and sprinkle all their trees, and fields, and gardens, and orchards with it, thinking by these means, that they should make them fruitful, and bring forth more abundantly in the following year. Wherefore, God forbad his people, the Jews, at the time of their in-gathering, to use any such superstitious or idolatrous rite."
34:26; Deuteronomy 14:21; Proverbs 12:10; Jeremiah 10:3

Verse 20
Behold, I send an Angel before thee, to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared.
Angel
3:2-6; 14:19; 32:34; 33:2,14; Genesis 48:16; Numbers 20:16; Joshua 5:13; 6:2; Psalms 91:11; Isaiah 63:9; Malachi 3:1; 1 Corinthians 10:9,10
prepared
Genesis 15:18; Matthew 25:34; John 14:3

Verse 21
Beware of him, and obey his voice, provoke him not; for he will not pardon your transgressions: for my name is in him.
Beware of him
Psalms 2:12; Matthew 17:5; Hebrews 12:25
provoke him not
Numbers 14:11; Psalms 78:40,56; Ephesians 4:30; Hebrews 3:10,16
he will not
32:34; Numbers 14:35; Deuteronomy 18:19; Joshua 24:19; Jeremiah 5:7; Hebrews 3:11; 10:26-29; Hebrews 12:25; 1 John 5:16
my name
3:14; 34:5-7; Psalms 72:19; 83:18; Isaiah 7:14; 9:6; 42:8; 45:6; 57:15; Jeremiah 23:6; Matthew 1:23; John 5:23; 10:30,38; 14:9,10; Colossians 2:9; Revelation 1:8; Revelation 2:8,23; 3:7

Verse 22
But if thou shalt indeed obey his voice, and do all that I speak; then I will be an enemy unto thine enemies, and an adversary unto thine adversaries.
an enemy
Genesis 12:3; Numbers 24:9; Deuteronomy 30:7; Jeremiah 30:20; Zechariah 2:8; Acts 9:4,5
an adversary unto thine adversaries
or, I will afflict them that afflict thee.

Verse 23
For mine Angel shall go before thee, and bring thee in unto the Amorites, and the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the Canaanites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites: and I will cut them off.
mine Angel
20; 32:2; Isaiah 5:13
thee in
3:17; Genesis 15:19-21; 34:2; Joshua 24:8-11
the Hivites
The LXX., Samaritan, Coptic, and one Hebrew MS. add, "and the Girgashite;" thus making the seven nations.

Verse 24
Thou shalt not bow down to their gods, nor serve them, nor do after their works: but thou shalt utterly overthrow them, and quite break down their images.
shalt not
20:5
do after
Leviticus 18:3,26-30; Deuteronomy 12:30,31; 2 Chronicles 33:2,9; Psalms 101:3; 106:35-38; Ezekiel 16:47
overthrow
32:20; 34:13,14; Numbers 33:52; Deuteronomy 7:5,25,26; 12:3; 2 Chronicles 34:3-7

Verse 25
And ye shall serve the LORD your God, and he shall bless thy bread, and thy water; and I will take sickness away from the midst of thee.
And ye
Deuteronomy 6:13; 10:12,20; 11:13,14; 13:4; 28:1-6; Joshua 22:5; 24:14,15,21,24; 1 Samuel 7:3; 12:20,24; Jeremiah 8:2; Matthew 4:10
he shall
Deuteronomy 7:13; 28:5-8; Isaiah 33:16; Malachi 3:10
I will take
15:26; Deuteronomy 7:15; Psalms 103:3; Isaiah 33:24

Verse 26
There shall nothing cast their young, nor be barren, in thy land: the number of thy days I will fulfil.
shall nothing
Deuteronomy 7:14; 28:4; Job 21:10; Psalms 107:38; 144:13; Malachi 3:10,11
the number
Genesis 25:8; 35:29; 1 Chronicles 23:1; Job 5:26; 42:17; Psalms 55:23; 90:10; Isaiah 65:20

Verse 27
I will send my fear before thee, and will destroy all the people to whom thou shalt come, and I will make all thine enemies turn their backs unto thee.
my fear
15:14-16; Genesis 35:5; Deuteronomy 2:25; 11:23,25; Joshua 2:9-11; 1 Samuel 14:15; 2 Kings 7:6; 2 Chronicles 14:14
destroy
Deuteronomy 7:23
backs
Heb. neck.
Psalms 18:40

Verse 28
And I will send hornets before thee, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before thee.
hornets
Tzirâh, The hornet, may be so called from the Arabic zaraâ, to lay prostrate, strike down, because of the destruction occasioned by the violence of its sting. The hornet, in natural history, belongs to the species Crabro, of the genus Vespa or Wasp. It is a most voracious insect, and exceedingly strong for its size, which is generally an inch in length.
Deuteronomy 7:20; Joshua 24:11

Verse 29
I will not drive them out from before thee in one year; lest the land become desolate, and the beast of the field multiply against thee.
in one year
Deuteronomy 7:22; Joshua 15:63; 16:10; 17:12,13; Judges 3:1-4

Verse 31
And I will set thy bounds from the Red sea even unto the sea of the Philistines, and from the desert unto the river: for I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hand; and thou shalt drive them out before thee.
I will set
Genesis 15:18; Numbers 34:3-15; Deuteronomy 11:24; Joshua 1:4; 1 Kings 4:21,24; Psalms 72:8
deliver the
Numbers 21:34; Deuteronomy 3:2; Joshua 8:7,18; 10:8,19; 21:44; 23:14; 24:8; Judges 1:4; Judges 11:21; 1 Samuel 23:4; 1 Kings 20:13

Verse 32
Thou shalt make no covenant with them, nor with their gods.
shalt make
34:12,15; Deuteronomy 7:2; Joshua 9:14-23; 2 Samuel 21:1,2; Psalms 106:35; 2 Corinthians 6:15
nor with
Numbers 25:1,2; Deuteronomy 7:16

Verse 33
They shall not dwell in thy land, lest they make thee sin against me: for if thou serve their gods, it will surely be a snare unto thee.
they make
1 Kings 14:16; 2 Chronicles 33:9
it will surely
34:12; Deuteronomy 7:16; 12:30; Joshua 23:13; Judges 2:3; 1 Samuel 18:21; Psalms 106:36; 2 Timothy 2:26

 


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Bibliography Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Exodus 23:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/exodus-23.html.

Lectionary Calendar
Tuesday, May 21st, 2019
the Fifth Week after Easter
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