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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge
Exodus 34

 

 

Introduction
1The tables are renewed.
5The name of the LORD proclaimed.
8Moses entreats God to go with them.
10God makes a covenant with them, repeating certain duties of the first table.
28Moses, after forty days in the mount, comes down with the tables.
29His face shines, and he covers it with a vail.

Verse 1
And the LORD said unto Moses, Hew thee two tables of stone like unto the first: and I will write upon these tables the words that were in the first tables, which thou brakest.
Hew
31:18; 32:16,19; Deuteronomy 10:1
I will
28; Deuteronomy 10:1-4
the words
Psalms 119:89
which
32:19; Deuteronomy 9:15-17

Verse 2
And be ready in the morning, and come up in the morning unto mount Sinai, and present thyself there to me in the top of the mount.
in the top
19:20,24; 24:12; Deuteronomy 9:25

Verse 3
And no man shall come up with thee, neither let any man be seen throughout all the mount; neither let the flocks nor herds feed before that mount.
19:12,13,21; Leviticus 16:17; 1 Timothy 2:5; Hebrews 12:20

Verse 5
And the LORD descended in the cloud, and stood with him there, and proclaimed the name of the LORD.
descended
19:18; 33:9; Numbers 11:17,25; 1 Kings 8:10-12; Luke 9:34,35
the name
33:19; Numbers 14:17; Deuteronomy 32:3; Psalms 102:21; Proverbs 18:10; Isaiah 1:10

Verse 6
And the LORD passed by before him, and proclaimed, The LORD, The LORD God, merciful and gracious, longsuffering, and abundant in goodness and truth,
passed
33:20-23; 1 Kings 19:11
proclaimed
Numbers 14:17-19; Isaiah 12:4
The Lord
3:13-16
merciful
Deuteronomy 5:10; 2 Chronicles 30:9; Nehemiah 9:17; Psalms 86:5,15; 103:8-13; 111:4; 112:4; Psalms 116:5; 145:8; Joel 2:13; Jonah 4:2; Romans 2:4
abundant
Psalms 31:19; Micah 7:18; Romans 2:4; 5:20,21; Ephesians 1:7,8
truth
Psalms 57:10; 91:4; 108:4; 111:8; 138:2; 146:6; Lamentations 3:23; Micah 7:20; John 1:17

Verse 7
Keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children's children, unto the third and to the fourth generation.
Keeping
20:6; Deuteronomy 5:10; Nehemiah 1:5; 9:32; Psalms 86:15; Jeremiah 32:18; Daniel 9:4
forgiving
Psalms 103:3; 130:4; Daniel 9:9; Micah 7:18; Matthew 6:14,15; 12:31; 18:32-35; Luke 7:42,48; Acts 5:31; 13:38; Romans 4:7,8; Ephesians 1:7; 4:32; 1 John 1:9
that will by no means clear the guilty
The Hebrew nakkeh lo yenakkeh, has been rendered "Acquitting him who is not innocent." Nothing can more strongly express the goodness of God to frail mortals than this declaration, "which has been misunderstood and misinterpreted by all our translators."
23:7,21; Numbers 14:18-23; Deuteronomy 32:35; Joshua 24:19; Job 10:14; Psalms 9:16,17; Psalms 11:5,6; 58:10,11; 136:10,15; Isaiah 45:21; Micah 6:11; Nahum 1:2,3,6; Romans 2:4-9; 3:19-26; 9:22,23; Hebrews 12:29; Revelation 20:15; 21:8
visiting
20:5,6

Verse 8
And Moses made haste, and bowed his head toward the earth, and worshipped.
4:31; Genesis 17:3; 2 Chronicles 20:18

Verse 9
And he said, If now I have found grace in thy sight, O Lord, let my Lord, I pray thee, go among us; for it is a stiffnecked people; and pardon our iniquity and our sin, and take us for thine inheritance.
If now
33:13,17
let my Lord
33:14-16; Matthew 28:20
stiff-necked
32:9; 33:3-5; Isaiah 48:4
pardon
Numbers 14:19; Psalms 25:11
take us
19:5; Deuteronomy 32:9; Psalms 28:9; 33:12; 78:62; 94:14; 135:4; Jeremiah 10:16; Zechariah 2:12

Verse 10
And he said, Behold, I make a covenant: before all thy people I will do marvels, such as have not been done in all the earth, nor in any nation: and all the people among which thou art shall see the work of the LORD: for it is a terrible thing that I will do with thee.
I make
24:7,8; Deuteronomy 4:13; 5:2,3; 29:12-14
I will do marvels
Deuteronomy 4:32-37; 32:30; Joshua 6:20; 10:12,13; 2 Samuel 7:23; Psalms 77:14; 78:12; Psalms 147:20
a terrible
Deuteronomy 10:21; Psalms 65:5; 66:3,5; 68:35; 76:12; 106:22; 145:6; Isaiah 64:3; Jeremiah 32:21

Verse 11
Observe thou that which I command thee this day: behold, I drive out before thee the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite.
Observe
Deuteronomy 4:1,2,40; 5:32; 6:3,25; 12:28,32; 28:1; Matthew 28:20; John 14:21
I drive
3:8,17; 33:2; Genesis 15:18-21; Deuteronomy 7:1,19; 9:4,5

Verse 12
Take heed to thyself, lest thou make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land whither thou goest, lest it be for a snare in the midst of thee:
Take heed
23:32,33; Deuteronomy 7:2; Judges 2:2
lest
Deuteronomy 7:16; Joshua 23:12,13; Judges 2:3; 8:27; Psalms 106:36

Verse 13
But ye shall destroy their altars, break their images, and cut down their groves:
ye shall
23:24; Deuteronomy 7:5,25,26; 12:2,3; Judges 2:2; 6:25; 2 Kings 18:4; 23:14; 2 Chronicles 31:1; 34:3,4
images
Heb. statutes.

Verse 14
For thou shalt worship no other god: for the LORD, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God:
worship
20:3-5; Deuteronomy 5:7; Matthew 4:10
whose
5-7; 33:19; Isaiah 9:6; 57:15
jealous God
20:5; Deuteronomy 5:24; 6:15; 29:20; 32:16,21; Joshua 24:19; Nahum 1:2; 1 Corinthians 10:22

Verse 15
Lest thou make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land, and they go a whoring after their gods, and do sacrifice unto their gods, and one call thee, and thou eat of his sacrifice;
make
10,12; 23:32; Deuteronomy 7:2
whoring
Leviticus 17:7; 20:5,6; Numbers 15:39; Deuteronomy 31:16; Judges 2:17; Psalms 73:27; Jeremiah 3:9; Ezra 6:9; Hosea 4:12; 9:1; Revelation 17:1-5
call thee
Numbers 25:2; 1 Corinthians 10:27
eat
Psalms 106:28; 1 Corinthians 8:4,7,10; 10:20,21; Revelation 2:20

Verse 16
And thou take of their daughters unto thy sons, and their daughters go a whoring after their gods, and make thy sons go a whoring after their gods.
Numbers 25:1,2; Deuteronomy 7:3,4; 1 Kings 11:2-4; Ezra 9:2; Nehemiah 13:23,25; 2 Corinthians 6:14-17

Verse 17
Thou shalt make thee no molten gods.
32:8; Leviticus 19:4; Isaiah 46:6,7; Jeremiah 10:14; Acts 17:29; 19:26

Verse 18
The feast of unleavened bread shalt thou keep. Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, as I commanded thee, in the time of the month Abib: for in the month Abib thou camest out from Egypt.
12:15-20; 13:4,6,7; 23:15; Leviticus 23:6; Deuteronomy 16:1-4; Mark 14:1; Luke 22:1; Acts 12:3

Verse 19
All that openeth the matrix is mine; and every firstling among thy cattle, whether ox or sheep, that is male.
openeth
13:2,12; 22:29; Numbers 18:15-17; Ezekiel 44:30; Luke 2:23

Verse 20
But the firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb: and if thou redeem him not, then shalt thou break his neck. All the firstborn of thy sons thou shalt redeem. And none shall appear before me empty.
firstling
13:10; Numbers 18:15
lamb
or, kid. All the.
13:15; Numbers 3:45-51
none
23:15; Deuteronomy 16:16; 1 Samuel 9:7,8; 2 Samuel 24:24

Verse 21
Six days thou shalt work, but on the seventh day thou shalt rest: in earing time and in harvest thou shalt rest.
Six
20:9-11; 23:12; 35:2; Deuteronomy 5:12-15; Luke 13:14; 23:56
earing
Genesis 45:6; Deuteronomy 21:4; 1 Samuel 8:12; Isaiah 30:24

Verse 22
And thou shalt observe the feast of weeks, of the firstfruits of wheat harvest, and the feast of ingathering at the year's end.
feast of weeks
23:16; Numbers 28:16-31; 29:12-39; Deuteronomy 16:10-15; John 7:2; Acts 2:1
year's end
Heb. revolution of the year.

Verse 23
Thrice in the year shall all your men children appear before the Lord GOD, the God of Israel.
Thrice
23:14,17; Deuteronomy 16:16; Psalms 84:7
the God
Genesis 32:28; 33:20

Verse 24
For I will cast out the nations before thee, and enlarge thy borders: neither shall any man desire thy land, when thou shalt go up to appear before the LORD thy God thrice in the year.
I will
11; 23:27-30; 33:2; Leviticus 18:24; Deuteronomy 7:1; Psalms 78:55; 80:8
enlarge
23:31; Deuteronomy 12:20; 19:8; 1 Chronicles 4:10
desire
Genesis 35:5; 2 Chronicles 17:10; Job 1:10; Proverbs 16:7; Acts 18:10

Verse 25
Thou shalt not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leaven; neither shall the sacrifice of the feast of the passover be left unto the morning.
leaven
12:20; 23:18; Deuteronomy 16:3; 1 Corinthians 5:7,8
be left
12:10; 23:18; 29:34; Leviticus 7:15; Numbers 9:12

Verse 26
The first of the firstfruits of thy land thou shalt bring unto the house of the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in his mother's milk.
first
23:19; Deuteronomy 26:2,10; Proverbs 3:9,10; Matthew 6:33; 1 Corinthians 15:20; James 1:18
seethe
23:19; Deuteronomy 14:21

Verse 27
And the LORD said unto Moses, Write thou these words: for after the tenor of these words I have made a covenant with thee and with Israel.
Write
17:14; 24:4,7; Deuteronomy 31:9
I have
10; Deuteronomy 4:13; 31:9

Verse 28
And he was there with the LORD forty days and forty nights; he did neither eat bread, nor drink water. And he wrote upon the tables the words of the covenant, the ten commandments.
forty days
24:18; Deuteronomy 9:9,18,25
he wrote
1; 31:18; 32:16; Deuteronomy 4:13; 10:2-4; 2 Corinthians 3:7
commandments
Heb. words.

Verse 29
And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two tables of testimony in Moses' hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses wist not that the skin of his face shone while he talked with him.
A. M. 2513. B.C. 1491. An. Ex. Is. 1. Elul. Two tables
32:15
wist
16:15; Joshua 2:4; 8:14; Judges 16:20; Mark 9:6; 14:40; Luke 2:49; John 5:13; Acts 12:9; 23:5
the skin
Matthew 17:2; Luke 9:29; Acts 6:15; 2 Corinthians 3:7-9,13; Revelation 1:16; 10:1
face shone
As the original word karan, signifies to shine out, or dart forth, as horns on the head of an animal, or rays of light reflected from a polished surface, we may suppose that the heavenly glory which filled the soul of this holy man, darted out from his face in coruscations, in the manner in which light is generally represented. The Vulgate renders it, et ignorabat quod cornuta esset facies sua, "and he did not know that his face was horned;" which version, misunderstood, has induced painters to represent Moses with two very large horns, one proceeding from each temple!

Verse 30
And when Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face shone; and they were afraid to come nigh him.
afraid
Numbers 12:8; Mark 9:3,15; Luke 5:8

Verse 31
And Moses called unto them; and Aaron and all the rulers of the congregation returned unto him: and Moses talked with them.
called
3:15; 24:1-3
and Moses talked
Genesis 45:3,15

Verse 32
And afterward all the children of Israel came nigh: and he gave them in commandment all that the LORD had spoken with him in mount Sinai.
he gave
21:1; Numbers 15:40; 1 Kings 22:14; Matthew 28:20; 1 Corinthians 11:23; 15:3

Verse 33
And till Moses had done speaking with them, he put a vail on his face.
a vail
Romans 10:4; 2 Corinthians 3:13-18; 4:4-6

Verse 34
But when Moses went in before the LORD to speak with him, he took the vail off, until he came out. And he came out, and spake unto the children of Israel that which he was commanded.
he took
2 Corinthians 3:16; Hebrews 4:16; 10:19-22

Verse 35
And the children of Israel saw the face of Moses, that the skin of Moses' face shone: and Moses put the vail upon his face again, until he went in to speak with him.
29,30; Ecclesiastes 8:1; Daniel 12:3; Matthew 5:16; 13:43; John 5:35; Philippians 2:15

 


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Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Exodus 34:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/exodus-34.html.

Lectionary Calendar
Tuesday, October 15th, 2019
the Week of Proper 23 / Ordinary 28
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