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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Isaiah 5

 

 

Introduction
1Under the parable of a vineyard, God excuses his severe judgment.
8His judgments upon covetousness;
11upon lasciviousness;
13upon impiety;
20and upon injustice.
26The executioners of God's judgments.

Verse 1
Now will I sing to my wellbeloved a song of my beloved touching his vineyard. My wellbeloved hath a vineyard in a very fruitful hill:
Now
Deuteronomy 31:19-22; Judges 5:1-31; Psalms 45:1; 101:1
well-beloved
Song of Solomon 2:16; 5:2,16; 6:3
touching
27:2,3; Psalms 80:8; Song of Solomon 8:11,12; Jeremiah 2:21; Matthew 21:33; Mark 12:1; Luke 20:9; John 15:1
a very fruitful hill
Heb. the horn of the son of oil.

Verse 2
And he fenced it, and gathered out the stones thereof, and planted it with the choicest vine, and built a tower in the midst of it, and also made a winepress therein: and he looked that it should bring forth grapes, and it brought forth wild grapes.
fenced it
or, made a wall about it.
Exodus 33:16; Numbers 23:9; Deuteronomy 32:8,9; Psalms 44:1-3; Romans 9:4
planted
Jeremiah 2:21
the choicest vine
Sorek, in Arabic, sharik, certainly denotes an excellent vine; but some with Bp. Lowth, retain it as a proper name. Sorek was a valley lying between Askelon and Gaza, so called from the excellence of its vines.
Judges 16:4
and built
1:8; Micah 4:8
made
Heb. hewed. a winepress.
63:2,3; Nehemiah 13:15; Revelation 14:18-20
he looked
7; 1:2-4,21-23; Deuteronomy 32:6; Matthew 21:34; Mark 11:13; 12:2; Luke 13:7; 20:10-18; 1 Corinthians 9:7
wild grapes
Deuteronomy 32:32,33; Hosea 10:1

Verse 3
And now, O inhabitants of Jerusalem, and men of Judah, judge, I pray you, betwixt me and my vineyard.
judge
Psalms 50:4-6; 51:4; Jeremiah 2:4,5; Micah 6:2,3; Matthew 21:40,41; Mark 12:9-12; Luke 20:15,16; Romans 2:5; 3:4

Verse 4
What could have been done more to my vineyard, that I have not done in it? wherefore, when I looked that it should bring forth grapes, brought it forth wild grapes?
1:5; 2 Chronicles 36:14-16; Jeremiah 2:30,31; 6:29,30; Ezekiel 24:13; Matthew 23:37; Acts 7:51-60

Verse 5
And now go to; I will tell you what I will do to my vineyard: I will take away the hedge thereof, and it shall be eaten up; and break down the wall thereof, and it shall be trodden down:
go to
Genesis 11:4,7
I will take
27:10,11; Leviticus 26:31-35; Deuteronomy 28:49-52; 2 Chronicles 36:4-10; Nehemiah 2:3; Psalms 74:1-10; 80:12-16; Lamentations 1:2-9; 4:12
trodden down
Heb. for a treading.
10:6; 25:10; 28:3,18; Lamentations 1:15; Daniel 8:13; Luke 21:24; Revelation 11:2

Verse 6
And I will lay it waste: it shall not be pruned, nor digged; but there shall come up briers and thorns: I will also command the clouds that they rain no rain upon it.
I will lay
9,10; 6:11,12; 24:1-3,12; 32:13,14; Leviticus 26:33-35; Deuteronomy 29:23; 2 Chronicles 36:19-21; Jeremiah 25:11; 45:4; Luke 21:24
it shall
7:23-25; Hosea 3:4
also
30:23; Deuteronomy 28:23,24; Amos 4:7; Zechariah 14:16,17; Hebrews 6:6-8; Revelation 11:6

Verse 7
For the vineyard of the LORD of hosts is the house of Israel, and the men of Judah his pleasant plant: and he looked for judgment, but behold oppression; for righteousness, but behold a cry.
the vineyard
Psalms 80:8-11,15; Jeremiah 12:10
his pleasant plant
Heb. plant of his pleasures.
62:5; Psalms 147:11; 149:4; Song of Solomon 7:6; Zephaniah 3:17
he looked
2; 58:6-8; Exodus 22:22-27; Micah 6:8; Zechariah 7:9-14; Matthew 3:8-10; 23:23; John 15:2; 1 Corinthians 6:8-11; 1 John 3:7,8
but
The paronomasia, or play of words, is very remarkable here: he looked for mishpat, "judgment," but behold mispach, "oppression;" for tzedakah, "justice," but behold tz√ędkah, "a cry."
oppression
Heb. a scab.
1:6; 3:17
a cry
Genesis 4:10; Exodus 2:23,24; 3:7; 22:21-24,27; Deuteronomy 15:9; Nehemiah 5:1-5; Job 31:38,39; 34:28; Proverbs 21:13; Luke 18:7; James 5:4

Verse 8
Woe unto them that join house to house, that lay field to field, till there be no place, that they may be placed alone in the midst of the earth!
them
Jeremiah 22:13-17; Micah 2:2; Habakkuk 2:9-12; Matthew 23:14; Luke 12:16-24
field
1 Kings 21:16-20
they
Heb. ye placed.
Ezekiel 11:15; 33:24

Verse 9
In mine ears said the LORD of hosts, Of a truth many houses shall be desolate, even great and fair, without inhabitant.
In mine ears, said
or. This is in mine ears, saith, etc.
22:14; Amos 3:7
Of a truth, etc
Heb. If not many houses desolate, etc. desolate.
6; 27:10; 2 Chronicles 36:21; Amos 5:11; 6:11; Matthew 22:7; 23:38

Verse 10
Yea, ten acres of vineyard shall yield one bath, and the seed of an homer shall yield an ephah.
one
Leviticus 27:16; Ezekiel 45:10,11; Joel 1:17; Haggai 1:9-11

Verse 11
Woe unto them that rise up early in the morning, that they may follow strong drink; that continue until night, till wine inflame them!
rise
22; 28:1; Proverbs 23:29,30; Ecclesiastes 10:16,17; Hosea 7:5,6; Habakkuk 2:15; Luke 21:34; Romans 13:13; 1 Corinthians 6:10; Galatians 5:21; 1 Thessalonians 5:6,7
inflame
or, pursue.
28:7,8; Proverbs 20:1; 23:32

Verse 12
And the harp, and the viol, the tabret, and pipe, and wine, are in their feasts: but they regard not the work of the LORD, neither consider the operation of his hands.
the harp
22:13; Genesis 31:27; Job 21:11-14; Daniel 5:1-4,23; Amos 6:4-6; Luke 16:19; Jude 1:12
they regard
19; Job 34:27; Psalms 28:5; 92:5,6; Hosea 4:10,11

Verse 13
Therefore my people are gone into captivity, because they have no knowledge: and their honourable men are famished, and their multitude dried up with thirst.
my people
1:7; 42:22-25; 2 Kings 17:6; 2 Chronicles 28:5-8
because
1:3; 27:11; Jeremiah 8:7; Hosea 4:6; Matthew 23:16-27; Luke 19:44; John 3:19,20; Romans 1:28; 2 Peter 3:5
honourable men are famished
Heb. glory are men of famine.
Jeremiah 14:18; Lamentations 4:4,5,9
multitude
Jeremiah 14:3; Amos 8:13

Verse 14
Therefore hell hath enlarged herself, and opened her mouth without measure: and their glory, and their multitude, and their pomp, and he that rejoiceth, shall descend into it.
hell
14:9; 30:33; Psalms 49:14; Proverbs 27:20; Ezekiel 32:18-30; Habakkuk 2:5; Matthew 7:13; Revelation 20:13-15
opened
Numbers 16:30-34; Proverbs 1:12
he that rejoiceth
21:4; 1 Samuel 25:36-38; 2 Samuel 13:28,29; Psalms 55:15; Daniel 5:3-6,30; Nahum 1:10; Luke 12:19,20; 16:20-23; 17:27; 21:34; Acts 12:21-23

Verse 15
And the mean man shall be brought down, and the mighty man shall be humbled, and the eyes of the lofty shall be humbled:
the mean
2:9,11,17; 9:14-17; 24:2-4; Psalms 62:9; Jeremiah 5:4,5,9; James 1:9-11; Revelation 6:15,16
the eyes
10:12; 13:11; 37:23,29; Exodus 9:17; Job 40:11,12; Daniel 4:37; 1 Peter 5:5

Verse 16
But the LORD of hosts shall be exalted in judgment, and God that is holy shall be sanctified in righteousness.
the Lord
12:4; 1 Chronicles 29:11; Psalms 9:16; 21:13; 46:10; Ezekiel 28:22; 38:23; Romans 2:5; Revelation 19:1-5
God that is holy
or, the holy God. Heb. the God the holy.
6:3; 57:15; Revelation 3:7; 4:8; 15:3,4
sanctified
8:13; 29:23; Leviticus 10:3; Ezekiel 36:23; 1 Peter 1:16; 2:15

Verse 17
Then shall the lambs feed after their manner, and the waste places of the fat ones shall strangers eat.
shall the lambs
7:21,22,25; 17:2; 32:14; 40:11; 65:10; Zephaniah 2:6,14
the waste
10:16; Deuteronomy 32:15; Psalms 17:10,14; 73:7; 119:70; Jeremiah 5:28; Amos 4:1-3
strangers
1:7; Deuteronomy 28:33; Nehemiah 9:37; Lamentations 5:2; Hosea 8:7; Luke 21:24

Verse 18
Woe unto them that draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as it were with a cart rope:
draw
28:15; Judges 17:5,13; 2 Samuel 16:20-23; Psalms 10:11; 14:1; 36:2; 94:5-11; Jeremiah 5:31; 8:5-9; 23:10,14,24; 28:15,16; 44:15-19; Ezekiel 13:10,11,22; Zephaniah 1:12; John 16:2; Acts 26:9

Verse 19
That say, Let him make speed, and hasten his work, that we may see it: and let the counsel of the Holy One of Israel draw nigh and come, that we may know it!
Let him
66:5; Jeremiah 5:12,13; 17:15; Ezekiel 12:22,27; Amos 5:18,19; 2 Peter 3:3,4
let the
30:11; Jeremiah 23:18,36

Verse 20
Woe unto them that call evil good, and good evil; that put darkness for light, and light for darkness; that put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter!
them
Proverbs 17:15; Malachi 2:17; 3:15; Matthew 6:23; 15:3-6; 23:16-23; Luke 11:35; 16:15; 2 Timothy 3:1-5; 2 Peter 2:1,18,19
call evil good
Heb. say concerning evil, It is good, etc.

Verse 21
Woe unto them that are wise in their own eyes, and prudent in their own sight!
wise
Job 11:12; Proverbs 3:7; 26:12,16; John 9:41; Romans 1:22; 11:25; 12:16; 1 Corinthians 3:18-20
in their own sight
Heb. before their face.

Verse 22
Woe unto them that are mighty to drink wine, and men of strength to mingle strong drink:
mighty
11; 28:1-3,7; Proverbs 23:19,20; Habakkuk 2:15

Verse 23
Which justify the wicked for reward, and take away the righteousness of the righteous from him!
justify
Exodus 23:6-9; Proverbs 17:15; 24:24; 31:4,5
for reward
1:23; Deuteronomy 16:19; 2 Chronicles 19:7; Proverbs 17:23; Micah 3:11; 7:3
take
10:2; 1 Kings 21:13; Psalms 94:21; Matthew 23:35; 27:24,25; James 5:6

Verse 24
Therefore as the fire devoureth the stubble, and the flame consumeth the chaff, so their root shall be as rottenness, and their blossom shall go up as dust: because they have cast away the law of the LORD of hosts, and despised the word of the Holy One of Israel.
fire
Heb. tongue of fire. devoureth.
47:14; Exodus 15:7; Joel 2:5; Nahum 1:10; Malachi 4:1; 1 Corinthians 3:12,13
the flame
Matthew 3:12; Luke 3:17
their root
9:14-17; Job 18:16; Hosea 9:16; Amos 2:9
cast away
1 Samuel 15:23,26; 2 Kings 17:14,15; Nehemiah 9:26; Psalms 50:17; Jeremiah 6:19; 8:9; Luke 7:30; John 12:48; Hebrews 10:28,29
despised
30:12; 2 Samuel 12:9,10; Luke 10:16; Acts 13:41; 1 Thessalonians 4:8

Verse 25
Therefore is the anger of the LORD kindled against his people, and he hath stretched forth his hand against them, and hath smitten them: and the hills did tremble, and their carcases were torn in the midst of the streets. For all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still.
the anger
Deuteronomy 31:17; 32:19-22; 2 Kings 13:3; 22:13-17; 2 Chronicles 36:16; Psalms 106:40; Lamentations 2:1-3; 5:22; 1 Thessalonians 2:16
stretched
14:26,27
the hills
Psalms 18:7; 68:8; 77:18; 114:7; Jeremiah 4:24; Micah 1:4; Nahum 1:5; Habakkuk 3:10; Revelation 20:11
torn
or, as dung.
1 Kings 14:11; 16:4; 21:24; 2 Kings 9:37; Psalms 83:10; Jeremiah 8:2; 9:22; 15:3; 16:4; Zephaniah 1:17
For all
9:12,13,17,21; 10:4; Leviticus 26:14-46; Psalms 78:38; Daniel 9:16; Hosea 14:4

Verse 26
And he will lift up an ensign to the nations from far, and will hiss unto them from the end of the earth: and, behold, they shall come with speed swiftly:
he will
11:12; 18:3; Jeremiah 51:27
hiss
7:18; Zechariah 10:8
end
39:3; Deuteronomy 28:49; Psalms 72:8; Jeremiah 5:15; Malachi 1:11
they
30:16; Jeremiah 4:13; Lamentations 4:19; Joel 2:7; Habakkuk 1:8

Verse 27
None shall be weary nor stumble among them; none shall slumber nor sleep; neither shall the girdle of their loins be loosed, nor the latchet of their shoes be broken:
shall be
Joel 2:7,8
neither
11:5; 45:1,5; 1 Kings 2:5; Job 12:18,21; *marg:; Psalms 18:32; 93:1; Daniel 5:6; Ephesians 6:13,14
nor the latchet
Deuteronomy 32:25

Verse 28
Whose arrows are sharp, and all their bows bent, their horses' hoofs shall be counted like flint, and their wheels like a whirlwind:
arrows
Psalms 45:5; 120:4; Jeremiah 5:16; Ezekiel 21:9-11
their horses
Judges 5:22; Jeremiah 47:3; Micah 4:13; Nahum 2:3,4; 3:2

Verse 29
Their roaring shall be like a lion, they shall roar like young lions: yea, they shall roar, and lay hold of the prey, and shall carry it away safe, and none shall deliver it.
roaring
31:4; Genesis 49:9; Numbers 24:9; Jeremiah 4:7; 49:19; 50:17; Hosea 11:10; Amos 3:8; Zechariah 11:3
lay hold
42:22; 49:24,25; Psalms 50:22; Micah 5:8

Verse 30
And in that day they shall roar against them like the roaring of the sea: and if one look unto the land, behold darkness and sorrow, and the light is darkened in the heavens thereof.
like
Psalms 93:3,4; Jeremiah 6:23; 50:42; Luke 21:25
if one look
8:22; 13:10; Exodus 10:21-23; Jeremiah 4:23-28; Lamentations 3:2; Ezekiel 32:7,8; Joel 2:10; Amos 8:9; Matthew 24:29; Luke 21:25,26; Revelation 6:12; 16:10,11
sorrow
or, distress. and the light, etc. or, when it is light, it shall be dark in the destructions thereof.

 


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Bibliography Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Isaiah 5:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/isaiah-5.html.


Lectionary Calendar
Wednesday, September 20th, 2017
the Week of Proper 19 / Ordinary 24
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