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Bible Commentaries

Vincent's Word Studies
Titus 3



Verse 1

Put them in mind ( ὑπομίμνησκε ἐξουσίαις )

See on 2 Timothy 2:14, and see on ὑπόμνησιν reminding 2 Timothy 1:5.

Principalities and powers ( ἀρχαῖς ἐξουσίαις )

Omit and. Principalities which are authorities. Ἁρχή beginning= that which begins: the leader, principality. See on Colossians 1:16; see on Judges 1:6; see on Acts 10:11. Only here in Pastorals. Ἑξουσία rightauthority. See on Mark 2:10; see on John 1:12; see on Colossians 1:16. Only here in Pastorals. For the combination principalities and powers, see on Luke 20:20.

To obey magistrates ( πειθαρχεῖν )

Comp. Acts 5:29, Acts 5:32; Acts 27:21. See on Acts 5:29. The idea of magistrates is contained in the word itself; but it is quite proper to render as Rev. to be obedient. Rare in lxx.

Ready to every good work ( πρὸς πᾶν ἔργον ἀγαθὸν ἑτοίμους εἶναι )

The phrase N.T.o Ἑτοίμος readyonly here in Pastorals. Comp. ἑτοιμασία readinessor preparation, Ephesians 6:15(note).

Verse 2

No brawlers ( ἀμάχους )

Better as Rev., not to be contentious. See on 1 Timothy 3:3. Pastonosupersub.

Verse 3

Divers - pleasures ( ἡδοναῖς ποικίλαις )

Ἡδονή pleasureonly here in Pastorals. oP. See on James 4:1. For ποικίλαις diverssee on 2 Timothy 3:6.

Malice ( κακίᾳ )

Only here in Pastorals. See on James 1:21. In N.T. κακία is a special form of vice, not viciousness in general, as Cicero, Tusc. iv. 15, who explains by “vitiositas, a viciousness which includes all vices.” Calvin, on Ephesians 4:32, defines as “ a viciousness of mind opposed to humanity and fairness, and commonly styled malignity.” The homily ascribed to Clement of Rome, describes κακία as the forerunner ( προοδοίπορον ) of our sins (x). Malice is a correct translation.

Verse 4

Kindness ( χρηστότης )

Only here in Pastorals. Elsewhere only in Paul. See on Romans 3:12, and see on easy, Matthew 11:30.

Love ( φιλανθρωπία )

Love is too vague. It is love toward men; comp. Titus 3:2. Only here and Acts 28:2: φιλανθρώπως kindly, Acts 27:3(note). While it cannot be asserted that the heretical characteristics noted in the Pastoral Epistles point collectively to any specific form of error, it is true, nevertheless, that certain characteristics of the economy of grace are emphasized, which are directly opposed to Gnostic ideas. Thus the exhortation that supplications be made for all men, supported by the statement that God wills that all men should be saved and come to the knowledge of the truth (1 Timothy 2:1, 1 Timothy 2:4), is in the teeth of the Gnostic distinction between men of spirit and men of matter, and of the Gnostic principle that the knowledge ( ἐπίγνωσις ) of truth was only for a limited, intellectual class. To the same effect is the frequent recurrence of all, for all, in connection with the saving and enlightening gifts of God (1 Timothy 2:6; 1 Timothy 4:10; 1 Timothy 6:13; Titus 2:11). So here: not only has the saving grace of God appeared unto all (Titus 2:11), but it has revealed itself as kindness and love to man as man.

Verse 5

Not by works of righteousness which we have done ( οὐκ ἐξ ἔργων τῶν ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ ἃ ἐποιήσαμεν )

Lit. not by works, those namely in righteousness, which we did. The thought is entirely Pauline. Ἑξ ἔργων strictly, out of, in consequence of works. Εν δικαιοσύνῃ inthe sphere of righteousness; as legally righteous men. Comp. Ephesians 2:9. We did emphatic. Comp. Romans 10:5; Galatians 3:10, Galatians 3:12; Galatians 5:3.

According to his mercy ( κατὰ τὸ αὐτοῦ ἔλεος )

The phrase only 1 Peter 1:3. Comp. Romans 15:9; Ephesians 2:4; Judges 1:21.

By the washing of regeneration ( διὰ λουτροῦ παλινγενεσίας )

Λουτρόν only here and Ephesians 5:26. It does not mean the act of bathing, but the bath, the laver. Παλινγενεσία only here and Matthew 19:28, where it is used of the final restoration of all things. The phrase laver of regeneration distinctly refers to baptism, in connection with which and through which as a medium regeneration is conceived as taking place. Comp. Romans 6:3-5. It is true that nothing is said of faith; but baptism implies faith on the part of its recipient. It has no regenerating effect apart from faith; and the renewing of the Holy Spirit is not bestowed if faith be wanting.

Renewing ( ἀνακαινώσεως )

Only here and Romans 12:2. Comp. 2 Corinthians 5:7. Paul has ἀνακαινοῦν torenew, 2 Corinthians 4:16; Colossians 3:10: ἀνακαίνωσις renewing Romans 12:2. Ἁνακαινίζειν torenew, only Hebrews 6:6. The connection of the genitive is disputed. Some make it dependent on λουτροῦ bathso that the bath of baptism is conceived as implying regeneration and renewing of the Holy Spirit. Others construe with renewing only, ἀνακαινώσεως being dependent on διὰ ; through the laver of regeneration and (through) the renewing, etc. The former seems the more probable. The phrase renewing of the Holy Spirit only here. In N.T. the Spirit or the Holy Spirit is joined in the genitive with the following words: comfort, joy, power, love, demonstration, manifestation, earnest, ministration, fellowship, promise, fruit, unity, sword, sanctification.

Verse 6

Shed ( ἐξέχεεν )

Or poured forth. Only here in Pastorals. Most frequent in Revelation. The pouring out of the Spirit is an O.T. metaphor. See Joel 3:1, Joel 3:2, cit. in Acts 2:17, Acts 2:18; Zechariah 12:10. In Paul the verb occurs but once, of shedding blood, Romans 3:15, cit.

Verse 7

Being justified ( δικαιωθέντες )

In Pastorals only here and 1 Timothy 3:16(note). See Introd. VI. Justification is conceived as taking place before the outpouring of the Spirit.

By his grace ( τῇ ἐκείνου χάριτι )

By the grace of Jesus Christ. See Acts 15:11; 2 Corinthians 8:9; 2 Corinthians 13:14; Romans 5:6; Galatians 1:6.

We should be made heirs ( κληρονόμοι γενηθῶμεν )

Κληρονόμος heironly here in Pastorals. A favorite idea of Paul. See Romans 4:13; Romans 8:17; Galatians 3:29. Heirship of eternal life is the result of justification. So, clearly, 2Corinthians href="/desk/?q=2co+5:5&sr=1">2 Corinthians 5:5; Ephesians 1:14.

According to the hope of eternal life ( κατ ' ἐλπίδα ζωῆς αἰωνίου )

Const. of eternal life with heirs, and rend. heirs of eternal life according to hope. Comp. Romans 4:18; Romans 5:2; Romans 8:24; Galatians 5:5; Colossians 1:5, Colossians 1:27; Titus 1:2; 1 Peter 1:3; 1 John 3:2, 1 John 3:3.

Verse 8

Affirm constantly ( διαβεβαιοῦσθαι )

PastoSee on 1 Timothy 1:7. Constantly, not continually, but uniformly and consistently. So Book of Common Prayer, “Collect for Saint John Baptist's Day,” “and after his example constantly speak the truth.” Rend. affirm steadfastly.

Might be careful ( φροντίζωσιν )

N.T.oQuite often in lxx. Frequent in Class. To think or consider; hence to take careful thought, ponder, be anxious about.

To maintain ( προΐ̀στασθαι )

Mostly in Pastorals, and usually in the sense of ruling, as Romans 12:8; 1 Thessalonians 5:12; 1 Timothy 3:4, 1 Timothy 3:5. The sense here is to be forward in.

Profitable ( ὠφέλιμα )

Pastoolxx. Comp. 1 Timothy 4:8; 2 Timothy 3:16.

Verse 9

Foolish questions, etc.

See on 2 Timothy 2:23. For genealogies see on 1 Timothy 1:4.

Strivings about the law ( μάχας νομικὰς )

The phrase N.T.oComp. 1 Timothy 1:7. Νομικός mostly in Luke. Everywhere except here a lawyer, with the article or τὶς .

Unprofitable ( ἀνωφελεῖς )

Only here and Hebrews 7:18.

Vain ( μάταιοι )

Only here in Pastorals. Twice in Paul, 1 Corinthians 3:20, cit.; 1 Corinthians 15:17(note). Very frequent in lxx. The sense is aimless or resultless, as μάταιος εὐχή aprayer which cannot obtain fulfilment. The questions, genealogies, etc., lead to no attainment or advancement in godliness. Comp. ματαιολογία jangling 1 Timothy 1:6; ματαιολόγοι vaintalkers, 1 Timothy 1:10; ματαιότης vanity Romans 8:20; Ephesians 4:17; ἐματαιώθησαν weremade vain, Romans 1:21; μάτην invain, Matthew 15:9.

Verse 10

A man that is an heretic ( αἱρετικὸν ἄνθρωπον )

Ἁιρετικός hereticalN.T.oFor αἵρεσις heresysee on 1 Peter 2:1.

Admonition ( νουθεσίαν )

Only here, 1 Corinthians 10:11; Ephesians 6:4(note). See on νουθετεῖν toadmonish, Acts 20:31.

Verse 11

Is subverted ( ἐξέστραπται )

N.T.oMore than turned away from the right path: rather, turned inside out. Comp. lxx, Deuteronomy 32:20.

Sinneth ( ἁμαρτάνει )

See on 1 John 1:9; see on Matthew 1:21, and see on trespasses, Matthew 6:14.

Condemned of himself ( αὐτοκατάκριτος )

Better as Rev., self-condemned. N.T.oolxx, oClass.

Verse 12


There were several cities of this name, one in Cilicia, one in Thrace, and one in Epirus. It is uncertain which one is meant here.

To winter ( παραχειμάσαι )

Comp. Acts 27:12; Acts 28:11; 1 Corinthians 16:6. The noun παραχειμασία wintering Acts 27:12.

Verse 14

Ours ( ἡμέτεροι )

Our brethren in Crete.

For necessary uses ( εἰς τὰς ἀναγκαίας χρείας )

The phrase N.T.oWith reference to whatever occasion may demand them.

Unfruitful ( ἄκαρποι )

Only here in Pastorals. In Paul, 1 Corinthians 14:14; Ephesians 5:11. Not only in supplying the needs, but in cultivating Christian graces in themselves by acts of Christian service.

Verse 15

Them that love us in the faith ( τοὺς φιλοῦντας ἡμᾶς ἐν πίστει )

Better, in faith. The phrase N.T.o Φιλεῖν tolove, only here in Pastorals, and in Paul, only 1 Corinthians 16:22. See on ἀγάπη love Galatians 5:22. Const. in faith with that love us.


Copyright Statement
The text of this work is public domain.

Bibliography Information
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Titus 3:4". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Lectionary Calendar
Tuesday, October 20th, 2020
the Week of Proper 24 / Ordinary 29
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