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Bible Commentaries

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament
1 John 2

 

 

Verse 1

Observe here, the compellation. First, My little children. The apostle calls the Christians to whom he wrote, children, little children; his little children. He calls them children, because converted to Christianity; little children, because younger and tender Christians, of a low stature in religion, and far short of manly perfections; and his little children, to denote that spiritual relation which was between him and them, and that endeared affection which he bare towards them. St. John, by a loving compellation, makes way for a faithful admonition, which follows in the next words: These things I write, that ye sin not. This must be understood in a qualified sense, thus:

1. Sin not, that is, as the wicked sin; take heed of scandalous enormities, though you cannot shake off daily infirmities.

2. Sin not, as in the same kind that others sin, so abstain either in the same manner that you yourselves before sinned; sin not with that fulness of deliberation, with that freedom of consent; sin not with that strength of resolution, with that frequency of action, with which you sinned before you were called to Christianity.

3. Sin not; that is, as far as human nature will admit, abstain from all sin; let it be your care, prayer, study, endeavour, to keep yourselves from every evil thing.

Thus Zachary and Elizabeth were blameless. Luke 1:6 that is, they lived to themselves; so it is said of Job, he sinned not; Job 1:22 that is, had no sin prevailing in him; no sin indulged by him.

Observe, 3. As the cautionary direction, sin not; so the comfortable conclusion, but if any man sin, that is, through infirmity and weakness, through the policy of the tempter, or by the surprise of a temptation, we have and advocate, a mediator and an intercessor in heaven, who is absolutely sinless, even Jesus Christ the righteous. It is a metaphor, taken from courts of judicature, where are the guilty person, the accuser, the judge, and the advocate: Thus here heaven is the court, man is the guilty person, Satan the accuser, God the judge, Christ the advocate. The proper office of an advocate is, not to deny the fact, or disown the guilt, but to offer something to the judge, whereby the law may be satisfied, and upon which the judge may, without any unrighteousness, discharge the accused.

Observe, 4. An invaluable privilege here discovered, that Christ our advocate became a propitiation for us, and for the whole race of mankind, for all that lived before us, or shall live after us, for Jews and Gentiles; there is a virtual sufficiency in the death of Christ for all persons, and an actual efficacy as to all believers.

Learn hence, That our Lord Jesus Christ, suffering death upon the cross for our redemption, did by that one oblation of himself once offered, make a full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction for the sins of the whole world. The original word propitiation, signifies a propitatory covering, an allusion to the mercy seat that covered the ark in which the law was. In allusion to which, Christ is here called our propitiatory covering, because he hides our sins, the transgressions of the law, from his Father's sight.


Verse 3

Observe here, 1. That a Christian may be assured of his salvation; to know that we know, is to be assured that we know; not only to have the vital, but the fiducial act of faith. Some Christians can say, "We know that we know him."

Observe, 2. The nature of true Christian knowledge discovered: it is an obedient knowledge: it is not sufficient to profess that we know Christ, except we yield sincere obedience to him: for this is a certain mark and proof that we know Christ effectually, if we love him, and keep his commandments. The true knowledge of God consists in keeping of the word of God, the whole word of God, and because it is his.

Observe, 3. That to say we know God, when we do not keep his commandments, and to say we keep his commandments, when we do not know him, is a lie. Sad will their condition be who perish for want of the knowledge of God, but much sadder theirs, who perish in the neglect or abuse of that knowledge.

Observe, 4. That a conscientious care, and constant endeavor to observe the word, and keep the law of God, is a certain mark and evidence that he that doth it has the love of God perfected in him, and towards him; Whosoever keepeth his word, in him verily is the love of God perfected.


Verse 6

Observe here, 1. An high and honorable privilege supposed to be claimed, and that is union with Christ, and abiding in him; he that saith he abideth in him. The abiding in Christ is a great privilege, and the true and real Christian doth truly and really abide in Christ.

Observe, 2. A great and important duty belonging to all those that do abide in Christ, and that is to walk as Christ walked; to set his example daily before them, and to be continually correcting and reforming of their lives by that glorious pattern. Every Christian is bound to an imitation of Christ, under penalty of forfeiting his claim to Christ; for no claim to Christ is or can be valid without a careful imitation of him. The temper of our minds, and the actions of our lives, must be a lively transcript of the mind and life of the holy and innocent Jesus; we must be like him, or we can never love him, nor hope another day to live with him.


Verse 7

Our apostle here exhorts Christians to the great duty of brotherly love, assuring them, that it was no new commandment which he enjoined them, but that which they were taught, not only in and by the Old Testament, but at the first preaching of the gospel amongst them; and in these respects the command of love might be called an old commandment, it being a branch of the law of nature, and a known precept of the Jewish religion; although in other respects it might be called a new commandment, because urged from a new motive, and enforced by a new example.

Learn hence, 1. That the doctrine of Christian love is a divine commandment , that which Christians are not only allowed, but enjoined to practice; and it is called the commandment, in the singular number, to intimate, that in this one commandment all the rest were contained, so that in keeping this we keep all. What are all the commandments indeed but love enlarged? And what is love but the commandments contracted?

Learn, 2. That the commandment of love is an old commandment; it is as old as Moses, yea, as old as Adam; being a part of the law of nature written in Adam's heart. The evangelical command of love was from the beginning of the law, and nothing new enjoined by Christ, which was not before by Moses.

Learn, 3. That yet this command of love may, in some respect, be called a new commandment; not substantially, but circumstantially: not in the essence of the doctrine, but in the manner of the discovery; not in respect of the truth delivered, but in the way of delivering. New, not in regard of institution, but restitution, because purged from the old corrupt glossed of the Pharisees, who had limited this duty of love, and confined it to their our countrymen; whereas Christ obliges his disciples to love mankind, even our very enemies. In a word, it may be called a new commandment, because it was never to wax old, but to be always fresh in the memory and practice of Christ's disciples to the end of the world.

Observe next, The arguments to enforce the observation of this new commandment;

1. In those word, which thing is true in him and in you: that is, as there was in Christ a true and sincere love towards you, so look that there be a true and sincere love in you towards him, and one towards another.

2. Because the darkness is past, and the true light now shineth; that is, the darkness of ignorance in general, and the darkness of the Mosaic state in particular, is now past, and the true light of the gospel now clearly shineth.


Verse 9

Two things are here to be considered, namely, the grace and duty proposed and enforced, and the sin or vice specified and opposed.

Observe, 1. The grace proposed, or the duty recommended, namely, the love of our brother: He that loveth his brother abideth in the light, and there is no occasion of stumbling in him.

Where note, 1. The nature of brotherly love; it is a gracious propensity of heart, which a Christian bears, for Christ's sake, to his neighbour, whereby he wills, and, to his power, procures all good for him; or it is that brotherly affection which every true Christian chiefly bears to all his fellow-members in Christ, for grace sake.

Note, 2. The benefits attending the practice of this grace and duty.

1. His condition is happy, he abideth in the light: that is, he is in a state of grace. Charity is an evident demonstration of sanctity; and accordingly St. Paul, Galatians 5:1 reckoning up the fruits of the spirit, placeth love in the front of them.

2. His conversation is holy, there is no occasion of stumbling in him; that is, he walketh inoffensively in a state of grace, and neither stumbleth himself, neither is there occasion given by him that others should stumble, or be drawn into any sin.

Observe, 2. The sin specified, and the vice opposed, namely, hating of our brother: He that hateth his brother is in darkness, and walketh in darkness.

Where note, 1. It is not any hurting, but hating our brother, that is forbidden, and that this hatred is not only forbidden whilst he is our friend, but when he becomes our enemy. To hate a friend is unhuman; to hate an enemy is unchristian. And further, it must be noted, that whatever falls short of the duty of loving, cometh within the compass of hating our brother: from every departure from love is a degree of hatred.

Note, 2. The dismal character given of those persons who hate their brother; they are described by their wicked disposition; they are in darkness: by their vicious conversation; they walk in darkness: by their miserable condition; they know not whither they go, because that darkness hath blinded their eyes.

From the whole learn, That we must love all, in the various measures and degrees, according to which God appeareth in them: That is, we must love all men, as men, above the brutes; and we must love all professed Christians, above all other men; and we must love real Christians, especially such of them as are eminent for wisdom, goodness, and usefulness, above all other Christians. The light of knowledge and the heat of love must be inseparable.


Verse 12

Observe here, 1. The care which God has taken, not only to have his word preached, but written; I write unto you, partly to supply his ministers' absence, that their writings might be instead of vocal instructions, partly to perpetuate truth unto posterity, and to transmit divine revelations to future ages.

Observe, 2. The subject or persons whom our apostle writes to; fathers, young men, and children; where, in general the great wisdom of the apostle is to be observed and taken notice of, that he contents not himself with generals, but directs his discourse particularly to old and young; plainly intimating, that none are too young to receive instruction, none are old enough to reject it. And if St. John wrote to persons of all ages and conditions, then the sacred writings are to be read to, and read by, persons of every age and condition soever. And if the Scriptures be perverted by some, that is not a natural effect, but only an accidental consequent of reading the Scriptures. Now, as evil must not be done that good may come of it, so good must not be left undone, though evil come of it.

Observe, 3. The duty which all sorts of Christians ought to be exhorted and excited to, and that is love; love to God, accompanied with obedience; and love to all Christians, in obedience to the command of God. It belongs to all sorts of Christians, weak and strong; to all ages of men, young and old, children and fathers, to expel the poison of anger and hatred out of their bosoms, and mutually to embrace one another.

Observe, 4. The reasons of our apostle's writing to all christians in general, and to each age in particular.

Note, 1. The reason assigned for writing to children, 1 John 2:12 Because your sins are forgiven you for his name's sake: therefore ought you mutually to forgive, and cordially to love one another.

Note, 2. The reason assigned for writing to fathers; Because ye have known him that is from the beginning; that is Jesus Christ, who, in respect of his divine nature, had subsistence from the beginning; that is from all eternity. And if so, then our blessed Saviour had a being antecedent to his conception, and before he was born of the virgin Mary; he then began to be man, but he did not then begin to be; for before Abraham was he was; and he prays to his Father, Joshua 17:5 to glorify him with the glory which he had with him before the world was.

Mark, It is not said, with the glory which thou preparedst for me in thy decree and purpose before the world was. As the Socinians would have it, but the glory which I had with thee. He that gave being to all things, must have a being before all things.

Note, 3. The reasons assigned for writing to young men, Because ye are strong, and have overcome the wicked one, and the word of God abideth in you.

Here we have observable, 1. The enemy described, Satan, called the wicked one: Not that he was so by creation, but by his apostacy and defection. Because the first in wickedness, because most industriously wicked, and because most obstinate and persevering in wickedness.

2. The conquest ingeminated; Ye have overcome the wicked one.

Mark, he doth not say. You have made a league with him, but overcome him; there is no way to accomodate or compound matters with Satan, no way to deal with him, but by victory; we are said to overcome him, because we are sure to overcome him; resist him, and he will flee; and because we have overcome him in God's account, and because we have begun to overcome him. Yield to him, and you will find him an imperious tyrant; resist him, and you will find him a timorous coward.

3. The combatants, young men. Youth is the warlike age; young men are fit for action, old men for advice; young ones should begin this spiritual war betimes, possibly they may never live to be old; or if so, victory will be the more difficulty, by how much the longer it is delayed; and God may deny thee that grace which now thou deniest thyself. The proverb says, "A young saint, but an old devil;" but it is very hard for a young devil to become an old saint; whereas a young Christian soldier is most amiable in God's eye, and most terrible in the devil's.

4. The aid, helps, and assistants, by which this victory is attained, ye are strong, that is, made partakers of divine strength; ye have your second in the field, the Holy Spirit, you are strong in the Lord, And the word of God abideth in you. By the strength of God, and the abiding of his word and grace in us, we overcome the wicked one, and prevail against him. God's word is the richest treasury to supply our wants, and the strongest armoury to oppose our enemies. I write unto you, young men, because ye are strong, and the word of God abideth in you, and ye have overcome the wicked one.


Verse 15

Observe here, 1. That our apostle doth not, as he did before, direct his advice to any one particular sort or rank of Christians in special, but unto all in general; Love not the world, &c.

Observe, 2. That the prohibition here is not absoltue, but comparatively only. It is not an ordinata charitas, but inordinata cupiditas, that is here forbidden; we may look upon the world, and desire it, delight in it, and in the enjoyment of it, provided we do not chuse it for our portion, delight in it as our chief good.

Observe, 3. St. John doth not say, Leave the world, but Love not the world; he doth not say, use not the world, but Love it not; that is, seek not after the world inordinately, and delight not in it immoderately. Seek it we may, but but not in an undue manner; delight in it we may, but not in an undue measure.

Observe, 4. The arguments which our apostle makes use of to enforce his dehortation.

1. The contrariety of the love of the world to the love of God; If any man love the world (in an undue manner and measure) the love of the Father is not in him; that is, the worldly lover has no interest in the Father's love; the world's darlings are none of God's friends, the world's lover has no love of the Father in him; there is no positive love of God in him in whom there is a superlative love of the world.

Lord, how desperate and dangerous a sin then is worldly love! If the love of the Father be not in him, the hatred of the Father is towards him,, James 4:4 Know ye not that the friendship of the world is enmity with God?

A second argument to dissuade from worldly love is contained in the 16th verse: For all that is in the world; that is, all that is in esteem and vogue with the men of the world, is either the lust of the flesh, that is all sensual delights and enjoyments, which occasion intemperance: or the lust of the eye, the desire of gold, silver, stately houses, rich gardens, which tend to gratify the eye: and the pride of life, or the desires of honours and dignities, high titles, and places of advancement, which tend to gratify our pride, all these are not of the Father; that is, they are not desires excited by him, nor are they pleasing to him, but are the desires of the men of the world, and proceed from that corruption which is in them.

The third argument is taken from the world itself, and its short continuance, in the 17th verse, the world passeth away, that is, all the things of the world, which the men of the world doat upon, and are in love with, are of a fading transitory nature in themselves, and they pass away from their possessors and owners. And the laws thereof: that is, the pleasure which they had in gratifying their lusts passeth away, but the sting remaineth, and the torment abideth.

It is added, But he that doth the will of God abideth forever. Behold here the permanent felicity, not of the knowing, but obedient Christian. He abideth forever, not in this, but in the other world, in a state of endless happiness. Although eternity, in its most comprehensive notion, be peculiar to a Diety, and incommunicable to a creature, yet it is that which God has made rational creatures capable of; and as he abideth for ever, so will he grant to them that do his will to abide with him for ever also; The world passeth away, and the lust therof; but he doth the will of God abideth for ever.


Verse 18

Our apostle having warned them against the danger of covetousness in the foregoing verses, he cautions them against the danger of deceit in these; he tells them, that this is the last time of the Jewish dispensation, and that the destruction of their city, temple, and polity, was now at hand; and as they had heard that antichrist should come, accordingly now there were many antichrists come; that is, opposers of Christ, and deniers of him to be the Christ; and by the swarming of these seducers and false teachers now, according to our Saviour's prediction, Matthew 24 they might well conclude it was the last time.

Observe next, These antichrists are described by the communion which they once were of, to wit, the Christian communion; They went out from us, from us apostles, and from us Christians, being false brethren, and unsound Christians; for if they had been of us, as members of the same body, and had joined with us apostles, in planting and propagating the same Christian faith, They would no doubt have continued with us, professing the same faith, and preaching the same doctrine which we do; but they left us, that it might be made manifest that they were not all of us.

Here note, That these antichristian impostors had been in the bosom of the church, and made a profession of the Christian faith; so did the false apostles, the judaizing teachers, mentioned Acts 25:1; so did Simon Magus, Nicholas, and Cerinthus. The church's seeming members proves her worst friends, the foxes within do more mischief that the wild boar without.

Quest. But is it not then lawful to depart from the communion of a church whereof we have been formerly members?

Ans. Yes, if she departs from herself: if she degenerates and grows so corrupt a body, and be so far infected, that we cannot communicate with her without sin, which was th case between us and the church of Rome, her doctrines were erroneous, her worship idolatrous; we went out from them, because they went out from the ancient apostolical church. Non fugimus; sed fugamur: Not we, but they made the separation, and consequently the schism lies at their door.


Verse 20

As if our apostle had said, "Although there are many antichrists and seducers abroad in the world, yet the most holy God hath anointed you with his Holy Spirit, which will preserve you from pernicious error, and lead you into all necessary truth, if you obey and follow him"

Observe here, 1. A privilege enjoyed: Ye have an unction from the Holy One. By which understand the Holy Spirit in its sanctifying gifts and graces, which consecrate believers as kings and priests unto God.

Observe, 2. The advantage of that privilege declared, Ye know all things; not absolutely, but with restriction and limitation: All things: that is, all divine things, all divine things revealed, and all things revealed that are necessary to salvation: All things needful to be known, and as far as needful for you to know: all things relating to God, Christ, the Holy Spirit, ourselves, sin, Satan, the law, the gospel, grace, and glory; ye know all these things by virtue of your unction.


Verse 21

Observe here, 1. The character given of the gospel; it is the truth, the word of truth, the way of truth, confirmed by real miracles. It is divine truth, universal truth, effectual truth, and no lie; for Almighty God would never have set the seal of his omnipotency to a lie, and have confirmed it by signs and wonders, miracles and gifts of the Holy Ghost, had it been false.

Observe, 2. The character given of the heretics in St. John's days, and in our days also, they denied that Jesus is the Christ, and therein deny the Father and the Son: For whosoever denieth the Son, the same hath not the Father; that is, he denieth the Father as well as the Son; for not having the Father, and denying the Father is the same thing, He is antichrist that denieth the Father and the Son 1 John 2:22.

This is a text in which every Socinian may see himself an atheist; he that denies the divinity of the Son, denies the Deity of the Father for such is the nature of the Godhead, that one of these cannot be alone; the Father is not without the Son, nor can be; nor can the Son be without the Father; this coherence is inseparable and inviolable; therefore he that denies the eternal Son, denies the eternal Father; and if it be Atheism to deny the Divinity of the Father, it is no less to deny the Deity of the Son; for he that denieth the Son, denieth the Father also. There is such a connection between these two, the Father and the Son, they being co-essential and co-eternal, that if you deny the divinity of the one, you deny that of the other; therefore they are atheists that deny the divinity of Christ, as well as they that deny the being of God: For he that denieth the Son, denieth the Father also.


Verse 24

These words are an exhortation to hold fast, and not to forsake the doctrine of Christianity, which from the beginning they have received, and not to turn to novelties. Let that abide in you which ye have heard from the beginning; that is, from the first preaching of the gospel .

Note here, What is truth and true doctrine, namely, that which was delivered from the beginning. Truth is error's elder, though error is not much truth's younger.

Note, 2. By what means they received the evangelical doctrine, namely, by hearing let that which ye have heard abide in you, No sense more needful than that of hearing, for the benefit and advantage of man; both as he is by nature a reasonable creature, by converse a sociable creatue, and may be by grace a new creature; Faith cometh by hearing.

Note, 3. The duty required with reference to what they had heard; let that which ye have heard abide in you, namely, by a careful remembrance of it, and by resolute adherence to it. The sum of this exhortation is, that we retain and maintain the ancient catholic and apostolic faith; and verily when we consider how tenacious heretics are of their novel errors, it may bring a blush into our faces to consider how ready we are to be withdrawn from primitive truths.

Observe next, The motive with which our apostle doth enforce and back his exhortation If that which ye have heard remain in you, you shall continue in the Son, and in the Father; that is, in the love and favour of the Son, and of the Father, and in communion with both.

Quest. But why is the Son put before the Father here? Partly to insinuate, that the Son is no less in essencce and dignity than the Father, but equal in both; accordingly, the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ in the apostolical benediction, is mentioned before the love of God the Father: And partly, because no man cometh to, or continueth in the Father, but by the Son, He is the way, the truth, and the life.

The doctrine of the gospel comes from Christ; it leads to Christ, and by him unto the Father. If a man keep my word, we will make our abode with him. John 14:23


Verse 25

Observe here, 1. How gracious Almighty God is to enforce his commands with promises of reward; he required of us adherence to the truth, and perseverance in it, in the former verse; here he promises eternal life, by way of encouragement, in this verse.

Observe, 2. The benefit promised, life, eternal life; the greatness of this life is immeasurable,, the worth of this life is inestimable; the joys of this life innumerable, the duration of it is interminable.

Observe, 3. The certainty of the conveyance; this is, the promise promised.

Mark, he doth not say purposed, but promised. A purpose is a secret and a hidden intention of the mind, but a promise is a revelation of that intention; yea, it is more than a declaration. A promise makes sure, as well as makes manifest; especially God's promise, which has his oath for the confirmation of it, Hebrews 6:17.

Observe, 4. The peculiarity of the persons to whom the promise is made, he hath promised us; not to us as apostles only, but to us as Christians: all that are born of God are begotten to a lively hope of an inheritance incorruptible and undefiled, and that fadeth not away: Again, he has promised us, not promised all eternal life, but us, who are thus and thus qualified, who keep his commandments, and walk as he walked.

Observe, 5. The eminency of the author by whom this promise is made, in the relative he; This is the promise which he hath promised us.

Here note, That eternal life was promised by God to good men under the Old Testament; Hebrews 11:16 tells us, that the Old Testament saints desired a better country, to wit, an heavenly; now how could they have desired it, if they had not known it? And how could they have known it, if God had not revealed it? And Christ bade the Jews search the scriptures , for in them ye think ye have eternal life; intimating, that in the writings of Moses, eternal life was made known typically and darkly, not so clearly and fully as by the gospel, 2 Timothy 1:10 He is holy, and cannot lie; righteous, and cannot deceive; immutable, and cannot repent.


Verse 26

Observe here the pious care which St. John expresses for their preservation from heretics and seducers, These things have I written to you concerning them that seduce you.

That is, to arm them against the seducers then amongst them; intimating, that men are naturally prone to error, yea, to fundamental errors.

2. That to be seduced by, and led into such errors, is dangerous and destructive.

3. That it is the special duty, and ought to be the singular care of the ministers of Christ, to warn their people of, and arm them against errors and erroneous persons, against seducers and seduction; These things I write concerning them that seduce you; that is, those who endeavor to seduce you.

Observe next, The encouragement which St. John gives them against these seducers, and their seduction, the anointing which ye have received from Christ; that is, from the special illumnination of his spirit, this abideth in you, teaching you all things necessary for you to know, so that you need not any man to teach you; that is, any new doctrine, any new fundamental principles of faith.

Note here, That Christians, savingly enlightened by the Spirit of God, need no new gospel or doctrine to be instructed in; but they need farther teaching still, in order to their better improvement in what they know; vain therefore are the Quakers, and other sectaries' arguments drawn from hence, against all ministerial teaching; because the Spirit teaches, man must not teach: Whereas the Spirit teaches mediately by man, and not immediately by itself. When these seducers can show that they have such an immediate and extraordinary affatus of the Holy Spirit, as was vouchsafed to the primitive Christians, then let them cry down the necessity of ministerial teaching, not before.


Verse 28

Still our apostle reinforces his foregoing exhortaion to abide fixedly in Christ; that is, in the doctrine of Christ, in true Christianity; and now, little children, abide in him: And the argument which he makes use of is very forcible and cogent, namely, That when Christ shall appear, we may have confidence,and not be ashamed before him at his coming.

Here note, 1. Something supposed, namely, the coming and appearance of Christ; he shall appear.

2. Something implied, namely, our appearance before Christ in the day of his appearance.

3. Something expressed, namely, the confident appearing before Christ, of all those who abide in him; That we may have confidence, and not be ashamed before him at his coming.

Whence learn, That the persevering Christian shall have confidence before Christ at his coming; shall lift up his head without shame or blushing, from the testimony which conscience bears of his sincerity, and from the interest he has in the Judge; But, on the other hand, they that do not persevere and abide in Christ shall be ashamed before him at his coming; ashamed of their gross hypocrisy, of their vile unfaithfulness, of their manifest folly.


Verse 29

Our apostle concludes the chapter with an exhortation to holiness and righteousness; assuring them, that if they be sensible (as they must necessarily be) that God is righteous, essentially and infinitely holy and righteous; they may and ought to know also, that whosoever is born of him and doth receive a new nature from him, doth certainly endeavour to live unto him, and to walk before him as his child in a way of obedience, and to expect favour and protection from him as from a Father.

Learn hence, That all that sincerely live a righteous life towards God and man, are certainly born of God; and such as are born of God do certainly live that righteous life; then, and only then, may we know that we are indeed God's children, when the image of our heavenly Father is instamped upon us, and the disposition of his children wrought in us; when there is a happy conformity in our natures to the holiness of God's nature, and in our lives to the righteousness of his law; when he beholds his own face in the glass of our souls, and loves us for his own image instamped and impressed upon us.

 


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Bibliography Information
Burkitt, William. "Commentary on 1 John 2:4". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/1-john-2.html. 1700-1703.

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