Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

1 Kings 16:23

In the thirty-first year of Asa king of Judah, Omri became king over Israel and reigned twelve years; he reigned six years at Tirzah.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Tirzah;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Kings;   Samaria, Ancient;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Omri;   Samaria;   Tirzah;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Israel;   Kings, books of;   Palestine;   Samaria, samaritans;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Omri;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Israel;   Omri;   Samaria;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Archaeology and Biblical Study;   Samaria, Samaritans;   Tirzah;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Tibni;   Tirzah;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Omri ;   Tirzah ;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Mount samaria;   Nimshi;   Omri;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Jehu;   Omri;   Samaria;   Tirzah;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Israel, Kingdom of;   Om'ri;   Sama'ria;   Tib'ni;  
Encyclopedias:
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - Kingdom of Israel;   Kingdom of Judah;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Number;   Omri;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

In the thirty and first year of Asa - There must be a mistake here in the number thirty-one; for, in 1 Kings 16:10; and 1 Kings 16:15, it is said that Zimri slew his master, and began to reign in the twenty-seventh year of Asa; and as Zimri reigned only seven days, and Omri immediately succeeded him, this could not be in the thirty-first, but in the twenty-seventh year of Asa, as related above. Rab. Sol. Jarchi reconciles the two places thus: "The division of the kingdom between Tibni and Omri began in the twenty-seventh year of Asa; this division lasted five years, during which Omri had but a share of the kingdom. Tibni dying, Omri came into the possession of the whole kingdom, which he held seven years; this was in the thirty-first year of Asa. Seven years he reigned alone; five years he reigned over part of Israel; twelve years in the whole. The two dates, the twenty-seventh and thirty-first of Asa, answering, the first to the beginning of the division, the second to the sole reign of Omri." Jarchi quotes Sedar Olam for this solution.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on 1 Kings 16:23". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/1-kings-16.html. 1832.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

In the thirty first year of Asa king of Judah began Omri to reign over Israel twelve years,.... Which are to be reckoned not from the thirty first of Asa; for Ahab the son of Omri began to reign in his thirty eighth year, and so his reign would be but seven or eight years; but they are reckoned from the twenty seventh of Asa, the beginning of it, when Elah was slain by Zimri, and he died, which to the end of the thirty eight of Asa make twelve years; for the division, according to the Jewish chronologyF4Seder Olam Rabba, c. 17. p. 45. , lasted four years; Jarchi says fiveF5So Tzemach David, par. 1. fol. 11. 2. ; and from the beginning of that his reign is reckoned, though he did not reign over all Israel, or completely, until the thirty first of Asa, when Tibni died:

six years reigned he in Tirzah; the royal city of the kings of Israel, from Jeroboam to this time, and the other six he reigned in Samaria, built by him, as in the next verse.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 16:23". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/1-kings-16.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

1 Kings 16:23-28. Omri builds Samaria.

In the thirty and first year of Asa  …  began Omri to reign — The twelve years of his reign are computed from the beginning of his reign, which was in the twenty-seventh year of Asa‘s reign. He held a contested reign for four years with Tibni; and then, at the date stated in this verse, entered on a sole and peaceful reign of eight years.

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 1 Kings 16:23". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/1-kings-16.html. 1871-8.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

In the thirty and first year of Asa king of Judah began Omri to reign over Israel, twelve years: six years reigned he in Tirzah.

Twelve years — That is, and he reigned twelve years, not from this thirty-first year of Asa, for he died in his thirty-eighth year, verse29, but from the beginning of his reign, which was in Asa's twenty-seventh year, verse15,16. So he reigned four years in a state of war with Tibni, and eight years peaceably.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Bibliographical Information
Wesley, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 16:23". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/1-kings-16.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

1 Kings 16:23 In the thirty and first year of Asa king of Judah began Omri to reign over Israel, twelve years: six years reigned he in Tirzah.

Ver. 23. Began Omri to reign.] Without a competitor.

Twelve years,] viz., In all: reckoning the four full years before Tibni’s death.

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Bibliographical Information
Trapp, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 16:23". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/1-kings-16.html. 1865-1868.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Began Omri to reign over Israel twelve years, i.e. and he reigned twelve years, not from this thirty-first year of Asa, for he died in his thirty-eighth year, 1 Kings 16:29; but from the beginning of his reign, which was in Asa’s twenty-seventh year, 1 Kings 16:15,16. So he reigned four years in a state of war with Tibni, and eight years peaceably.

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Bibliographical Information
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 1 Kings 16:23". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/1-kings-16.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

OMRI’S REIGN, 1 Kings 16:23-28.

23.Twelve years — Six at Tirzah and six at Samaria. With Omri began the third dynasty in the history of the kingdom of Israel; and from hints given in other parts of Scripture, and from the recently discovered inscription of Mesha, king of Moab, we infer that his reign was filled with many important events which our narrator passes over in utter silence. From 1 Kings 20:34, we infer that he had wars with Ben-hadad of Damascus, in which he lost some cities of his kingdom, perhaps Ramoth in Gilead among others. (Compare 1 Kings 22:3.) The prophet Micah (Micah 6:16,) speaks of the statutes of Omri — probably commands for the people to observe his idolatrous worship, contrary to the statutes of Jehovah. And in the inscription above mentioned (on which see note 2 Kings 3:4) the name of Omri occurs several times. “Omri was king of Israel, and he afflicted Moab many days.” “Omri held possession of the land of Medeba.” He may have oppressed Moab while captain of the host of Israel (1 Kings 16:16) under Baasha or Elah.

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 1 Kings 16:23". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/1-kings-16.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

1 Kings 16:23. Began Omri to reign — twelve years — That is, and he reigned twelve years: not from this thirty-first year of Asa, for he died in his thirty- eighth year, (1 Kings 16:29,) but from the beginning of his reign, which was in Asa’s twenty-seventh year, 1 Kings 16:15-16. So he reigned four years in a state of war with Tibni, and eight peaceably.

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Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on 1 Kings 16:23". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/1-kings-16.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

In the one and thirtieth year, &c. Amri began to reign in the seven and twentieth year of Asa; but had not the quiet possession of the kingdom, till the death of his competitor Thebni, which was in the one and thirtieth year of Asa's reign. (Challoner) --- Twelve years in all, (Worthington) comprehending the four of civil war; six at Thersa, and two in Samaria. (Houbigant)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 1 Kings 16:23". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/1-kings-16.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

thirty and first year. He reigned twelve years (833-821), and yet in 1 Kings 16:29 Ahab began in the thirty-eighth year of Asa. Omri began to reign de jure when he slew Zimri, in the twentyseventh year of Asa; but only de facto on the death of Tibni the usurper.

six years. Beginning in Asa"s thirty-first and ending in Asa"s thirty-eighth (1 Kings 16:29).

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 1 Kings 16:23". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/1-kings-16.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

In the thirty and first year of Asa king of Judah began Omri to reign over Israel, twelve years: six years reigned he in Tirzah.

In the thirty and first year of Asa ... began Omri to reign [ `Aam

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 1 Kings 16:23". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/1-kings-16.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(23) Began Omri to reign over Israel.—The accession of Omri after this long civil war opened a new epoch of more settled government and prosperity for about forty-eight years. Omri had (as appears from 1 Kings 20:34) to purchase peace with Syria by some acknowledgment of sovereignty and cession of cities. He then allied himself with the royal house of Tyre, probably both for strength against Syria, and for revival of the commercial prosperity of the days of Solomon, and proceeded to found a new capital in a strong position. That he was a warrior is indicated by the phrase, “the might that he shewed.” Probably, like Jeroboam and Baasha, he also had his opportunity of restoring the spiritual strength of his people by returning to the pure worship of God, and threw it away, doing “worse than all who were before him.”

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 16:23". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/1-kings-16.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

In the thirty and first year of Asa king of Judah began Omri to reign over Israel, twelve years: six years reigned he in Tirzah.
A. M. 3079-3086. B.C. 925-918. the thirty. As it is stated in verses 10 and 15, that Zimri began to reign in the 27th year of Asa; and as he reigned only seven days, and Omri immediately succeeded him, this could not be the 31st, but in the 27th year of Asa. Jarchi, from Sedar Olam, reconciles this, by stating that Tibni and Omri began to reign jointly in the 27th year of Asa; and that Tibni dying about five years afterwards, Omri began to reign alone in the 31st year of Asa
2 Chronicles 22:2
twelve years
8,29
Reciprocal: Joshua 12:24 - Tirzah;  1 Kings 14:17 - Tirzah

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Kings 16:23". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/1-kings-16.html.