Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

1 Samuel 16:11

And Samuel said to Jesse, "Are these all the children?" And he said, "There remains yet the youngest, and behold, he is tending the sheep." Then Samuel said to Jesse, "Send and bring him; for we will not sit down until he comes here."
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Church and State;   David;   Israel;   Jesse;   Jesus Continued;   King;   Minister, Christian;   Shepherd;   Thompson Chain Reference - Bible Stories for Children;   Children;   Home;   Pleasant Sunday Afternoons;   Religion;   Shepherds;   Stories for Children;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Christ, the Shepherd;   First Born, the;   Industry;   Sheep;   Shepherds;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - David;   Jesse;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - David;   Samuel;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Covenant;   Elect, Election;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Prayer;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Bethlehem;   Cattle;   David;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Banquets;   David;   Shepherd;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Bethlehem;   David;   Economic Life;   Samuel, Books of;   Shepherd;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Bethlehem;   David;   Eucharist;   Samuel, Books of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Wilderness (2);   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Jesse ;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Jesse;   Kingdom of christ of heaven;   Kingdom of god;   Kingdom of heaven;   Saul;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Banquets;   Da'vid;   Jes'se;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Anoint;  
Encyclopedias:
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - Hebrew Monarchy, the;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Agriculture;   Jesse;   Samuel;   Samuel, Books of;   Shammah;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Jesse;  

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

We will not sit down … - . literally, we will not turn round to sit at the table.

Copyright Statement
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Bibliographical Information
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 16:11". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/1-samuel-16.html. 1870.

The Biblical Illustrator

1 Samuel 16:11

Send and fetch him, for we will not sit down till he come hither.

Taken from the sheepcotes

The story of David opens with a dramatic contrast between the fresh hope of his young life and the rejection of the self-willed king Saul, whose course was rapidly descending towards the fatal field of Gilboa. No bad man drifts down the rapids unwarned, unwept; but the Divine purpose cannot stay till such pitying tears are dried. Nor must we cling to the grave of the dead past, whence the Spirit of God has fled; but arise to follow as He transfers the focus of His operation from the rocky heights of Benjamin to the breezy uplands of Bethlehem, and conducts us to the house of Jesse. In the selection of every man for high office in the service of God and man, there are two sides--the Divine and the human: the election of God, and its elaboration in history; the heavenly summons, and the earthly answer to its ringing notes. We must consider, therefore.

I. The root of David. Once in the prophecy by Isaiah, and twice in the Book of Revelation, our Lord is called the “Root of David.” “The Lion of the Tribe of Judah, the Root of David, hath prevailed to open the Book and to loose the seven seals thereof.” “I, Jesus, am the Root and the Offspring of David; the Bright, the Morning Star.” The idea suggested is of an old root, deep hidden in the earth, which sends up its green scions and sturdy stems. David’s character may be considered as an emanation from the life of the Son of God before He took on Himself the nature of man, and an anticipation of what He was to be and do in the fulness of time. Jesus was the Son of David, yet in another sense He was his progenitor (Mark 12:35-37). There are four great words about the choice of David, the last of which strikes deeply into the heart of that great mystery.

1. The Lord hath sought Him a man (1 Samuel 13:14). No one can know the day or hour when God passes by, seeking for chosen vessels and goodly pearls.

2. I have found David my servant (Psalms 89:20). There is ecstasy in the voice, like the thrice repeated found of Luke 15:1-32. And was there not some secret glad response to the Master’s call, like that which the disciples gave, when Jesus found them at their nets, and said, “Follow Me?”

3. He chose David to be His servant (Psalms 78:70). The people chose Saul; but God chose David. This made him strong. We are immovable when we touch the bedrock of God’s choice, and hear Him say, “He is a chosen vessel unto Me, to bear My name.”

4. The Lord hath appointed him to be Prince (1 Samuel 13:14). Saul might chafe and fret; but from amid the ruins of his waning power the authority of David emerged as a sin from a wrack of clouds, because God willed it.

5. I have provided Me a King (1 Samuel 16:1). The Divine provision meets every need, silences every anxiety. In some unlikely quarter, in a shepherd’s hut, or in an artizan’s cottage, God has His prepared and appointed instrument. As yet the shaft is hidden in His quiver, in the shadow of His hand; but at the precise moment at which it will tell with the greatest effect, it will be produced and launched on the air.

II. The stem of Jesse. We turn for a moment to consider the formative influences of David’s young life. David says nothing of his father, but twice speaks of his mother as “the handmaid of the Lord.” From her he derived his poetic gift, his sensitive nature, his deeply religious character. To his father he was the lad that kept, the sheep, whom it was not worth while to summon to the religious feast; to his mother he was David the beloved, and probably she first heard the psalms which have charmed and soothed the world. The lad may have owed something to the schools of the prophets, established by Samuel’s wise prescience to maintain the knowledge of the law in Israel. They appear to have been to Israel what Iona was to the wild tribes of the North in later times. (F. B. Meyer, B. A.)

The shepherd foreshadowing the king

In the boyish days and deeds of distinguished men, biographers delight to illustrate the adage that the boy is father to the man. In sacred story, the younger child of Rebekah taking hold of his brother by the heel, as if with intent to supplant him; in classical mythology, the infant Hercules strangling in his cradle the serpents sent by Juno to destroy him; in modern history, the schoolboy Napoleon Bonaparte, rearing his snow fortifications in the playground, and teaching his school fellows to attack or defend them--are samples of the shadows of the future that are often projected on the childhood of great men. The early years of King David exhibited more than one instance of this foreshadowing of the future.

I. It, certainly was not by accident, that, when Samuel went to Bethlehem to anoint one of the sons of Jesse as king, the son on whom the Divine choice fell was at the very moment keeping his father’s sheep. His early employment had a direct and Divine bearing upon his later. In some of his psalms--the beautiful closing verses of the 78th, for example--the Divine connection is transparent. “He chose David also His servant, and took him from the sheepfolds; from following the ewes great with young He brought him to feed Jacob his people, and Israel his inheritance. So he fed them according to the integrity of his heart, and guided them by the skilfulness of his hands.”

1. As a shepherd, keeping his father’s sheep, the sense of responsibility to another was powerfully called into exercise. The flock was not his own. The servant-feeling thus beautifully called into play, was transferred, in full integrity, to the higher sphere of the kingdom. To the people of Israel he felt that he stood in the same relation as he had occupied to his father’s sheep, and to God in the same place in which he had stood to his father.

2. Further, the shepherd occupation of David led him, from its very nature, to seek the welfare of the flock. Suitable pasture had to be provided; shelter had to be found from the heat by day and from the cold by night; protection had to be secured from wolves and lions; the diseased had to be nursed, the wounded cared for, wanderers bad to be followed, rescued from danger, and brought back to the fold. These were the ideas of duty with which David became familiar as a shepherd. And when his charge was changed, these ideas of duty remaining in his heart, and influencing his public conduct, made him the eminent ruler be became. The welfare of his people was his constant aim. In the view of duty to the flock, all thoughts of fear and danger fled from David’s mind. Self-sacrifice for the welfare of others was the ruling principle at once of the shepherd and of the king.

3. Yet further:--In his office as a shepherd, David had constantly to study the increase and improvement of the flock. It was not enough for the shepherd to keep the flock as he got it. The flock was not properly kept, unless every season brought a great increase to its number, and a large addition to its value. The same thought manifestly influenced David’s kingly administration, he constantly consulted for the progressive improvement and elevation of his people. And in all the higher departments of progress, the same spirit of improvement prevailed. Great warrior though he was, the spirit most congenial to him was that of peaceful development and progress. We cannot omit to add, that the shepherd employment of David, by leading him to give special attention to the weak, the helpless, and the distressed of his flock, trained him for one of the most blessed and Christ-like functions of a godly ruler. What a contrast, the spirit of David’s pastoral and royal office, and of Christ’s blessed rule, to that of most earthly governors l What a contrast to the spirit of the well-known saying of the “most Christian king”--“L’etat, c’est moi”--I am the State! The Christian shepherd is not the flock, the Christian ruler is not the state. He is God’s servant, intrusted with the rod of authority for the true good of the flock. The more forgetful be is of self, in his anxiety to discharge his trust, and do good to his flock, the more worthy is he of the title of “a Christian king.” While we speak thus strongly of the devotion of King David to his own people, we must add that in its very intensity, that devotion was not unaccompanied by traces of human infirmity. His love was confined to his own people; and for all beyond that circle, he not only had no warm love, but hardly even the ordinary feelings of brotherhood. It would have been more difficult for a Jew to attain the happy medium, the right equipoise of feeling for the uncircumcised nations around, lying somewhere between brotherly love on the one hand, and bitter hatred on the other. But David gave himself no trouble to find this happy medium. It is a mystery how such tenderness, and such relentless severity, should have been found in the same man. Whatever may be urged in extenuation of his severity, rests on his position as a Jew. For our part, we must ever remember that to enlarge the sphere of kindly feeling is one of the great objects of the Christian dispensation. “Let brotherly love continue” for the members of the household, certainly; but “if ye love the brethren only, what do ye more than others?” (W. G. Blaikie, M. A.)

The call of David

David, the son of a man in humble life, and the youngest of his brethren, was chosen by Almighty God to be His special servant--to be a prophet, a king, a psalmist; he was anointed by Samuel to be all this; and in due time he was brought forward by Almighty God, and as a first act of might, slew the heathen giant Goliath. Now let, us apply all this to ourselves.

1. David seemed born to live and die among his sheep. Yet God took him from the sheepfolds to make him His servant and His friend. Now this is fulfilled in the case of all Christians. They are by nature poor, and mean; but God chooses them, and brings them near unto Himself. He looks not at outward things; He chooses and decrees according to His will, and why He chooses these men, and passes over those, we know not. Here we differ from David. He was chosen above his brethren, because he was better than they. It is expressly said, that when Samuel was going to choose one of his elder brethren, God said to him, “I have refused him; for the Lord seeth not as man seeth; for man looketh on the outward appearance, but the Lord looketh on the heart;” implying, that David’s heart was in a better state than his brother’s, whom Samuel would have chosen. But this is act our case; ye are in nowise better by nature than they whom God did not choose. God hath chosen all of us to Salvation, not for our righteousness, but for His great mercies.

2. Observe, too, God chose him, whose occupation was that of a shepherd; for He chooses not the great men of the world; He passed by the rich and noble (James 2:5). The Angel appeared to the shepherds as they kept, watch over their sheep at night. The most solitary, the most unlearned, God hears, God looks upon, God visits, God blesses, God brings to glory, if he is but “rich in faith.” One person is a king and rules, another is a subject and obeys; but if both are Christians, both have in common a gift so great, that in the sight of it, the difference between ruling and obeying is as nothing. All Christians are kings in God’s sight; they are kings in His unseen kingdom, in the Communion of Saints.

3. Next, observe God chose David by means of the Prophet Samuel. He did not think it enough to choose him silently, but He called him by a voice. And, in like manner, when God calls us, He does so openly. He sent His minister, the Prophet Samuel to David; and He sends His ministers to us.

4. When Samuel had anointed David, observe what followed. “Samuel took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the midst of his brethren: and the Spirit of the Lord came upon David from that day forward.” God’s spirit did but come upon David, and visit him from time to time; but He vouchsafes to dwell within the Christian, so as to make His heart and body His temple.

5. Though David reached the gift of God’s Holy Spirit, yet nothing came of it all at once. He still seemed like any other man. He went back to the sheep. The Spirit of the Lord had come upon him, yet it did not at once make him a prophet or a king All was to come in good time, not at once. God the Holy Ghost leads on the heirs of grace marvellously. You recollect when our Saviour was baptised, “immediately the Spirit of God led Him into the wilderness.” What happened one way in our Saviour’s course, happens in ours also. Sooner or later that work of God is manifested, which was at first secret.

6. Lastly, then, let us inquire who is our Goliath? who is it we have to contend with? The answer is plain; the devil is our Goliath. By degrees our work comes upon us; as children we have to fight, with him a little; as time goes on the fight opens; and at length we have our great enemy marching against us with sword and spear, as Goliath came against David. And when this war has once begun, it lasts through life. (Plain sermons by contributors to the Tracts for the Times.)

God’s choice and preparation of men

Samuel is the light by which young David reads the handwriting of Jehovah upon the walls of his spirit, learns his destiny, and prepares for his high calling. So the living God in His marvellous mercy hides Himself behind man that not being overpowered by His splendours, we may be won to open our hearts to receive of His fulness and grace for grace. Who of you will be His anointing prophets this day, and go ca this blessed ministry! Care you not for the future of His kingdom? Is there no David whose spirit you can fire by the outshining of your conviction and the best of your enthusiasm for the salvation of men? Seize your privilege, and hand on to unborn generations the gifts of vision and power the Eternal has bestowed upon you!

1. We now ask, why is it that David of all the sons of Jesse, and of all the children of Israel, is elected by the prophet for this special consecration of kingly place and power? The answer, fortunately for us, is as near as it is definite, and as simple and authoritative as it is decisive and Divine. Speaking of Eliab, God says to Samuel, “Look not on his countenance, or on the height of his stature; because I have refused him; for the Lord seeth not as man seeth; for man looketh on the outward appearance, but the Lord looketh on the heart.” There is at once the principle of the Divine choice, and the condition of the prophetic inspiration. David has that inner consecration without which the outward anchoring is an utterly unmeaning and damaging ceremony. “The unction of the Holy One” has preceded the symbolical oil of the prophet. For though God accepts and adopts human meditation as the principal avenue along which He meets the souls of men, He has many other ways of finding us besides that of a faith-begetting human presence. The Idea of God grows unawares upon our inward sight, and we are learning more and more about Him when no visible teacher is near and no human voice is heard.

2. It were, indeed, the gravest of mistakes to regard this day of consecration as the first descent of the Spirit of the Lord on young David’s heart--

“Let no man think that sudden in a minute

All is accomplished, and the work is done.”

God does not anoint unprepared men for kingship. “The boy is father to the man.” Not as a vaunting soldier, not even as a brave patriot, does David go forth against Goliath of Gath; “but that all the earth may know”--for the fight is a missionary’s evangel, and a soldier shepherd’s “apology” for God--that all the earth may know that there is a God in Israel, who does not give victory to mere bulk, or even to military prowess, but to sincerity of heart; to humility, purity, and largeness of soul. Evermore God’s unseen educating ministry goes forward. He is always preparing the world’s kings. True rulers are never absent. We indeed see not their crowns. No sceptre is in their hands. They neither wear king’s clothing, nor sit in king’s houses. They are with us in our families, despised by their elder brothers, and unrecognised by all; but when the clock of time strikes, and their hour is come, they take their place and do their work, and we are debtors all. The earliest stages of regeneration are unconscious. Visibility is not the measure of reality. “The kingdom of God comes without observation.” We live months and years before we talk in fluent English. We know not the day of our birth, and we cannot tell what we shall be. The issues of our acts are hidden from us. Alertness of vision, openness to receive the Spirit, will be surprised after a while by a God-sent Samuel anointing you for a higher vocation. But we are not right within. We know it. There is an aching inside us. Our sins look us full in the face. We want place rather than preparation, thrones rather than disciplined ability, glittering crowns rather than true and unfaltering obedience. We crave and pant to be thought somebody, instead of bending our whole will on being as God wills.

3. But David, we may be certain, were he guiding us, would take us another step backward in order to see the building work of God in its earlier stages; for nothing more ineradicably rooted itself in his mind, or found more pathetic expression in his songs, than the immense educational influence of his family and shepherd life. As a boy he was a keeper of sheep, and he never forgot it. The influence of that shepherd life was never exhausted. It was the salt of his career. It fed his humility and inspired his praise; purified his thinking, and sobered and deepened his emotion. It brought him face to face with reality; shut out the crowding and gossiping life of the city, threw him back on his own thoughts, gave him leisure and facility to strip off the shows of things, and get at their heart, developed an inwardness of being that brought peace and power for evermore. Thus David got his education, in the plain everyday uses of life, and was fitted for his consecration to kingship by patient, plodding, and loving service. As Moses led the sheep in the desert before he led Israel out of Egypt, as Gideon received his call to take charge of the hosts of God whilst be was threshing wheat, as the mantle of Elijah fell on Elisha at the plough, as Matthew heard the summons to the apostolate at the tollbooth, so David got his first training for his high place amid the lowly duties of his shepherd life. I suppose we shall learn some day, that the faithful doing of our actual work, the doing it for use, and not merely for gain, from love of God and love of men, is recognised by Heaven as the surest preparation for future promotion and enlarged service. Then we shall have no need to seek change of place, in order to be ready for God’s prophet with his horn of anointing oil, but only “to keep our heart right.” (J. Clifford, D. D.)

The unlikely selected

Dr. Isaac Barrow, when a lad, was most unpromising. Such was his misconduct, and so irreclaimable did he seem, that his father, in despair, used to say that “if it pleased God to remove any of his children, he wished it might be his son Isaac.” What became of the other and more hopeful children of the worthy linen draper, we cannot tell; but this unworthy son lived to be the happiness and pride of his father’s old age, to be one of the most illustrious members of the university to which he belonged, and one of the brightest ornaments of the church of which he became a minister. (C. H. Spurgeon.)

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These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Exell, Joseph S. "Commentary on "1 Samuel 16:11". The Biblical Illustrator. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tbi/1-samuel-16.html. 1905-1909. New York.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And Samuel said unto Jesse, are here all thy children?.... For neither of these being the person God would have anointed king, and yet it was one of Jesse's sons that was to be anointed, he concluded he must have more, at least one more, and therefore puts this question to him:

and he said, there remaineth yet the youngest; or, "the little one"F3תקטן "parvulus", V. L. ; not of a little diminutive stature, for he was a mighty man, a man of strength, courage, and valour, 1 Samuel 16:18 or of a puerile age, for the Jews sayF4Seder Olam Rabba, c. 13. p. 36. he was now twenty nine years of age; but that is not likely, he hardly exceeded more than twenty, or was so much; thereabout he might be; but he is so called because he was the youngest son, as we render it:

and, behold, he keepeth the sheep: and from following them, he was taken and anointed king; see Psalm 78:70. Some of the greatest of men have been taken from rustic employment, as Moses, Gideon, Saul, and others:

and Samuel said unto Jesse, send and fetch him; out of the field by a messenger:

for we will not sit down till he come hither; that is, at table, to eat of that part of the peace offerings which belonged to the offerer Samuel, and which he had invited Jesse and his sons to partake of.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 16:11". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/1-samuel-16.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

1 Samuel 16:11-14. He anoints David.

There remaineth yet the youngest, and, behold, he keepeth the sheep — Jesse having evidently no idea of David‘s wisdom and bravery, spoke of him as the most unfit. God, in His providence, so ordered it, that the appointment of David might the more clearly appear to be a divine purpose, and not the design either of Samuel or Jesse. David having not been sanctified with the rest of his family, it is probable that he returned to his pastoral duties the moment the special business on which he had been summoned was done.

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 16:11". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/1-samuel-16.html. 1871-8.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And Samuel said unto Jesse, Are here all thy children? And he said, There remaineth yet the youngest, and, behold, he keepeth the sheep. And Samuel said unto Jesse, Send and fetch him: for we will not sit down till he come hither.

Keepeth sheep — And consequently is the most unfit of all my sons for that high employment. Either therefore he did not understand David's wisdom and valour, or he judged him unfit, by reason of his mean education. And God so ordered it by his providence, that David's choice might plainly appear to be God's work, and not Samuel's, or Jesse's. David signifies beloved: a fit name for so eminent a type of the Beloved Son. It is supposed, David was now about twenty years old. If so, his troubles by Saul lasted near ten years: for he was thirty years old when Saul died. Samuel having done this went to Ramah. He retired to die in peace, since his eyes had seen the salvation, even the sceptre brought into the tribe of Judah.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Bibliographical Information
Wesley, John. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 16:11". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/1-samuel-16.html. 1765.

James Nisbet's Church Pulpit Commentary

ISRAEL’S SECOND KING

‘Send and fetch him.’

1 Samuel 16:11

David displays in his personal character that very temper of mind in which his nation, or rather human nature itself, is especially deficient. Pride and unbelief disgrace the history of the chosen people, the deliberate love of this world which was the sin of Balaam, and the presumptuous wilfulness which was exhibited in Saul. But David is conspicuous for an affectionate, a thankful, a loyal heart towards his God and Defender, a zeal which was as fervent and as docile as Saul’s was sullen, and as keen-sighted and pure as Balaam’s was selfish and double-minded.

I. Consider what was, as far as we can understand, David’s especial grace, as faith was Abraham’s distinguishing virtue, meekness the excellence of Moses, self-mastery the gift especially conspicuous in Joseph. From the account of David’s office in Psalms 78:71-72, it is obvious that his very first duty was that of fidelity to Almighty God in the trust committed to him. Saul had neglected his Master’s honour, but David, in this an eminent type of Christ, ‘came to do God’s will.’ As a viceroy in Israel, and as being tried and found faithful, he is especially called ‘a man after God’s own heart.’ David’s peculiar excellence is that of fidelity to the trust committed to him.

II. Surely the blessings of the patriarchs descended in a united flood upon ‘the lion of the tribe of Judah,’ the type of the true Redeemer who was to come.—He inherits the prompt faith and magnanimity of Abraham; he is simple as Isaac; he is humble as Jacob; he has the youthful wisdom and self-possession, the tenderness, the affectionateness, and the firmness of Joseph. And as his own especial gift he has an overflowing thankfulness, a heroic bearing in all circumstances, such as the multitude of men see to be great, but cannot understand.

Illustrations

(1) ‘The great lesson to be drawn from this story is that God’s method of working is not ours. We see this in the choice of Samuel rather than of Eli, in the choice of Saul rather than one of the national leaders, in the choice of David rather than Saul, and rather than his elder brethren. “Man looketh on the outward appearance, but the Lord looketh on the heart.” It was this same David who prayed, “Create in me a clean heart, O God! and renew a right spirit within me.”’

(2) ‘Greatly astonished must Jesse and his other sons have been to see Samuel pouring on the ruddy stripling the holy oil, and anointing him for whatever the office might be. But it has ever been God’s way to find His agents in unexpected places. Here a great king is found in his sheepfold. In Joseph’s time a prime minister of Egypt was found in the prison. Our Lord found His chief apostle in the school of Gamaliel. God is never at a loss for agents, and if the men fail that might naturally have been looked for to do Him service, substitutes for them are not far to seek. Out of the very stones He can raise up children to Abraham.’

(3) ‘“Arise, anoint him, for this is he.” It was a new leaf in Hebrew history that turned over at these words. But how little men thought of it! Looking for the Sauls men are apt to miss the Davids. Now here is a completed purpose. God has brought it to pass step by step. There has been an outbreak. In the quietest way possible a new thing has been set apart. But how far back we have to travel if we mean to trace this purpose back to its origin? When Ruth, the Moabitess, said to Naomi, “Whither thou goest, I will go,” she took the first step in the fulfilment of God’s will for Israel. Jesse, the father of David, was her grandson. A simple resolve to serve God and to choose our company among His people may start us in the way that leads to a throne and a kingdom.’

(4) ‘Saul was a man who could not learn. His sin at Gilgal showed how the wind of his temper blew, and then it seemed as if it might have veered, but here we see it set in the same wrong direction. He has not learned from his past failure. When Samuel came to him after the battle, he was perfectly sincere in saying that he had performed his task. He had no intention to deceive Samuel; it was simply that he had not learned the lesson of his former fall, that obedience to God must be unquestioning and absolute. His frank unconsciousness of anything wrong, until he was smitten by Samuel’s words of irony, shows us Saul’s pathetic inability to grasp the meaning of what had gone before. David, too, had many a mighty fall, but he could read his own heart—he could learn, and his power to learn was his salvation; for the soul that stumbles on through life without learning from its falls is doomed.’

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Bibliographical Information
Nisbet, James. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 16:11". Church Pulpit Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cpc/1-samuel-16.html. 1876.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

1 Samuel 16:11 And Samuel said unto Jesse, Are here all [thy] children? And he said, There remaineth yet the youngest, and, behold, he keepeth the sheep. And Samuel said unto Jesse, Send and fetch him: for we will not sit down till he come hither.

Ver. 11. Are here all thy children?] God will say to such as make not a full confession of their sins, Are here all?

There remaineth yet the youngest, and, behold, he keepeth the sheep.] Him God called "from following the ewes great with young, to feed Jacob his people, and Israel his inheritance." [Psalms 78:71] {See Trapp on "Psalms 78:71"} Our vocation likewise to glory and virtue is gratuita, et inopinata [Ephesians 1:5]

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Bibliographical Information
Trapp, John. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 16:11". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/1-samuel-16.html. 1865-1868.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

He keepeth the sheep; and consequently is the most unfit of all my sons for that high employment. Either therefore he did not thoroughly understand David’s great wisdom and valour, or he judgeth him unfit, by reason of his mean education. And God so ordered it by his providence, that David’s choice might plainly appear to be God’s work, and not Samuel’s or Jesse’s design.

We will not sit down, to wit, to the feast.

Quest. How could David be admitted to this feast, being, as it seems, not sanctified with the rest of his brethren?

Answ. 1. It is not strange if the prophet, by God’s direction, dispensed with the ordinary rule, in a person so extraordinary, both for his piety and the dignity to which he was chosen.

2. It is not affirmed that David did sit down with them to the feast, but only that they would not do so till he came. And when he was come, and Samuel had done what he intended with him, David, for aught we know, might depart, and the rest sit down to the feast; for David was not now actually raised to any higher degree, but returned to his former employment; as we read below, 1 Samuel 16:19.

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Bibliographical Information
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 1 Samuel 16:11". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/1-samuel-16.html. 1685.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

1 Samuel 16:11. Behold, he keepeth sheep — And consequently is the most unfit of all my sons for that high employment. Either, therefore, he did not understand David’s wisdom and valour, or he judged him unfit, by reason of his mean education. And God so ordered it by his providence, that the choice of David might plainly appear to be God’s work, and not Samuel’s or Jesse’s. David signifies beloved; a fit name for so eminent a type of God’s beloved Son. It is supposed David was now about twenty years old. If so, his troubles by Saul lasted near ten years; for he was thirty years old when Saul died. Samuel, having done this, went to Ramah. He retired to die in peace, since his eyes had seen the salvation, even the sceptre brought into the tribe of Judah.

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Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 16:11". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/1-samuel-16.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Young son, (parvulus,) "a little one;" (Haydock) or the youngest, who might be about 15, (Calmet) or 28. (Seder. olam. iii.) (Menochius)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 16:11". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/1-samuel-16.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Are here all thy children? Hebrew "Have the young men finished [passing by)? "This correctly supplies the Figure of speech Ellipsis. App-6. Hebrew. na`ar =

young men. youngest = least. See note on 1 Samuel 16:5.

behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6.

he keepeth. Saul lost his father"s asses (1 Samuel 9:3, 1 Samuel 9:4, 1 Samuel 9:20). down round.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 16:11". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/1-samuel-16.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And Samuel said unto Jesse, Are here all thy children? And he said, There remaineth yet the youngest, and, behold, he keepeth the sheep. And Samuel said unto Jesse, Send and fetch him: for we will not sit down till he come hither.

The youngest ... he keepeth the sheep. Jesse, having evidently no idea of David's wisdom and bravery, spoke of him as the most unfit; as one not to be taken into account in the conduct of any public affairs. God, in His providence, so ordered it that the appointment of David might the more clearly appear to be a divine purpose, and not the design either of Samuel or Jesse.

Samuel said unto Jesse, Send and fetch him: for we will not sit down until he come hither, [ lo'

(Hebrew #3808) naacob (Hebrew #5437)] - we will not come around, we will not surround - i:e., by sitting at table (cf. Psalms 128:3). The ancient Hebrews sat around a low table, with their legs crossed, as the modern Orientals do; because the luxurious practice of reclining was not introduced into Judea until a late period in the Old Testament history. David had not been sanctified with the rest of his family, because, owing to his absence from home, be had not been invited to the sacrifice; and it is probable that he returned to his pastoral duties the moment the special business on which he had been summoned was done.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 16:11". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/1-samuel-16.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(11) Are here all thy children?—For a moment the prophet is uncertain. The command from the Eternal Friend to come and anoint “the son of Jesse of Bethlehem” had been definite, but the sons of Jesse had passed before him, and no sign had been vouch-safed to him indicating that God had chosen one of these youths of whom the father was so fond; so the seer asks, “Are these all thy children?”

There remaineth yet the youngest.—Why David was kept in the background is uncertain. He, clearly, was different to the stalwart band of elder brothers who were grouped round their father. Although fair to look on, his beauty was of a very different type to that of his brothers, probably, compared with Saul and his own brothers, little of stature, with reddish-brown hair and a fair complexion. His father and the men in the village thought less of him than of his dark, tall brothers: at all events, Jesse thought him of too little account to present to Samuel. But, as so often, God’s thoughts are not our thoughts, and in a moment Samuel saw that in the ruddy shepherd boy—small of stature, and held of little account in his father’s house—he beheld the future king of Israel.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 16:11". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/1-samuel-16.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And Samuel said unto Jesse, Are here all thy children? And he said, There remaineth yet the youngest, and, behold, he keepeth the sheep. And Samuel said unto Jesse, Send and fetch him: for we will not sit down till he come hither.
There remaineth
17:12-15,28; 2 Samuel 7:8; 1 Chronicles 17:7; Psalms 78:70,71
down
Heb. round.
Reciprocal: Genesis 34:5 - now his;  Genesis 46:32 - shepherds;  1 Samuel 16:19 - with the sheep;  1 Samuel 17:14 - the youngest;  1 Samuel 17:15 - returned;  1 Chronicles 2:15 - David;  1 Chronicles 10:14 - turned;  Matthew 1:6 - Jesse;  Matthew 20:2 - he sent;  John 7:42 - where;  Acts 7:46 - found

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 16:11". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/1-samuel-16.html.