Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

2 Kings 23:29

In his days Pharaoh Neco king of Egypt went up to the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates. And King Josiah went to meet him, and when Pharaoh Neco saw him he killed him at Megiddo.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Assyria;   Egyptians;   Israel, Prophecies Concerning;   Josiah;   Megiddo;   Pharaoh;   Thompson Chain Reference - Josiah;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Egypt;   Euphrates, the;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Assyria;   Egypt;   Hadadrimmon;   Jezreel;   Megiddo;   Pharaoh;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Egypt;   Euphrates;   Jehoahaz;   Jeremiah;   Josiah;   Megiddo;   Palestine;   Pharaoh;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Armageddon;   Gods and Goddesses, Pagan;   Kings, First and Second, Theology of;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Egypt;   Megiddo;   Pharaoh;   Riblah;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Armageddon;   Babel;   Ezra, the Book of;   Fly;   Hadad-Rimmon;   Jehoahaz;   Jeremiah;   Jezreel (1);   Josiah;   Pul (2);   Tahpanhes;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Archaeology and Biblical Study;   Armageddon;   Babylon, History and Religion of;   Egypt;   Exile;   Israel, History of;   Josiah;   Kings, 1 and 2;   Megiddo;   Neco;   Pharaoh;   Transportation and Travel;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Canon of the Old Testament;   Hexateuch;   Idolatry;   Josiah;   Megiddo;   Nebuchadrezzar;   Nec;   Temple;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Har-Magedon;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Armageddon ;   Egypt;   Hadadrimmon ;   Megiddo, Megiddon ;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Megiddo;   Necho;   Raca;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Carchemish;   Egypt;   Hadad-rimmon;   Megiddo;   Necho;   Pharaoh;   Riblah;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Megid'do;   Pha'raoh,;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Assyria;   Esdraelon;   Megiddo;  
Encyclopedias:
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - Kingdom of Judah;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Alliance;   Egypt;   Esdras, the First Book of;   Hadadrimmon;   Har-Magedon;   Megiddo;   Pharaoh;   Pharaoh-Necoh;   Zechariah, Book of;   Zephaniah, Book of;   Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia - Adad-rimmon;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Necho;   Palestine;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

In his days Pharaoh-nechoh - See the note on the death of Josiah, 2 Kings 22:20; (note).

Nechoh is supposed to have been the son of Psammitichus, king of Egypt; and the Assyrian king, whom he was now going to attack, was the famous Nabopolassar. What the cause of this quarrel was, is not known. Some say it was on account of Carchemish, a city on the Euphrates, belonging to the Egyptians, which Nabopolassar had seized. See Isaiah 10:9.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:29". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/2-kings-23.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Pharaoh-Nechoh - This king is well known to us both from profane historians, and from the Egyptian monuments. He succeeded his father Psammetichus (Psamatik) in the year 610 B.C., and was king of Egypt for 16 years. He was an enlightened and enterprising monarch. The great expedition here mentioned was an attempt to detach from the newly-formed Babylonian empire the important tract of country extending from Egypt to the Euphrates at Carchemish. Calculating probably on the friendship or neutrality of most of the native powers, the Egyptian monarch, having made preparations for the space of two years, set out on his march, probably following the (usual) coast route through Philistia and Sharon, from thence intending to cross by Megiddo into the Jezreel (Esdraelon) plain.

The king of Assyria - This expression does not imply that Nineveh had not yet fallen. The Jews, accustomed to Assyrian monarchs, who held their courts alternately at Nineveh and Babylon 2 Kings 19:36; 2 Chronicles 33:11, at first regarded the change as merely dynastic, and transferred to the new king, Nabopolassar, the title which they had been accustomed to give to their former suzerains. When, later on, Nebuchadnezzar invaded their country they found that he did not call himself “King of Assyria,” but “King of Babylon,” and thenceforth that title came into use; but the annalist who wrote the life of Josiah inmediately upon his death, and whom the author of Kings copied, used, not unnaturally, the more familiar, though less correct, designation.

Josiah went against him - Josiah probably regarded himself as in duty bound to oppose the march of a hostile force through his territory to attack his suzerain. For further details see the account in Chronicles (marginal reference). On Megiddo, see Joshua 12:21 note.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:29". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/2-kings-23.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

In his days Pharaohnechoh king of Egypt,.... Who is called in the Targum Pharaoh the lame, because he was lame in his feet, perhaps gouty; HerodotusF24Euterpe, sive, l. 2. c. 158. also calls him Necos the son of Psammiticus; now it was in the last days of Josiah this king reigned in Egypt, or however that the following event was:

that he went up against the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates; to Carchemish, a city situated upon it; see 2 Chronicles 35:26, the king he went against was the king of Babylon, who had conquered the Assyrian monarchy, and therefore called king of it; some take him to be Nabopolassar; according to MarshamF25Chronic. Secul. 18. p. 568. , he was Chyniladanus:

and King Josiah went against him; to stop him, that he might not pass through his country, and attack the king of Babylon, whose ally, perhaps, Josiah was; or, however, thought himself obliged to him by the privileges, power, and authority he allowed him to exercise in the land of Israel:

and he slew him at Megiddo, when he had seen him; as soon as they came face to face, and engaged in battle, see 2 Kings 14:8 that is Pharaoh slew Josiah at the first onset. Megiddo was a city in the tribe of Manasseh, Joshua 17:11. HerodotusF26Ibid. c. 159. calls it Magdolus, which seems to be a city on the borders of Egypt, the same with Migdol, Jeremiah 44:1 where he says Pharoahnechoh conquered the Syrians; in JosephusF1Antiqu. l. 10. c. 5. sect. 1. it is called Mendes very wrongly. Josiah seems to have engaged in this action without consulting the Lord and his prophets.

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Gill, John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:29". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/2-kings-23.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

In his days Pharaohnechoh king of Egypt went up against the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates: and king Josiah s went against him; and he slew him at Megiddo, when he had seen him.

(s) Because Pharaoh passed through his country, he was afraid Pharaoh would have done him harm and would have stopped him, yet he did not consult the Lord, and therefore was slain.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:29". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/2-kings-23.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

In his days Pharaoh-nechoh — (See 2 Chronicles 35:20-27).

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:29". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/2-kings-23.html. 1871-8.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

In his days Pharaohnechoh king of Egypt went up against the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates: and king Josiah went against him; and he slew him at Megiddo, when he had seen him.

The king, … — The king of Babylon, who having formerly rebelled against the Assyrian had now conquered him; as appears by the course of the sacred, and the concurrence of the prophane history; and therefore is here and elsewhere called the Assyrian, and the king of Assyria, because now he was the head of that empire.

Euphrates — Against Carchemish by Euphrates, as it is expressed, 2 Chronicles 35:20, which the Assyrian had taken from Pharaoh's confederates, who therefore sends forces against the Assyrian, that he might both help them, and secure himself.

Josiah went — Either to defend his own country from Pharaoh's incursions; or to assist the king of Babylon, with whom he seems to have been in league.

Slew — Gave him his death wound there; though he died not 'till he came to Jerusalem.

Seen him — When he fought with him, or in the first onset. It does not appear, that Josiah had any clear call to engage in this war; possibly he received his death wound, as a punishment of his rashness.

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Wesley, John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:29". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/2-kings-23.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

2 Kings 23:29 In his days Pharaohnechoh king of Egypt went up against the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates: and king Josiah went against him; and he slew him at Megiddo, when he had seen him.

Ver. 29. In his days Pharaohnechoh,] i.e., Claudus Pharaoh, the club-foot, so called for distinction. Tamerlane was likewise lame of one foot.

Went up against the king of Assyria.] Nabopolassar, king of Babylon, who had subdued the Assyrians, and gloried in that noble title, king of Assyria. See 2 Kings 20:12.

To the river Euphrates,] i.e., To the city Carchemish bordering thereupon.

And king Josiah went against him.] This was rashly done. The soldier’s motto is, Nec temere nec timide. Josiah fearing more to be counted timorous than temerarious, rushed upon his own death; not so much as advising with that famous prophet Jeremiah, or Zephaniah, or Urijah, the prophets then living; besides a whole college of seers. Sometimes both grace and wit are asleep in the holiest and wariest breasts. Perhaps he feared lest the Egyptian, aliud agens, should seize upon his country; or lest it lying between these two mighty monarchs, should be made the field or seat of their war, and so should be ground to powder, as grain between two millstones. In this respect Abulenais excuseth Josiah from all blame; but that cannot be. See 2 Chronicles 35:22. God had a holy hand in it, howsoever, for the just punishment of that sinful nation, way being now made by the death of this good prince for God’s judgments to rush in upon them with full force.

And he slew him.] That is, He, by his archers, gave him his deathly wound at Megiddo, forty-four miles from Jerusalem, whither he was by his servants bright, but died by the way, and was greatly lamented. [2 Chronicles 35:24 Zechariah 12:11] So was that thrice noble king of Sweden slain in Germany, yet not without the victory; which made one say,

“Upon this place the great Gustavus died,

Whilst Victory lay bleeding by his side.”

When he had seen him,] i.e., At the first encounter, as 2 Kings 14:8, priusquam inter se acies concurrerent, saith Sulpitius; before the battle began. Whilst he was setting the battle in array, riding from one wing to another, and giving instructions, saith Josephus, an Egyptian archer slew him, and together with him all the felicity of that state, which was thenceforth known, as Thebes was after the death of Epaminondas, by their calamities only.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:29". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/2-kings-23.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

2 Kings 23:29. In his days Pharaoh-nechoh, king of Egypt, went up, &c.— We have heretofore observed, that Pharaoh in the Egyptian language signifies king: but Nechoh, according to Herodotus, was the proper name of this monarch; though some will have it to be an appellative signifying lame, because this Pharaoh, as they suppose, had a lameness, proceeding from some wound which he had received in war. The same historian tells us, that he was the son and successor of Psammeticus, king of Egypt, and a man of a bold enterprising spirit; that he made an attempt to join the Nile and the Red Sea by drawing a canal from one to the other; that, though he failed in this design, yet by sending a fleet from the Red Sea through the straits of Babelmandel, he discovered the coast of Africa; and in this his expedition to the Euphrates resolved, by destroying the united force of the Babylonians and Medes, to bid fair for the whole monarchy of Asia. Megiddo was a city in the half tribe of Manasseh, not far from the Mediterranean sea. Houbigant renders the last clause of this verse, and king Josiah, &c.—who slew king Josiah coming against him, as soon as he had him for an adversary; and instead of dead in the next verse, he reads dying, as it appears from 2 Chronicles 35:24 that he died at Jerusalem. See Prideaux and Calmet.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:29". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/2-kings-23.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Pharaoh-nechoh, called Necos by Herodotus, who makes mention of this fight; wherein, as he saith, Necos conquered the Syrians in Magdalo. The king of Assyria, i.e. the king of Babylon, who having formerly rebelled against the Assyrian his lord, had now conquered him; as appears by the course of the sacred, and the concurrence of profane history; and therefore is here and elsewhere called the Assyrian, and the king of Assyria, because now he was the head of that empire. To the river Euphrates, i.e. against Carchemish by Euphrates, as it is expressed, 2 Chronicles 35:20, which the Assyrian had taken from the Syrians, Isaiah 10:9, Pharaoh’s confederates, who therefore sendeth forces against the Assyrian, that he might both help them, and secure himself.

Josiah went against him; either to defend his own country from Pharaoh’s incursions; or to assist the king of Babylon, with whom he seems to have been in league, as was noted before. He slew him, i.e. gave him his death’s wound there, though he died not till he came to Jerusalem, 2 Chronicles 35:23,24. When he had seen him, i.e. when he fought with him, or in the first onset. Thus fighting is called a looking in the face, 2 Kings 14:8.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:29". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/2-kings-23.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

29.Pharaoh-necho — According to Manetho, he was the sixth king of the twenty-sixth dynasty, and the enterprising monarch who, according to Herodotus, (iv, 42,) fitted out an expedition under charge of the Phenician sailors, which accomplished the circumnavigation of Africa twenty-one centuries before Vasco de Gama doubled the Cape of Good Hope. He appears to have been a most active and energetic king.

Went up against the king of Assyria — According to Josephus, this expedition of Necho was “to fight with the Medes and Babylonians, who had overthrown the dominions of the Assyrians.” In that case the king of Assyria here would mean the Babylonian conqueror, Nabopolassar, who had so recently become ruler of Assyria, and stood in the same relation to Judah, so that the Hebrew historian considered it unnecessary to be more particular.

Some think that as the exact date of the fall of Nineveh is not yet settled, it may be that the Assyrian empire was just now in its last stage of weakness, and this weakness tempted Necho to improve the opportunity to conquer Carchemish, (2 Chronicles 35:20,) and attach to his own dominion the Asiatic country west of the river Euphrates. But it is fatal to this supposition, that Necho held Carchemish only three years, when it was wrested from him by Nebuchadnezzar, who had then just attained the royal power. Jeremiah 25:1; compare with Jeremiah 46:2. But Nebuchadnezzar’s father reigned twenty years, and his reign could not have commenced long before the fall of Nineveh. Hence Necho’s conquests on the Euphrates must have occurred after the fall of Assyria.

Josiah went against him — He probably supposed that if this Egyptian expedition against the king of Assyria was successful, Necho would not spare Judea on his return. Although the king of Egypt pretended to assure him that he had no hostile intentions against Judea, Josiah was too far-sighted a ruler to fail to see that if Egypt extended her dominions beyond him on the east, and so surrounded him, he would soon be required to surrender his independency, and become a mere vassal of Pharaoh.

Slew him at Megiddo — In the great plain of Esdraelon at the northern base of the Carmel range of mountains, at the site of the modern village el-Lejjun. See at Joshua 12:21. It appears from the parallel passage in Chronicles that the surrounding plain was sometimes called “the valley of Megiddo.” Near by was Hadadrimmon, and the excessive lamentation of the Jews over the fall of the beloved Josiah became proverbial, and is spoken of by Zechariah (Zechariah 12:11) as “the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddon.” Herodotus seems to refer to this battle between Necho and Josiah when he says (ii, 159) that this king of Egypt “made war by land upon the Syrians and defeated them in a pitched battle at Magdolus,” the latter name being probably a confused form of Megiddo.

When he had seen him — When the two armies came in conflict on the field of battle, and looked each other in the face. See at 2 Kings 14:8. It does not appear that Necho slew Josiah with his own hand, but, according to Chronicles, he was shot at and wounded by the archers, and was carried in a chariot to Jerusalem; but where he died is not exactly stated. See on next verse.

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:29". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/2-kings-23.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

2 Kings 23:29. In his days Pharaoh-nechoh, king of Egypt, went up, &c. — According to Herodotus, Nechoh was the proper name of this monarch, Pharaoh being the general name of all their kings, as has been before observed in these notes. He tells us he was the son and successor of Psammeticus, king of Egypt, and a man of a bold and enterprising spirit; that he made an attempt to join the Nile and the Red sea, by drawing a canal from the one to the other; that, though he failed in this design, yet, by sending a fleet from the Red sea, through the straits of Babelmandel, he discovered the coast of Africa, and in this expedition to the Euphrates, intended to destroy the united force of the Babylonians and Medes, and thereby to obtain the whole monarchy of Asia. See Prideaux’s Connect., and Calmet’s Dict. Went up against the king of Assyria — The king of Babylon, who, having formerly rebelled against the Assyrian, had now conquered him, as appears by the course of the sacred, and the concurrence of profane history; and therefore is here and elsewhere called the Assyrian, and the king of Assyria, because now he was the head of that empire. To the river Euphrates — Against Carchemish by Euphrates, as it is expressed 2 Chronicles 35:20, which the Assyrian had taken from Pharaoh’s confederates, who therefore sends forces against the Assyrian, that he might both help them and secure himself. Josiah went against him — Either to defend his own country from Pharaoh’s incursions, or to assist the king of Babylon, with whom he seems to have been in league. And he slew him at Megiddo — Gave him his death-wound there, though he died not till he came to Jerusalem. When he had seen him — When he fought with him, or in the first onset. Megiddo was a city in the half-tribe of Manasseh, not far from the Mediterranean sea. It does not appear that Josiah had any clear call to engage in this war; possibly he received his death-wound as a punishment of his rashness. Mr. Locke, however, observes, that from the time of the carrying away of Manasseh, the kings of Judah were under the protection of the Babylonians; and that Josiah, being most piously observant of his faith, would not grant a passage to this enemy of the king of Babylon, and therefore went against him.

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Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:29". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/2-kings-23.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Nechao, six years (Usher, the year of the world 3394.) after he had succeeded his father Psammetichus, with whose ambitious views hew as animated to attempt the conquest of Asia. (Marsham sæc. 18.) Pharao pretends that God had sent him to attack the Assyrians, 2 Paralipomenon xxxv. 21. But Josias thought he was only imposing on him, or speaking through fear. The Jews assert that Jeremias also opposed the king's design, 3 Esdras i. 28. (St. Jerome, ad Ctesip.) But this does not appear from the canonical Scripture. (Calmet) --- Meet him, in order to hinder him from passing through his dominions without leave; as this might prove dangerous. (Haydock) --- Seen him, and fought. (Menochius) --- He received a mortal wound at Mageddo, but did at Jerusalem, 2 Paralipomenon xxxv. 23. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] x. 6.) --- Mageddo lay to the south of Cison, where Barak had fought before, Judges v. 19. Herodotus (ii. 159.) says, that Nechos gained a victory over the Syrians at Magdolum, and took Cadytis, which is probably Cades, a strong city of Galilee, though some take it to be Jerusalem, as it may be interpreted "the holy city." (Calmet) --- Mageddo is called Magdala in the Greek, and Magedan in other copies, and in the Vulgate, Matthew xv. 39.

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:29". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/2-kings-23.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Pharaoh-nechoh: i.e. Nechoh II, the sixth king of the twentysixth dynasty. His father was a tributary to Assyria, but had secured independence for Egypt.

the king of Assyria: i.e. the king of Babylon, who had just conquered Nineveh, the rival capital.

went against him. His motive not known.

he = the king of Egypt.

him = Josiah.

Megiddo. Southern margin of the plain of Esdraelon, celebrated for Syria"s defeat by Barak (Judges 5:19).

seen. Figure of speech Tapeinosis, to emphasize the fact that he did much more than "see" him. Compare 2 Kings 14:8 and 2 Chronicles 35:21, 2 Chronicles 35:22.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:29". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/2-kings-23.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

In his days Pharaoh-nechoh king of Egypt went up against the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates: and king Josiah went against him; and he slew him at Megiddo, when he had seen him.

In his days Pharaoh-nechon - (see 2 Chronicles 35:20-27, and 2 Chron.)

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:29". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/2-kings-23.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(29) Pharaoh-nechoh.—Necho II., the successor of Psammetichus, and the sixth king of the 26th or Saite dynasty, called νεκὼς by Herodotus (ii. 158, 159; ); he reigned circ. 611-605 B.C., but is not mentioned in the Assyrian records, so far as they are at present known to us.

The king of Assyria.—It is sometimes assumed that Necho’s expedition was directed against “the then ruler of what had been the Assyrian empire” (Thenius and others), and that the king in question was Nabopalassar, the conqueror of Nineveh, who became king of Babylon in 626-625 B.C. If the fall of Nineveh preceded or coincided with this last event, then Nabopalassar must be intended by the historian here. But if, as the chronology of Eusebius and Jerome represents, Cyaraxes the Mede took Nineveh in 609-608 B.C., or, according to the Armenian chronicle, apud Eusebius, in 608-607 B.C., then Necho’s expedition (circ. 609 B.C. ) was really directed against a king of Assyria in the strict sense. After the death of Assurbanipal (626 B.C. ) it appears that two or three kings reigned at Nineveh, namely, Assur-idil-ilani-ukinni, Bel-sum-iskun and Esar-haddon II. (the Saracus of Abydenus and Syncellus). Nineveh must have fallen before 606 B.C., as Assyria does not occur in the list of countries mentioned by Jeremiah (Jeremiah 25:19-26) in the fourth year of Jehoiakim, i.e., 606 B.C. The probable date of its fall is 607 B.C. A year or so later Necho made a second expedition, this time against the king of Babylon, but was utterly defeated at Carchemish. (See Schrader, K. A. T., pp. 357-361.) Josephus says that Necho went to wage war with the Medes and Babylonians, who had just put an end to the Assyrian empire, and that his object was to win the dominion of Asia.

King Josiah went against him.—Probably as a vassal of Assyria, and as resenting Necho’s trespass on territory which he regarded as his own. The Syriac adds: “to fight against him: and Pharaoh said to him, Not against thee have I come; return from me. And he hearkened not to Pharaoh, and Pharaoh smote him.” This may once have formed part of the Hebrew text, but is more likely a gloss from Chronicles.

At Megiddo.—In the plain of Jezreel (1 Kings 4:12). (Comp. Zechariah 12:11.) Herodotus calls it Magdolus (ii. 159). The fact that this was the place of battle shows that Necho had not marched through southern Palestine, but had taken the shortest route over sea, and landed at Accho (Acre). Otherwise, Josiah would not have had to go so far north to meet him.

When he had seen him.—At the outset of the encounter; as we might say, the moment he got sight of him. According to the account in Chronicles, which is derived from a different source, Josiah was wounded by the Egyptian archers, and carried in a dying state to Jerusalem (2 Chronicles 35:22 seq.). Thenius thinks that Jeremiah 15:7-9 was spoken on occasion of Josiah’s departure with his army from the north, and that the prophet’s metaphor, “her sun went down while it was yet day,” refers to the eclipse of Thales, which had recently happened, 610 B.C. (Herod, i. 74, 103).

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:29". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/2-kings-23.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

In his days Pharaohnechoh king of Egypt went up against the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates: and king Josiah went against him; and he slew him at Megiddo, when he had seen him.
A. M. 3394. B.C. 610
Pharaoh-nechoh
Pharaoh-nechoh, called [Nekos] Necos, the son of Psammiticus, by Herodotus, was now was now marching "to make war upon the Medes and Babylonians, who had dissolved the Assyrian empire," the king of the latter being the famous Nabopollasar, who had also become king of Assyria.
33,34,35; 2 Chronicles 35:20-24; Jeremiah 46:2
Euphrates
2 Kings 24:7; 2 Chronicles 35:20; Jeremiah 46:2
Josiah went
2 Chronicles 35:20-23
slew him
2 Kings 22:20; Ecclesiastes 8:14; 9:1,2; Isaiah 57:1,2; Romans 11:33
Megiddo
Megiddo, called [Magdolon] Magdolum, by Herodotus, was situated in the tribe of Manasseh, west of Jordan, in the valley of Jezreel, and not far fron Hadad-Rimmon, or Maximianopolis. This shews that Josiah reigned over the country formerly possessed by the ten tribes; and it is also probable, that Nechoh had landed his troops at or near Cæsarea of Palestine.
9:27; Joshua 17:11; Judges 1:27; 5:19; 1 Kings 4:12; Zechariah 12:11
Megiddon
Revelation 16:16
Armageddon
he had seen him.
14:8,11
Reciprocal: Genesis 25:18 - toward;  Joshua 12:21 - Megiddo;  1 Kings 9:15 - Megiddo;  1 Chronicles 7:29 - Megiddo;  1 Chronicles 10:2 - Jonathan;  Ezra 6:22 - the king;  Nehemiah 9:32 - on our kings;  Ezekiel 19:1 - the princes;  Ezekiel 19:12 - strong;  Zechariah 9:8 - because of him that passeth by

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:29". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/2-kings-23.html.