Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

2 Kings 23:31

Jehoahaz was twenty-three years old when he became king, and he reigned three months in Jerusalem; and his mother's name was Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Egyptians;   Hamutal;   Israel, Prophecies Concerning;   Jehoahaz;   Jeremiah;   Pharaoh;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Egypt;   Kings;  
Dictionaries:
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Egypt;   Jehoahaz;   Jeremiah;   Shallum;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Hamutal;   Jehoahaz;   Jeremiah;   Libnah;   Necho Ii;   Riblah;   Zedekiah;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Hamutal;   Jehoahaz;   Jeremiah;   Libnah;   Pharaoh;   Zedekiah;   Zephaniah;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Egypt;   Exile;   Hamutal;   Jeremiah;   Libnah;   Neco;   Riblah;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Canon of the Old Testament;   Hamutal;   Hexateuch;   Idolatry;   Jeremiah;   Libnah;   Temple;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Egypt;   Hamutal ;   Jehoahaz ;   Jeremiah ;   Shallum ;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Raca;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Riblah;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Hamu'tal;   Jeho'ahaz;   Jeremi'ah;   Zedeki'ah;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Jehoahaz;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Captivity;   Hamutal;   Jehoahaz;   Jeremiah (1);   Johanan;   Libnah;   Nebuchadnezzar;   Queen Mother;   Relationships, Family;   Riblah;   Tax;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Jehoahaz was twenty and three years old - This was not the eldest son of Josiah, which is evident from this, that he was twenty-three years old when he began to reign; that he reigned but three months; that, being dethroned, his brother Eliakim was put in his place, who was then twenty-five years of age. Eliakim, therefore, was the eldest brother; but Jehoahaz was probably raised to the throne by the people, as being of a more active and martial spirit.

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Bibliographical Information
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:31". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/2-kings-23.html. 1832.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

THE THREE MONTHS' REIGN OF JEHOAHAZ

"Jehoahaz was twenty and three years old when he began to reign; and he reigned three months in Jerusalem: and his mother's name was Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah. And he did that which was evil in the sight of Jehovah, according to all that his fathers had done. And Pharaoh-necoh put him in bonds at Riblah in the land of Hamath, that he might not reign in Jerusalem; and he put the land to a tribute of a hundred talents of silver, and a talent of gold. And Pharaoh-necoh made Eliakim the son of Josiah king in the room of Josiah his father, and changed his name to Jehoiakim: but he took Jehoahaz away; and he came to Egypt and died there. And Jehoiakim gave the silver and the gold to Pharaoh; but he taxed the land to give the money according to the commandment of Pharaoh: he exacted the silver and the gold of the people of the land, of everyone according to his taxation, to give it unto Pharaoh-necoh."

"Jehoahaz was twenty and three years old when he began to reign" (2 Kings 23:31). "Only three months later when Jehoahaz's brother Eliakim (Jehoiakim) succeeded him, Eliakim was twenty-five years old; so Jehoahaz (Shallum) was the younger brother. The reason why he was made king before his brother might have been due to the fact, as supposed by Hammond, that, "Eliakim had been captured upon the occasion of Josiah's death, and that he was still in the possession of Pharaoh-necoh."[32] The fact of Pharaoh's being able to depose Shallum and put his brother Eliakim on the throne supports that assumption.

"His mother's name was Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah" (2 Kings 23:31). The Jeremiah here was not the prophet, because the prophet Jeremiah was from Anathoth (Jeremiah 1:1).

Ezekiel wrote an elegy concerning both of these kings (Ezekiel 10:1-8). The wickedness of both of them is recorded here in terminology that means they were gross idolaters contrary to all that their father had believed.

"Pharaoh-necoh made Eliakim king in the room of Josiah his father" (2 Kings 23:34). This shows that Pharaoh-necoh did not recognize the three month rule of Jehoahaz at all. Keil's opinion is doubtless correct that, "When Pharaoh heard that they had made Jehoahaz king, he at once sent a detachment of soldiers to Jerusalem and deposed him and placed Eliakim on the throne as his puppet."[33] This would appear to be verified by the declaration in 2 Chronicles 36:3 that "Pharaoh deposed him at Jerusalem."

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:31". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/2-kings-23.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Jehoahaz was twenty three years old when he began to reign,.... Who seems to be the same with Shallum, Jeremiah 22:11.

and he reigned three months in Jerusalem; a short reign, being deposed by the king of Egypt, as after related:

and his mother's name was Hamutal, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah; a city in the tribe of Judah, Joshua 10:29.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:31". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/2-kings-23.html. 1999.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

2 Kings 23:31 Jehoahaz [was] twenty and three years old when he began to reign; and he reigned three months in Jerusalem. And his mother’s name [was] Hamutal, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah.

Ver. 31. Jehoahaz was twenty and three years old.] He was younger than his brother Jehoiakim, [2 Kings 23:36] got the kingdom from him by a popular faction, likely, and it proved accordingly. Some think him to have been called Shallum at first, [Jeremiah 22:11] and that the people changed his name Melioris ominis causa; because Shallum king of Israel had reigned but one month only ere he was slain by Menahem. [2 Kings 15:13]

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Bibliographical Information
Trapp, John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:31". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/2-kings-23.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

2 Kings 23:31. Jehoahaz was twenty and three years old Jehoahaz was not the eldest son of Josiah, as appears from this; he was but three and twenty years old when he began to reign, and reigned but three months; after which his brother Jehoiakim, when he was made king, was five and twenty years old, 2 Kings 23:36. For this reason, it is said, that the people anointed him; because, as he did not come to the crown by right of succession, his title might have otherwise been disputed. See the note on chap. 2 Kings 9:3. At this time, however, the Jews might have some reason to prefer the younger brother, because very probably he was of a more martial spirit, and better qualified to defend their liberties against the king of Egypt. His proper name, it is thought, was Shallum. The Scripture nowhere tells us upon what occasion it was that he fell into the king of Egypt's hands, or for what reason it was that he used him so severely; but it is probable, that, to revenge his father's death, he might raise an army, and engage him in a pitched battle, though he failed in the attempt: for why should he put him in bands, if he voluntarily went and surrendered himself at Riblah, 2 Kings 23:33.? Or why be so highly offended at him for accepting a crown which the people conferred on him? The general opinion therefore is, that he was a man of a bold and daring spirit; and the words in the prophet Ezekiel, chap. 2 Kings 19:2. &c. are applied to him. See also Jeremiah 22:11 and Calmet.

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Bibliographical Information
Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:31". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/2-kings-23.html. 1801-1803.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

REIGN OF JEHOAHAZ, 2 Kings 23:31-35.

31.Twenty and three years old — So he was not the real heir to the throne, for Eliakim, (2 Kings 23:34,) who was placed on the throne a few months later, was nearly two years older. But “the people of the land,” who elected him in place of his elder brother, seem to have discerned in him certain energetic and enterprising or heroic qualities, which were, perhaps, wanting in Eliakim, who was disposed to idleness and luxury. Compare Jeremiah 22:10-19, where Jehoahaz is called Shallum.

Three months — Merely the time that Pharaoh-necho was engaged in the conquest of Carchemish.

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Bibliographical Information
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:31". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/2-kings-23.html. 1874-1909.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Old. Eliacim his brother was 25. (Haydock) --- Perhaps Joachaz was esteemed more by the people, as fitter to defend them against the king of Egypt, who had proceeded on his journey to attack Charchamis on the Euphrates. (Calmet) --- Having placed a garrison in it, he was met by Joachaz, and gained a victory over him at Rebla, (Haydock) as Sanctius gathers from Ezechiel xix. 4. Hence he treated the captive king with such severity, and sent him into Egypt to die in chains, Jeremias xxii. 11. Joachaz is called Sellum (in Jeremias) and Jechonias, 3 Esdras i. 34. (Calemt) --- He was a lion only against his own subjects. (Tirinus)

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Bibliographical Information
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:31". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/2-kings-23.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Jehoahaz. Also called Johanan (Jeremiah 22:11. 1 Chronicles 3:15). He was the younger brother of Jehoiakim (2 Kings 23:36).

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Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:31". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/2-kings-23.html. 1909-1922.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Jehoahaz was twenty and three years old when he began to reign; and he reigned three months in Jerusalem. And his mother's name was Hamutal, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah.
Jehoahaz
1 Chronicles 3:15; Jeremiah 22:11
Shallum
Hamutal.
24:18
Reciprocal: 2 Chronicles 36:1 - Jehoahaz;  Ecclesiastes 4:14 - also;  Ezekiel 19:3 - it became;  Ezekiel 19:4 - he was;  Matthew 1:11 - Jechonias

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:31". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/2-kings-23.html.