Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

2 Kings 24:1

In his days Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up, and Jehoiakim became his servant for three years; then he turned and rebelled against him.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Babylon;   Israel, Prophecies Concerning;   Jehoiakim;   Thompson Chain Reference - Eliakim;   Jehoiakim, King of Judah;   Nebuchadnezzar;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Babylon;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Egypt;   Habakkuk;   Nebuchadnezzar;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Ammon;   Babylon;   Jehoiakim;   Jerusalem;   Judah, tribe and kingdom;   Moab;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Amos, Theology of;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Captivity;   Jehoiakim;   Nebuchadnezzar;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Jehoiachin;   Jehoiakim;   Nebuchadnezzar;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Babylon, History and Religion of;   Crimes and Punishments;   Egypt;   Kings, 1 and 2;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Israel;   Jeremiah;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Babylon ;   Jehoiakim ;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Captivity;   Jehoiakim;   Nebuchadnezzar;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Jeho-I'akim;   Nebuchadnez'zar,;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Babylon;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Chesed;   Seventy Years;   Tax;   Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia - Babylonia;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Daniel, Book of;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Nebuchadnezzar - This man, so famous in the writings of the prophets, was son of Nabopolassar. He was sent by his father against the rulers of several provinces that had revolted; and he took Carchemish, and all that belonged to the Egyptians, from the Euphrates to the Nile. Jehoiakim, who was tributary to Nechoh king of Egypt, he attacked and reduced; and obliged to become tributary to Babylon. At the end of three years he revolted; and then a mixed army, of Chaldeans, Syrians, Moabites, and Ammonites, was sent against him, who ravaged the country, and took three thousand and twenty-three prisoners, whom they brought to Babylon, Jeremiah 52:28.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on 2 Kings 24:1". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/2-kings-24.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

In his days - i. e., 605 B.C., which was the third completed Daniel 1:1, and fourth commencing Jeremiah 25:1, year of Jehoiakim.

Nebuchadnezzar - or Nebuchadrezzar, which is closer to the original, Nabu-kudurri-uzur. This name, like most Babylonian names, is made up of three elements, Nebo, the well-known god Isaiah 46:1, kudur, of doubtful signification (perhaps “crown” perhaps “landmark”), and uzur “protects.” Nebuchadnezzar, the son of Nabopolassar, and second monarch of the Babylonian empire, ascended the throne, 604 B.C., and reigned 43 years, dying 561 B.C. He married Amuhia (or Amyitis), daughter of Cyaxares, king of the Medes, and was the most celebrated of all the Babylonian sovereigns. No other pagan king occupies so much space in Scripture. He was not actual king at this time, but only Crown Prince and leader of the army under his father. As he would be surrounded with all the state and magnficence of a monarch, the Jews would naturally look upon him as actual king.

Came up - Nebuchadnezzar began his campaign by attacking and defeating Neco‘s Egyptians at Carchemish Jeremiah 46:2. He then pressed forward toward the south, overran Syria, Phoenicia, and Judaea, took Jerusalem, and carried off a portion of the inhabitants as prisoners Daniel 1:1-4: after which he proceeded southward, and had reached the borders of Egypt when he was suddenly recalled to Babylon by the death of his father.

Three years - Probably from 605 B.C. to 602 B.C. Jehoiakim rebelled because he knew Nebuchadnezzar to be engaged in important wars in some other part of Asia.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on 2 Kings 24:1". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/2-kings-24.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

THE BEGINNING OF THE SEVENTY YEARS OF CAPTIVITY

"In his days Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up, and Jehoiakim became his servant three years: then he turned and rebelled against him. And Jehovah sent against him bands of Chaldeans, and bands of the Syrians, and bands of the Moabites, and bands of the children of Ammon, and sent them against Judah to destroy it, according to the word of Jehovah, which he spake by his servants the prophets. Surely at the commandment of Jehovah came this upon Judah, to remove them out of his sight, for the sins of Manasseh, according to all that he did, and also for the innocent blood that he shed; for he filled Jerusalem with innocent blood: and Jehovah would not pardon. Now the rest of the acts of Jehoiakim, and all that he did, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? So Jehoiakim slept with his fathers; and Jehoiakin his son reigned in his stead. And the king of Egypt came not again any more out of his land; for the king of Babylon had taken, from the brook of Egypt unto the river Euphrates, all that pertained to the king of Egypt."

Right here in 2 Kings 24:1 is the beginning of the seventy years of captivity for the children of Israel, as Jeremiah had prophesied:

"And this whole land (Palestine) shall be a desolation and an astonishment; and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years." (Jeremiah 25:11).

It should be noted that the `seventy years' of Jeremiah's prophecy should be applied to the sovereignty of the king of Babylon and not uniquely to the actual period that the people of God would be in captivity, although that too was approximately seventy years.

"In his days Nebuchadnezzar ... came up" (2 Kings 24:1). This is a reference to the days of Jehoiakim.

"And he became his servant" (2 Kings 24:1). From this day, Judah was no longer an independent nation. The exact date when Jehoiakim became the servant of Nebuchadnezzar is not exactly clear. Josephus thought that it was in the years 603-601 B.C., but we agree with LaSor that it was, "Soon after Pharaoh-necoh withdrew to Egypt in 608 B.C.,"[1] which would have been very near the year 606 B.C., the year prior to the battle of Carchemish. This would mean that Jehoiakim's revolt would have been in the year 605.

We have written extensive comments on all of these events in Jeremiah 20-39. Helpful facts that help in understanding the complicated history of this period include the following:

(1) There are four separate Biblical accounts of the fall of Jerusalem (1) Jeremiah 39; (2) Jeremiah 52; (2) 2 Kings 24, and (4) 2 Chronicles 36. Additionally, there is the account of it in the works of Flavius Josephus. There are variations in these reports, of course; and the exploration of these differences is an absolutely worthless endeavor! (See my full comment on this in Vol. 2 (Jeremiah) of the major prophets, p. 429.)

(2) There were no less than three deportations of the Israelites from, Jerusalem and Judah. "These were in 597 B.C., 587 B.C. and 582 B.C."[2] Cawley, however, gave the dates as 597 B.C., 586 B.C., and 581 B.C. respectively.[3] Daniel and his friends were among the first deportees; Ezekiel was in the second group; and the conceited residue of Judah which still remained in Jerusalem, who supposed that they alone were the terminal heirs of all the promises to the patriarchs, were removed in the last one.

Scholars disagree about the exact date when the bands of Chaldeans, Moabites, Ammonites, and Syrians raided Jerusalem and Judah. Some think it was in the interval when Nebuchadnezzar returned to Babylon to receive the throne after his father died, and others place it somewhat later. "During the interval (whenever it was), Nebuchadnezzar sent raiding bands to harass Jerusalem (2 Kings 24:2) as a judgment from Jehovah."[4]

"And Jehovah sent against him bands of the Chaldeans ..." (2 Kings 24: 2). Of course, it was the king of Babylon who commanded those raiding bands; "But after the Lord had given Judah into the hands of the Chaldeans as a punishment of their apostasy, all revolt against them was rebellion against the Lord."[5]

"And Jehovah would not pardon" (2 Kings 24:4). Jeremiah 15:1ff explains why this was true. "It was because the measure of their sins was full, and in justice God had no choice except to punish them. Even if the greatest intercessors such as Moses and Samuel had come before the Lord (pleading for Judah), it would have done no good."[6]

"So Jehoiakim slept with his fathers; and Jehoiakin his son reigned in his stead" (2 Kings 24:6). "This does not contradict Jeremiah's prophecy (Jeremiah 22:19) that Jehoiakim would receive the burial of an ass, carried off and cast away beyond the gates of Jerusalem."[7] (See our comment on this under that reference in Jeremiah.) LaSor explained what probably happened. "Jehoiakim had revolted again; and 2 Chronicles 36:6 states that, `Nebuchadnezzar bound him with fetters to take him to Babylon,' but he had been wounded and died on the way; and his body was cast away."[8]

Jeremiah gave another prophecy regarding Jehoiakim that, "He shall have none to sit upon the throne of David" (Jeremiah 36:30). Yes, our text says that, "His son Jehoiakin reigned in his stead," but it was no longer "the throne of David," nor had it been since Nebuchadnezzar had become Lord of the entire world of that era. Also, as Keil stated in this connection, "Even though Jeconiah ascended the throne, his brief three-months reign, quickly followed by his capture and removal to Babylon, was quite properly described by the prophet as not sitting upon the throne of David."[9]

"The king of Babylon had taken ... all that pertained to the king of Egypt" (2 Kings 24:7). At this point in history, Nebuchadnezzar was supreme from the border of Egypt to the Euphrates, and for seventy years Judah would lie under the heel of the Chaldeans. In no real sense did the `throne of David' actually exist during this period, nor would it ever on earth exist any more. God had completely and forever removed the "sinful kingdom" (Amos 9:8) out of his sight.

THE THREE-MONTH REIGN OF KING JEHOIAKIN

This king was also known as Jeconiah (or Coniah). See Matthew 1:11 and Jeremiah 22:24. He was just as wicked as any of his fathers.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on 2 Kings 24:1". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/2-kings-24.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

In his days Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up,.... Against Jerusalem; this was in the latter end of the third, or the beginning of the fourth of Jehoiakim's reign, and the first of Nebuchadnezzar, Jeremiah 25:1, when Jehoiakim was taken, but restored upon promise of subjection and obedience, and hostages given, at which time Daniel and his companions were carried captive, with some of the vessels of the temple; See Gill on Daniel 1:1, Daniel 1:2.

and Jehoiakim became his servant three years: which were the fifth, sixth, and seventh years of his reign:

then he turned and rebelled against him; being encouraged by the king of Egypt, who promised to assist him against the king of Babylon; Nebuchadnezzar is the Nabocolasser in Ptolemy's canon; and BerosusF14Apud Clement. Alex. Stromat. 1. p. 329. testifies, that seventy years before the Persian monarchy he made war against the Phoenicians and Jews, and it is from this time the seventy years' captivity is to be dated.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 24:1". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/2-kings-24.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

In his a days Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up, and Jehoiakim became his servant three years: then he turned and rebelled against him.

(a) In the end of the third year of his reign and in the beginning of the fourth, (Daniel 1:1).
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on 2 Kings 24:1". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/2-kings-24.html. 1599-1645.

Keil & Delitzsch Old Testament Commentary

“In his days Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babel, came up; and Jehoiakim became subject to him three years, then he revolted from him again.” נבכדנאצּר, Nebuchadnezzar, or נבוּכדראצּר, Nebuchadrezzar (Jeremiah 21:2, Jeremiah 21:7; Jeremiah 22:25, etc.), Ναβουχοδονόσορ (lxx), Ναβουχοδονόσορος (Beros. in Jos. c. Ap . i. 20, 21), Ναβοκοδρόσορος (Strabo, xv. 1, 6), upon the Persian arrow-headed inscriptions at Bisutun Nabhukudracara (according to Oppert, composed of the name of God, Nabhu (Nebo), the Arabic kadr , power, and zar or sar , prince), and in still other forms (for the different forms of the name see M. v. Niebuhr's Gesch. pp. 41, 42). He was the son of Nabopolassar, the founder of the Chaldaean monarchy, and reigned, according to Berosus (Jos. l.c. ), Alex. Polyh. (Eusebii Chr. arm . i. pp. 44, 45), and the Canon of Ptol., forty-three years, from 605 to 562 b.c. With regard to his first campaign against Jerusalem, it is stated in 2 Chronicles 36:6, that “against him (Jehoiakim) came up Nebuchadnezzar, and bound him with brass chains, to carry him ( להוליכו ) to Babylon;” and in Daniel 1:1-2, that “in the year three of the reign of Jehoiakim, Nebuchadnezzar came against Jerusalem and besieged it; and the Lord gave Jehoiakim, the king of Judah, into his hand, and a portion of the holy vessels, and he brought them (the vessels) into the land of Shinar, into the house of his god,” etc. Bertheau ( on Chr. ) admits that all three passages relate to Nebuchadnezzar's first expedition against Jehoiakim and the first taking of Jerusalem by the king of Babylon, and rejects the alteration of להוליכו, “to lead him to Babylon” (Chr.), into ἀπήγαγεν αὐτὸν (lxx), for which Thenius decides in his prejudice in favour of the lxx. He has also correctly observed, that the chronicler intentionally selected the infinitive with ל, because he did not intend to speak of the actual transportation of Jehoiakim to Babylon. The words of our text, “Jehoiakim became servant ( עבד ) to him,” i.e., subject to him, simply affirm that he became tributary, not that he was led away. And in the book of Daniel also there is nothing about the leading away of Jehoiakim to Babylon. Whilst, therefore, the three accounts agree in the main with one another, and supply one another's deficiencies, so that we learn that Jehoiakim was taken prisoner at the capture of Jerusalem and put in chains to be led away, but that, inasmuch as he submitted to Nebuchadnezzar and vowed fidelity, he was not taken away, but left upon the throne as vassal of the king of Babylon; the statement in the book of Daniel concerning the time when this event occurred, which is neither contained in our account nor in the Chronicles, presents a difficulty when compared with Jer 25 and Jeremiah 46:2, and different attempts, some of them very constrained, have been made to remove it. According to Jeremiah 46:2, Nebuchadnezzar smote Necho the king of Egypt at Carchemish, on the Euphrates, in the fourth year of Jehoiakim. This year is not only called the first year of Nebuchadnezzar in Jeremiah 25:1, but is represented by the prophet as the turning-point of the kingdom of Judah by the announcement that the Lord would bring His servant Nebuchadnezzar upon Judah and its inhabitants, and also upon all the nations dwelling round about, that he would devastate Judah, and that these nations would serve the king of Babylon seventy years (Jeremiah 25:9-11). Consequently not only the defeat of Necho at Carchemish, but also the coming of Nebuchadnezzar to Judah, fell in the fourth year of Jehoiakim, and not in the third. To remove this discrepancy, some have proposed that the time mentioned, “in the fourth year of Jehoiakim” (Jeremiah 46:2), should be understood as relating, not to the year of the battle at Carchemish, but to the time of the prophecy of Jeremiah against Egypt contained in Jer 46, and that Jer 25 should also be explained as follows, that in this chapter the prophet is not announcing the first capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, but is proclaiming a year after this the destruction of Jerusalem and the devastation of the whole land, or a total judgment upon Jerusalem and the rest of the nations mentioned there (M. v. Nieb. Gesch. pp. 86, 87, 371). But this explanation is founded upon the erroneous assumption, that Jeremiah 46:3-12 does not contain a prediction of the catastrophe awaiting Egypt, but a picture of what has already taken place there; and it is only in a very forced manner that it can be brought into harmony with the contents of Jer 25.

(Note: Still less tenable is the view of Hofman, renewed by Zündel ( Krit. Unterss. üb. d. Abfassungszeit des B. Daniel, p. 25), that Nebuchadnezzar conquered Jerusalem in the third year of Jehoiakim, and that it was not till the following, or fourth year, that he defeated the Egyptian army at Carchemish, because so long as Pharaoh Necho stood with his army by or in Carchemish, on the Euphrates, Nebuchadnezzar could not possibly attempt to pass it so as to effect a march upon Jerusalem.)

We must rather take “the year three of the reign of Jehoiakim” (Daniel 1:1) as the extreme terminus a quo of Nebuchadnezzar's coming, i.e., must understand the statement thus: that in the year referred to Nebuchadnezzar commenced the expedition against Judah, and smote Necho at Carchemish at the commencement of the fourth year of Jehoiakim (Jeremiah 46:2), and then, following up this victory, took Jerusalem in the same year, and made Jehoiakim tributary, and at the same time carried off to Babylon a portion of the sacred vessels, and some young men of royal blood as hostages, one of whom was Daniel (2 Chronicles 36:7; Daniel 1:2.). The fast mentioned in Jeremiah 36:9, which took place in the fifth year of Jehoiakim, cannot be adduced in disproof of this; for extraordinary fast-days were not only appointed for the purpose of averting great threatening dangers, but also after severe calamities which had fallen upon the land or people, to expiate His wrath by humiliation before God, and to invoke the divine compassion to remove the judgment that had fallen upon them. The objection, that the godless king would hardly have thought of renewing the remembrance of a divine judgment by a day of repentance and prayer, but would rather have desired to avoid everything that could make the people despair, falls to the ground, with the erroneous assumption upon which it is founded, that by the fast-day Jehoiakim simply intended to renew the remembrance of the judgment which had burst upon Jerusalem, whereas he rather desired by outward humiliation before God to secure the help of God to enable him to throw off the Chaldaean yoke, and arouse in the people a religious enthusiasm for war against their oppressors. - Further information concerning this first expedition of Nebuchadnezzar is supplied by the account of Berosus, which Josephus ( Ant. x. 11, and c. Ap. i. 19) has preserved from the third book of his Chaldaean history, namely, that when Nabopolassar received intelligence of the revolt of the satrap whom he had placed over Egypt, Coele-Syria, and Phoenicia, because he was no longer able on account of age to bear the hardships of war, he placed a portion of his army in the hands of his youthful son Nebuchadnezzar and sent him against the satrap. Nebuchadnezzar defeated him in battle, and established his power over that country again. In the meantime Nabopolassar fell sick and died in Babylon; and as soon as the tidings reached Nebuchadnezzar, he hastened through the desert to Babylon with a small number of attendants, and directed his army to follow slowly after regulating the affairs of Egypt and the rest of the country, and to bring with it the prisoners from the Jews, Syrians, Phoenicians, and Egyptian tribes, and with the heavily-armed troops. So much, at any rate, is evident from this account, after deducting the motive assigned for the war, which is given from a Chaldaean point of view, and may be taken as a historical fact, that even before his father's death Nebuchadnezzar had not only smitten the Egyptians, but had also conquered Judah and penetrated to the borders of Egypt. And there is no discrepancy between the statement of Berosus, that Nebuchadnezzar was not yet king, and the fact that in the biblical books he is called king proleptically, because he marched against Judah with kingly authority.

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The Keil & Delitzsch Old Testament Commentary is a derivative of a public domain electronic edition.
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Keil, Carl Friedrich & Delitzsch, Franz. "Commentary on 2 Kings 24:1". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/kdo/2-kings-24.html. 1854-1889.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

CONTENTS

The ruin of Judah is nearly arrived. Jehoiakim rebelling against the king of Babylon, to whom he had been tributary three years, is ruined. Jerusalem is taken. Some account of the evil reign of Zedekiah.

2 Kings 24:1

If the Reader will be careful to connect the last of the history of the kings of Judah, with the first of the Babylonish captivity, he should begin the close of the one with the opening of the other at this chapter. For here we first meet with that character of whom Daniel speaks so much, Nebuchadnezzar. Alas! such a character would never have been noticed in the Church but for the Church's backsliding. Satan would have never made the figure he doth had not our nature sinned.

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Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on 2 Kings 24:1". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/2-kings-24.html. 1828.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

2 Kings 24:1 In his days Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up, and Jehoiakim became his servant three years: then he turned and rebelled against him.

Ver. 1. Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon.] Son of Nabopolassar who founded the Babylonian monarchy.

Came up,] sc., After that he had beaten the king of Egypt’s forces at Charchemish. [Jeremiah 46:2]

Then he turned and rebelled against him.] Defectione tam turpi quam exitiosa. The king of Egypt by fair promises prevailed with him to rebel against Nebuchadnezzar, as also by threats, that otherwise he would restore Jehoahaz now prisoner in Egypt; which yet Jeremiah assured him should never be. [Jeremiah 22:11-12]

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 24:1". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/2-kings-24.html. 1865-1868.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

2 KINGS CHAPTER 24

Jehoiakim, first subdued by Nebuchadnezzar, rebelleth against him to his own ruin: Jehoiachin his son is king in his stead, 2 Kings 24:1-6. His evil reign: Jerusalem spoiled and made captive by the king of Babylon, 2 Kings 24:8-16. He maketh Zedekiah king: he reigneth ill, unto the utter destruction of Judah, 2 Kings 24:17-20.

In his days, i.e. in Jehoiakim’s reign, in the end of his third year, Daniel 1:1, or the beginning of his fourth, Jeremiah 25:1, Nebuchadnezzar; the son of Nabopolassar, who quite subdued the Assyrian, first his lord, and then his competitor, and made himself absolute monarch of all those parts of the world. Came up, to wit, against Jehoiakim, as the friend and confederate of Pharaoh, whose forces he had lately conquered, Jeremiah 46:2. He turned and rebelled against him, by the instigation of the Egyptian, who threatened him if he did not rebel, and promised him his utmost assistance if he did.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 2 Kings 24:1". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/2-kings-24.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

1.Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon — For more than half a century after Merodach-baladan, who was contemporary with Hezekiah, and whom Sennacherib defeated and deposed, (see note on 2 Kings 20:12,) Babylonia continued to be an Assyrian fief. But some time during the reign of Josiah, Nabopolassar, the viceroy, revolted from Assyria, and formed an alliance with Cyaxares, the great Median monarch, whom he also assisted in the capture and destruction of Nineveh. By mutual agreement between the two confederates the whole valley of the Euphrates, together with Syria and Palestine, fell to Nabopolassar. He was succeeded by his son Nebuchadnezzar, (written also Nebuchadrezzar, ) whom Rawlinson represents as “the great monarch of the Babylonian empire, which, lasting only eighty-eight years, was for nearly half that time under his sway. Its military glory is due chiefly to him; while the constructive energy, which constitutes its especial characteristic, belongs to it still more markedly through his character and genius. It is scarcely too much to say that, but for Nebuchadnezzar, the Babylonians would have had no place in history. At any rate, their actual place is owing almost entirely to this prince, who to the military talents of an able general added a grandeur of artistic conception, and a skill in construction, which place him on a par with the greatest builders of antiquity.”

There is a difficulty in the date of Nebuchadnezzar’s first invasion of Palestine. According to Daniel 1:1, it occurred in the third year of Jehoiakim; but, according to Jeremiah 25:1, the first year of Nebuchadnezzar synchronized with the fourth of Jehoiakim, and according to Jeremiah 46:2, the defeat of Pharaoh-necho at Carchemish occurred in the same year. We learn, also, from a fragment of Berosus, (in Josephus 2 Kings 10:11; 2 Kings 10:1,) that Nabopolassar, being himself too infirm to go to war, put his son Nebuchadnezzar in command of his army, and that the latter reduced the western provinces, which had been for some years subject to Egypt, and made them subject to Babylon before the death of his father. All this is, perhaps, best explained as follows: The Jewish writers, who knew nothing personally of Nabopolassar, would naturally consider and call Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, and date his reign from the time he took command of the Babylonian army. Nebuchadnezzar probably started on his western campaign in the latter part of the third year of Jehoiakim, (Daniel 1:1,) and so his first year would synchronize with the greater part of the fourth of Jehoiakim. Jeremiah 25:1. It is possible, as some suppose, that he besieged Jerusalem, and received Jehoiakim’s submission, before the battle of Carchemish, (Jeremiah 46:2;) but this is hardly probable, since the Egyptian garrison at Carchemish would naturally have stood in his way, and would have first engaged his attention. Therefore it would seem that the date mentioned in Daniel 1:1 is either an error, or else to be understood as the time that Nebuchadnezzar began his expedition against Jerusalem.

Jehoiakim became his servant — According to 2 Chronicles 36:6, Nebuchadnezzar “bound him in fetters to carry him to Babylon.” But it is not said that he carried him to Babylon. Probably that was his intention when he bound him; but upon his submission and pledges of fidelity to his conqueror, the latter contented himself with taking off the vessels of the temple, and a number of captives, among whom were Daniel and his three distinguished companions, (Daniel 1:1-7,) while Jehoiakim was left on the throne at Jerusalem as a vassal king. At the end of three years he revolted, but the king of Babylon was at that time too busy in the eastern part of his empire to attend in person to this rebellion, and did not proceed against Jerusalem until after the death of Jehoiakim.

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 2 Kings 24:1". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/2-kings-24.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

2 Kings 24:1. In his days — That is, in Jehoiakim’s reign; and, according to Daniel 1:1, compared with Jeremiah 25:1, in the end of the third, or the beginning of the fourth year of it; came up Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon — Son of Nebopolassar, who, having subdued Assyria, soon made himself absolute monarch of all that part of the world. He probably left Babylon in the third year of Jehoiakim, and reduced him in his fourth year. According to Jeremiah 46:2, he smote the army of Pharaoh- nechoh near the river Euphrates. He then attacked Jehoiakim, as the friend and ally of Pharaoh, and having taken him prisoner, “put him in chains to carry him to Babylon.” But as Jehoiakim submitted, and agreed to become tributary to him, Nebuchadnezzar released him. He carried away, however, some of the gold and silver vessels of the temple, and some of the most considerable persons of the kingdom, among whom were Daniel and his companions, Daniel 1:1-7. And Jehoiakim became his servant three years — That is, was subject to him, and paid him tribute. Then he turned and rebelled against him — Being instigated so to do by the king of Egypt, who promised him his utmost assistance if he would shake off the yoke of the king of Babylon, and threatened he would declare him an enemy, and make war upon him, if he would not.

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Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on 2 Kings 24:1". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/2-kings-24.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Days. At the end of the third year, Daniel i. 1., and Jeremias xxv. 1. Nabuchadonosor, in the first year of his reign, (Jeremias xxv. 1.) being associated in the empire by his aged father Nabopolassar, came up to attack Carchemis, (Jeremias xlvi. 1.) and the other dominions of Egypt, (ver. 7.) and their ally or vassal Joakim. He took the city of Jerusalem, and carried off many of the sacred vessels, and captives, (Daniel i.; Calmet) conducting the king himself to prison, for a short time, when he set him at liberty, on condition that he should pay tribute, 2 Paralipomenon xxxvi. 6. (Tirinus) --- Joakim obeyed for 3 years. --- Then again. Hebrew, "he turned and rebelled." This was the first time, as he had before been subject to Egypt, and was attacked no that account. He probably took advantage of the absence of Nabuchodonosor, who was gone with haste to secure all the dominions of his deceased father. In the 7th year of his reign, he sent rovers to punish Joakim. When the latter had reigned near 11 years, they reduced the kingdom, and treated the king's corpse with the utmost indignity, Jeremias xxii. 19. (Tirinus)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 2 Kings 24:1". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/2-kings-24.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Nebuchadnezzar. Or, Nebuchadrezzar (Jeremiah 21:2, Jeremiah 21:7; Jeremiah 22:25), or Nebuchadonosor in Josephus and Berosus, Septuagint, and Vulgate. This is the first occurrence of his name in Scripture.

came up. In the fourth year of Jehoiakim (Jeremiah 25:1; Jeremiah 46:2). Daniel says in third year (2 Kings 1:1); but he writes from Babylon, whence Nebuchadnezzar set out, and here (compare Jeremiah 46:2), it refers to the actual coming. The Babylonian Servitude begins here (496 to 426 BC).

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 2 Kings 24:1". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/2-kings-24.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

In his days Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up, and Jehoiakim became his servant three years: then he turned and rebelled against him.

Nebuchadnezzar. The name as written on the monuments is Nabukudurri-uzur, and signifies, according to Sir H. Rawlinson, 'Nebo protects the youth;' according to Dr. Hincks, 'Nebo has formed a warrior.' He was the son of Nabopolassar, the founder of the Chaldee monarchy. The rulers who are entitled 'kings of Babylon' belong to two different periods, separated by the interval of nearly seven centuries. The first period was coeval with the origin of the Assyrian empire, in the 20th century B.C., and terminated in the middle of the 16th century B.C. After the lapse of two centuries, Nineveh rose to be the metropolis of the great Assyrian empire and Babylon being only a provincial capital, the Assyrian kings never assumed to themselves, nor permitted any one to appropriate, the title of king of Babylon. But on the decline and fall of Nineveh, Babylon recovered its metropolitan pre-eminence, and the kings of Assyria again called themselves 'kings of Babylon.' This invasion took place in the inch year of Jehoiakim's, and the first of Nebuchadnezzar's reign (Jeremiah 25:1 cf. 46:2). The young king of Assyria being probably detained at home on account of his father's demise, despatched, along with the Chaldean troops on his border, an army composed of the tributary nations that were contiguous to Judea, to chastise, Jehoiakim's revolt from his yoke. But this hostile band was only an instrument in saluting the divine judgment (2 Kings 24:2) denounced by the prophets against Judah for the sins of the people; and hence, though marching by the orders of the Assyrian monarch, they are described as sent by the Lord, 2 Kings 24:3.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Kings 24:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/2-kings-24.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

XXIV.

(1) In his days.—In his fifth or sixth year. In Jehoiakim’s fourth year Nebuchadnezzar defeated Necho at Carchemish (Jeremiah 46:2), and was suddenly called home by the news of the death of Nabopolassar his father, whom he succeeded on the throne of Babylon in the same year (Jeremiah 25:1). From Jeremiah 36:9 we learn that towards the end of Jehoiakim’s fifth year the king of Babylon was expected to invade the land. When this took place, Nebuchadnezzar humbled Jehoiakim, who had probably made his submission, by putting him in chains, and carrying off some of the Temple treasures (2 Chronicles 36:6-7). Left in the possession of his throne as a vassal of Babylon, Jehoiakim paid tribute three years, and then tried to throw off the yoke.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 24:1". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/2-kings-24.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

In his days Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up, and Jehoiakim became his servant three years: then he turned and rebelled against him.
his days
17:5; 2 Chronicles 36:6-21; Jeremiah 25:1,9; 46:2; Daniel 1:1
Nebuchadnezzar
This prince, so famous in the writings of the prophets, was the son of Nabopollasar king of Babylon.
Reciprocal: 2 Kings 17:4 - found conspiracy;  2 Kings 25:1 - Nebuchadnezzar;  Ezra 4:12 - rebellious;  Ezra 9:7 - into the hand;  Psalm 80:13 - The boar;  Ecclesiastes 4:14 - also;  Isaiah 36:5 - that;  Jeremiah 1:3 - It came also;  Jeremiah 4:7 - lion;  Jeremiah 25:12 - when;  Jeremiah 35:1 - in the;  Jeremiah 36:1 - GeneralJeremiah 50:17 - this;  Ezekiel 19:6 - he went;  Ezekiel 19:8 - the nations;  Ezekiel 21:14 - let the;  Ezekiel 23:16 - as soon as she saw them with her eyes;  Habakkuk 3:16 - he will;  Zechariah 1:18 - four;  Zechariah 9:8 - because of him that passeth by;  Matthew 1:11 - Jechonias

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 2 Kings 24:1". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/2-kings-24.html.