Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

2 Samuel 10:1

Now it happened afterwards that the king of the Ammonites died, and Hanun his son became king in his place.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Ammonites;   Mortification;   Nahash;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Ammonites, the;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Hanun;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Ammon;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Consolation;   Theophany;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Hanun;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Ammon;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Abishai;   Consolation;   Disciples;   Geshur;   Hadad-Ezer;   Hanun;   Joab;   Nahash;   Samuel, Books of;   Transjordan;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Abishai;   Ammon, Ammonites;   David;   Hanun;   Joab;   Maacah;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Ambassador;   Ammon, Ammonites, Children of Ammon;   Hanun ;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Ammon ammonites children of ammon;   Hanun;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Am'mon;   Da'vid;   Ha'nun;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - War;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Hadadezer;   Hanun;   Joab;   Nahash;   Reign;   Samuel, Books of;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Hanun;   Naamah;   Nahash;  

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

The king - In marginal reference. Nahash, king, etc. The interval between the two events, not less than 50 years, and possibly more, is against his being the same as the Nahash of 1 Samuel 11:1-15.

The Ammonites are almost always spoken of as the children of Ammon, from the name of their first ancestor Ben-ammi Genesis 19:38.

Hanun - The equivalent of the Carthaginian Hanno, from the same root as the Hebrew, Hananiah, Johanan, Hannah, etc. The same name appears in composition with Baal in Baal-Hanan, an Aramean king Genesis 36:38-39.

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These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:1". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/2-samuel-10.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

AMMONITES AND SYRIANS MAKE WAR AGAINST DAVID

Some scholars classify this chapter as belonging to the "Good Days" of David's reign, beginning the "Bad Days" with the following chapter; but Payne and Keil both identified this chapter as a record of the background occasion for David's adultery with Bathsheba and his murder of her husband Uriah before the walls of Rabbah. "The campaign against Rabbah not only gave David his opportunity for his adultery but provided the means by which he accomplished the death of Uriah."[1] Keil elaborated the same opinion more fully:

"The successes of all David's undertakings, and the strength of his government, which increased year by year, had made him feel so secure, that in the excitement of undisturbed prosperity, he allowed himself to be carried away by evil lusts, so as to stain his soul, not only with adultery, but also with murder; and he fell all the deeper because of the heights to which God had exalted him."[2]

That tragic sin of David took place during the war against the Ammonites, particularly, during Joab's siege against Rabbah (reported in 2 Samuel 10:11), and during which David had remained in ease at Jerusalem (2 Samuel 11:1). Some of the terrible consequence of David's transgressions will be noted in the next chapter. Some scholars have supposed that Psalms 44 and Psalms 60 have some reference to what is written here; but this is very uncertain.

There are four paragraphs in this chapter:

(1) David tried to comfort Hanun the king of Ammon following the death of his father; but his messengers of good will were rejected and insulted (2 Samuel 10:1-5).

(2) David accepted Hanun's challenge for war (2 Samuel 10:6-8).

(3) The Ammonites and their mercenaries were defeated by Joab (2 Samuel 10:9-14).

(4) Hadadezer rallies all Mesopotamia to continue the war against David, but he again suffered defeat (2 Samuel 10:15-19).

HANUN'S INSULTING TREATMENT OF DAVID'S MEN

"After this the king of the Ammonites died, and Hanun his son reigned in his stead. And David said, "I will deal loyally with Hanun the son of Nahash, as his father dealt loyally with me." So David sent by his servants to console him concerning his father. And David's servants came into the land of the Ammonites. But the princes of the Ammonites said to Hanun their lord, "Do you think, because David has sent comforters to you, that he is honoring your father? Has not David sent his servants to you to search the city, and to spy it out, and to overthrow it"? So Hanun took David's servants, and shaved off half the beard of each, and cut off their garments in the middle of their hips, and sent them away. When it was told David, he sent to meet them, for the men were greatly ashamed. And the king said, "Remain at Jericho until your beards have grown, and then return."

"I will deal loyally with Hanun the son of Nahash" (2 Samuel 10:2). It is not known exactly what kindness or assistance that Nahash had bestowed upon David; but many scholars assume that, since Nahash was a bitter enemy of Saul (1 Samuel 11:1-11), that Nahash, during David's long flight from Saul, had treated David kindly as a means of opposing Saul.

"The warfare that resulted from this episode is one of the few conquests of David concerning which we know the cause."[3]

"David's servants came into the land of the Ammonites" (2 Samuel 10:2). "The place to which they went is undoubtedly Rabbah, the capital of the Ammonites; which is the modern Amman on the north bank of the Jabbok River about twenty-three miles due east of Jericho."[4]

"Has not David sent his servants to you to search the city, to spy it out, and to overthrow it?" (2 Samuel 10:3). The mistrust of Hanun's princes of David's intentions is not hard to understand. "It was founded upon national hatred and enmity, which had probably been increased by David's slaughter of two thirds of the Moabites."[5] The Moabites and the Ammonites were kinsfolk, both groups having descended from Lot (Genesis 19). Also, "It might have originated in their knowledge of the denunciations against them in God's law (Deuteronomy 23:3-6)."[6]

"So Hanun ... shaved off half the beard of each, and cut off their garments in the middle" (2 Samuel 10:4). Either of these actions constituted a gross insult to David. The double nature of this insult made it extremely unlikely that David would ignore it. Keil tells us that, "The Israelites wore no trousers,"[7] and that the cutting off of their garments in the middle left the lower half of the body quite exposed. Of course, such an action, in ancient times, was considered as an infliction of shame upon those so treated. Isaiah stated that, "The king of Assyria would lead away Egyptian captives ... with buttocks uncovered, to the shame of Egypt." (Isaiah 20:4).

Regarding the shaving of half the beard, this was the greater of the two insults; and therefore David instructed his messengers to remain in Jericho until their beard grew out again. There was an ancient superstition that gaining control of the hair of an enemy gave the possessor control over him. "Hanun, distrusting David's designs and desirous of having some guarantee of peace, thought that he secured this by retaining half the beards and garments of David's men."[8]

Before leaving this paragraph, we wonder just why David commanded his men to wait in Jericho until their beards grew again. Keil thought that David simply, "Did not wish to set his eyes upon the evidence of this insult they had received."[9] Whatever his reason, the men probably had to stay in Jericho for quite a while.

Copyright Statement
Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:1". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/2-samuel-10.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And it came to pass after this,.... After the wars with the Moabites, Syrians, and Edomites, being friendly with the children of Ammon, David sent an embassy to their king, after related; by which it appears what is said concerning the spoils of the children of Ammon, 2 Samuel 8:12, is by anticipation; for these spoils were not taken until the following war with them, the occasion of which is here told:

that the king of the children of Ammon died; whose name was Nahash, as is clear from 2 Samuel 10:2, and probably might be the same that came against Jabeshgilead, from whom Saul delivered the inhabitants of that place, 1 Samuel 11:1,

and Hanun his son reigned in his stead; who, being his son, was heir to his crown, and succeeded him in his kingdom.

Copyright Statement
The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:1". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/2-samuel-10.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

2 Samuel 10:1-5. David‘s messengers, sent to comfort Hanun, are disgracefully treated.

Copyright Statement
These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/2-samuel-10.html. 1871-8.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

CONTENTS

In following David's history, we are here again presented with the relation of war. David sent a friendly message to the king of the Ammonites; but he receiving it unfriendly, and treating the ambassadors of David ill, David enters upon a war with him, and entirely defeats the king of Ammon, and the Syrians, whom he had called to succour him.

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These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:1". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/2-samuel-10.html. 1828.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

2 Samuel 10:1 And it came to pass after this, that the king of the children of Ammon died, and Hanun his son reigned in his stead.

Ver. 1. The king of the children of Ammon died.] Death is the only king "against whom there is no rising up." as it is in Proverbs 30:31. Nugus, king of Scythia, slighted certain precious presents sent him by Michal Paleologus, the Emperor, asking whether they could drive away sickness and death; for if so, then they would be worth the receiving. (a)

And Hanun his son reigned in his stead.] Or, Chanun. The Greek hath it Annon: a good name, as signifying Gracious, but ill bestowed. There was an ancient Latin poet, contemporary with Virgil and Ovid, called Gratius the Faliseian; he bore a high esteem in that pure age. But this king carried grace in his name only, as did Ptolomeus Euergetes, Antiochus Epiphanes, and some princes and popes.

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Bibliographical Information
Trapp, John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:1". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/2-samuel-10.html. 1865-1868.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

2 SAMUEL CHAPTER 10

David sendeth messengers to comfort the king of the Ammonites: he abuseth them, 2 Samuel 10:1-5. The Ammonites and Syrians prepare to fight against the Israelites; and are overcome by Joab and Abishai, 2 Kings 10:6-14. They renewing their forces, are again conquered by David, 2 Kings 10:15-19.

The king of the children of Ammon; Nahash, 2 Samuel 10:2; probably the same whose army Saul defeated and destroyed, 1Sa 11, who out of enmity to Saul showed kindness to David, as it follows; hoping also by fomenting the differences between Saul and David, to make way for his future conquests.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:1". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/2-samuel-10.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

1.Ammon — The territory of the Ammonites was contiguous to that of the Moabites. See on Genesis 19:37-38. Against this nation Jephthah and Saul had fought and been victorious. Judges 11:32-33; 1 Samuel 11:11.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:1". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/2-samuel-10.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

2 Samuel 10:1. The king of the children of Ammon died — Who, it appears by the next verse, was Nahash, to whom Saul gave a very great defeat at Jabesh-Gilead, 1 Samuel 11.

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Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:1". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/2-samuel-10.html. 1857.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

children = sons.

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Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:1". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/2-samuel-10.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And it came to pass after this, that the king of the children of Ammon died, and Hanun his son reigned in his stead.

King of the children of Ammon died, and Hanun his son reigned in his stead, [ Chaanuwn (Hebrew #2586), graciously regarded, compassionate; Septuagint, Annoon].

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These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/2-samuel-10.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(1) The king.—His name is given in the next verse and in 1 Chronicles 19:1, as Nahash. He was probably a son or grandson of the Nahash whom Saul conquered (1 Samuel 11), as more than fifty years must have passed away since that event. The kindness he had shown to David is not recorded, but may have been some friendly help during his wanderings, or merely a congratulatory embassy on his accession.

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These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:1". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/2-samuel-10.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And it came to pass after this, that the king of the children of Ammon died, and Hanun his son reigned in his stead.
AM 2967
B.C. 1037. An. Ex. Is. 454. king.
Judges 10:7-9; 11:12-28; 1 Samuel 11:1-3; 1 Chronicles 19:1-3
Reciprocal: Genesis 19:38 - children;  Genesis 22:17 - thy seed;  Genesis 27:29 - Let people;  2 Samuel 17:27 - the son of Nahash;  1 Kings 5:1 - sent;  2 Chronicles 27:5 - the king of the Ammonites;  Nehemiah 4:7 - the Ammonites;  Psalm 18:38 - GeneralPsalm 18:43 - made;  Psalm 68:30 - Rebuke;  Psalm 118:10 - All nations;  Jeremiah 40:14 - Ammonites;  Amos 1:13 - and for

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Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:1". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/2-samuel-10.html.