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Holman Bible Dictionary

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(had ad-ee' zuhr) Syrian royal name meaning, “Hadad (god) helps.” City-state king of Zobah in Syria whom David defeated to establish his control over Syria (2 Samuel 8:3-13 ). Apparently, Hadar-ezer (2 Samuel 10:16 ) represents a copyist's change from Hadad-ezer in transmitting the text. Ammonites saw David was too strong for them and hired Syrian troops, including those of Hadad-ezer, to help them, but Joab, David's general, defeated them (2 Samuel 10:6-19 ). Hadad-ezer regrouped the Syrians but again met defeat. Some Bible students think the narrative in 2 Samuel 8:1 may be a summary looking forward to the fuller account in 2 Samuel 10:1 of the same event. Others think two separate battles are described.

1 Kings 11:23 shows the troubled situation in Syria. Rezon revolted against Hadad-ezer (possibly the son of the one in 1 Samuel 8:1; 1 Samuel 10:1 or the same king). Rezon then established a kingdom for himself in the Syrian city of Damascus. Syria was thus a group of small city-states fighting among themselves for domination.

Bibliography Information
Butler, Trent C. Editor. Entry for 'Hadad-Ezer'. Holman Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/​dictionaries/​eng/​hbd/​h/hadad-ezer.html. 1991.
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