Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

2 Samuel 10:6

Now when the sons of Ammon saw that they had become odious to David, the sons of Ammon sent and hired the Arameans of Beth-rehob and the Arameans of Zobah, 20,000 foot soldiers, and the king of Maacah with 1,000 men, and the men of Tob with 12,000 men.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Armies;   Beth-Rehob;   Ish-Tob;   Maachah;   Rehob;   Syria;   Zobah;   Thompson Chain Reference - Mercenaries;   War-Peace;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Ammonites, the;   Beard, the;   Syria;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Aram;   Beard;   Hadadezer or Hadarezer;   Maacah or Maachah;   Rehob;   Zobah;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Ammon;   Joab;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Ammonite;   Hanun;   Ishtob;   Maachah;   Medeba;   Nahash;   Rehob;   Syria;   Tob, the Land of;   Zobah;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Bethrehob;   Edom;   Hadarezer;   Ishtob;   Jephthah;   Maacah;   Rehob (1);   Tob;   Zoba;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Abel-Beth-Maachah or Abel-Beth-Maacah;   Ammonites;   Aram-Maacah;   Disciples;   Hadad-Ezer;   Maacah;   Samuel, Books of;   Syria;   Tob;   Wages;   Zoba(h);   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Abishai;   Ahasbai;   Ammon, Ammonites;   Beth-Rehob;   Joab;   Maacah;   Tob;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Ambassador;   Ammon, Ammonites, Children of Ammon;   Aram ;   Bethrehob ;   Ishtob ;   Maacah, Maachah ;   Zoba, Zobah ;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Maacah;   Rehob;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Hanun;   Jephthah;   Maacah;   Tob;   Zobah;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Beth-Re'hob;   Da'vid;   Ish'tob;   Jeph'thah;   Ma'acah;   Syr'ia;   Tob;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Ishtob;   War;  
Encyclopedias:
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - Hebrew Monarchy, the;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Ahasbai;   Beth-Rehob;   David;   Hire;   Ish-Tob;   Joab;   Maacah;   Rehob;   Zobah;   Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia - Aram;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Aram-Maachah;   Beth-Rehob;   Hanun;   Maacah;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

The children of Ammon saw that they stank - That is, that their conduct rendered them abominable. This is the Hebrew mode of expressing such a feeling. See Genesis 34:30.

The Syrians of Bethrehob - This place was situated at the extremity of the valley between Libanus and Anti-libanus. The Syrians of Zoba were subject to Hadadezer. Maacah was in the vicinity of Mount Hermon, beyond Jordan, in the Trachonitis.

Ish-tob - This was probably the same with Tob, to which Jephthah fled from the cruelty of his brethren. It was situated in the land of Gilead.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:6". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/2-samuel-10.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Stank … - A strong figure for to be odious or detested. Compare the marginal references

The Syrians of Beth-rehob - If identical with the Mesopotamians of 1 Chronicles 19:6, Beth-rehob is the same as Rehoboth by the river Genesis 36:37. Others think Beth-rehob (Rehob, 2 Samuel 10:8) the same as the Rehob and Beth-rehob of Numbers 13:21, near Hamath (perhaps the modern ruin of Hunin). If so, Beth-rehob, as well as Tob, must have been a colony of Aram Naharaim (compare the numbers in 1 Chronicles 19:7 and here).

Syrians of Zoba - Compare 1 Samuel 14:47 note.

King Maacah - Read the “King of Maacah” 1 Chronicles 19:6-7. For the position of Maacah, see Deuteronomy 3:14; Joshua 12:5. It appears to have been a very small state, since its king only brought a thousand men into the field.

Ish-tob - See the margin. Tob was the district where Jephthah fled when driven out by the Gileadites.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:6". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/2-samuel-10.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

PREPARATIONS FOR WAR

"When the Ammonites saw that they had become odious to David, the Ammonites sent and hired the Syrians of Bethrehob, and the Syrians of Zobah, twenty thousand foot soldiers, and the king of Maacah with a thousand men, and the men of Tob, twelve thousand men. And when David heard of it, he sent Joab and all the host of the mighty men. And the Ammonites came out in battle array at the entrance of the gate; and the Syrians of Zobah and of Rehob, and the men of Tob and Maacah, were by themselves in the open country."

The deployment of the hostile forces here presented a superlative challenge to Joab. Rabbah, presently Amman, the capital city of Jordan and a modern city of over half a million people, is the same place called Philadelphia in the N.T. It was a strongly fortified city; and David's capture of it was no easy undertaking.[10] In addition to the Ammonites and their tremendous stronghold, there was also the presence of those 33,000 Syrian mercenaries "in the open country."

Keil tells us that the cost to the Ammonites of hiring those 33,000 Syrians amounted to "Half a million pounds sterling,"[11] a sum of many millions of dollars in modern terms.

"Maacah ... Tob" (2 Samuel 10:6). "Maacah was located southwest of Mount Hermon, and Tob was a place east of the Jordan River some ten miles or more eastward from Ramoth-gilead."[12]

"When David heard of it" (2 Samuel 10:7). Evidently, "David prepared for war only after the Ammonites mustered that great army."[13]

"David sent Joab and all the host of the mighty men" (2 Samuel 10:7). Evidently, the "host" here is a reference to a great army of the Israelites, because the "mighty men" are understood to be that special group of six hundred who had continued with David during that period when Saul hunted him. They were a hard cadre of powerful and skilled veterans who made David's armies invincible.

"The Syrians ... were by themselves in the open country" (2 Samuel 10:7). From 1 Chronicles 19:7 we learn that the name of the place where these mercenaries were encamped was Medeba, "Located four geographical miles in a straight line to the southwest of Rabbah."[14] It was this separation of the two main bodies of defenders that prompted the strategy that Joab followed in his attack as revealed in the next paragraph.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:6". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/2-samuel-10.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And when the children of Ammon saw that they stank before David,.... Or had made themselves odious to him, as it is rendered in 1 Chronicles 19:6; were abominable to him, that he was incensed against them, and enraged at them, and was determined to be avenged on them for the affront given, of which they had certain information: but instead of seeking to appease him, and give him satisfaction for the affront:

the children of Ammon sent, and hired the Syrians of Bethrehob; a place near Hamath, Numbers 13:21; there was a city of this name in the tribe of Asher, out of which the Canaanites could not be driven, and perhaps now inhabited by Syrians, or by a people so called, Joshua 19:28,

and the Syrians of Zoba, twenty thousand footmen: that is, out of both places; this place Hadadezer was king of, with whom David had fought before, and beat, and who owed him a grudge on that account, and was ready to assist the Ammonites against him, 2 Samuel 8:3,

and of King Maacah a thousand men; that is, of the king of Maacah, which was a place in the tribe off Manasseh, from whence the inhabitants could not be expelled, Joshua 13:11; and seems now to have been inhabited by Syrians, and therefore is called Syriamaachah, 1 Chronicles 19:6,

and of Ishtob twelve thousand men; which is thought to be the same with the land of Tob, whither Jephthah fled, and dwelt in it, when ill used by his brethren, Judges 11:3; these mercenary soldiers were in all thirty three thousand men; 1 Chronicles 19:6, it is said, chariots and horsemen, even thirty two thousand; these were hired with a thousand talents of silver.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:6". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/2-samuel-10.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

And when the children of Ammon saw that they c stank before David, the children of Ammon sent and hired the Syrians of Bethrehob, and the Syrians of Zoba, twenty thousand footmen, and of king Maacah a thousand men, and of Ishtob twelve thousand men.

(c) That they deserved David's displeasure, for the harm done to his ambassadors.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:6". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/2-samuel-10.html. 1599-1645.

Keil & Delitzsch Old Testament Commentary

When the Ammonites saw that they had made themselves stinking before David, and therefore that David would avenge the insult offered to the people of Israel in the persons of their ambassadors, they looked round for help among the powerful kings of Syria. They hired as auxiliaries (with a thousand talents of silver, i.e., nearly half a million of pounds sterling, according to 1 Chronicles 19:6) twenty thousand foot from Aram-Beth-Rehob and Aram-Zoba, and one thousand men from the king of Maacah, and twelve thousand troops from the men of Tob . Aram-Beth-Rehob was the Aramaean kingdom, the capital of which was Beth-rehob . This Beth-rehob, which is simply called Rehob in v. 8, is in all probability the city of this name mentioned in Numbers 13:21 and Judges 18:28, which lay to the south of Hamath, but the exact position of which has not yet been discovered: for the castle of Hunin, in the ruins of which Robinson imagines that he has found Beth-rehob Bibl. Researches, p. 370), is to the south-west of Tell el Kadi, the ancient Laish-Dan, the northern boundary of the Israelitish territory; so that the capital of this Aramaean kingdom would have been within the limits of the land of Israel, - a thing which is inconceivable. Aram-Naharaim is also mentioned in the corresponding text of the Chronicles, and for that reason many have identified Beth-Rehob with Rehoboth, on “the river” (Euphrates), mentioned in Genesis 36:37. But this association is precluded by the fact, that in all probability the latter place is to be found in Rachabe, which is upon the Euphrates and not more than half a mile from the river (see Ritter, Erdk . xv. p. 128), so that from its situation it can hardly have been the capital of a separate Aramaean kingdom, as the government of the king of Zoba extended, according to 2 Samuel 10:16, beyond the Euphrates into Mesopotamia. On Aram-Zoba, see at 2 Samuel 8:3; and for Maacah at Deuteronomy 3:14. אישׁ־טוב is not to be taken as one word and rendered as a proper name, Ish-Tob, as it has been by most of the earlier translators; but אישׁ is a common noun used in a collective sense (as it frequently is in the expression ישׂראל אישׁ ), “the men of Tob.” Tob was the district between Syria and Ammonitis, where Jephthah had formerly taken refuge (Judges 11:5). The corresponding text of the Chronicles (1 Chronicles 19:6-7) is fuller, and differs in several respects from the text before us. According to the Chronicles, Hanun sent a thousand talents of silver to hire chariots and horsemen from Aram-Naharaim, Aram-maacah, and Zobah. With this the Ammonites hired thirty-two thousand receb (i.e., chariots and horsemen: see at 2 Samuel 8:4), and the king of Maacah and his people. They came and encamped before Medeba, the present ruin of Medaba, two hours to the south-east of Heshbon, in the tribe of Reuben (see at Numbers 21:30, compared with Joshua 13:16), and the Ammonites gathered together out of their cities, and went to the war. The Chronicles therefore mention Aram-Naharaim (i.e., Mesopotamia) as hired by the Ammonites instead of Aram-Beth-Rehob, and leave out the men of Tob. The first of these differences is not to be explained, as Bertheau suggests, on the supposition that the author of the Chronicles took Beth-rehob to be the same city as Rehoboth of the river in Genesis 36:37, and therefore substituted the well-known “ Aram of the two rivers” as an interpretation of the rarer name Beth-rehob, though hardly on good ground. For this conjecture does not help to explain the omission of “the men of Tob.” It is a much simpler explanation, that the writer of the Chronicles omitted Beth-rehob and Tob as being names that were less known, this being the only place in the Old Testament in which they occur as separate kingdoms, and simply mentioned the kingdoms of Maacah and Zoba, which frequently occur; and that he included “Aram of the two rivers,” and placed it at the head, because the Syrians obtained succour from Mesopotamia after their first defeat. The account in the Chronicles agrees with the one before us, so far as the number of auxiliary troops is concerned. For twenty thousand men of Zoba and twelve thousand of Tob amount to thirty-two thousand, besides the people of the king of Maacah, who sent a thousand men according to the text of Samuel. But according to that of the Chronicles, the auxiliary troops consisted of chariots and horsemen, whereas only foot-soldiers are mentioned in our text, which appears all the more remarkable, because according to 2 Samuel 8:4, and 1 Chronicles 18:4, the king of Zoba fought against David with a considerable force of chariots and horsemen. It is very evident, therefore, that there are copyists' errors in both texts; for the troops of the Syrians did not consist of infantry only, nor of chariots and horsemen alone, but of foot-soldiers, cavalry, and war-chariots, as we may see very clearly not only from the passages already quoted in 2 Samuel 8:4 and 1 Chronicles 18:4, but also from the conclusion to the account before us. According to 2 Samuel 10:18 of this chapter, when Hadarezer had reinforced his army with auxiliaries from Mesopotamia, after losing the first battle, David smote seven hundred receb and forty thousand parashim of Aram, whilst according to the parallel text (1 Chronicles 19:18) he smote seven thousand receb and forty thousand foot. Now, apart from the difference between seven thousand and seven hundred in the case of the receb , which is to be interpreted in the same way as a similar difference in 2 Samuel 8:4, the Chronicles do not mention any parashim at all in 2 Samuel 10:18, but foot-soldiers only, whereas in 2 Samuel 10:7 they mention only receb and parashim ; and, on the other hand, there are no foot-soldiers given in 2 Samuel 10:18 of the text before us, but riders only, whereas in 2 Samuel 10:6 there are none but foot-soldiers mentioned, without any riders at all. It is evident that in both engagements the Syrians fought with all three (infantry, cavalry, and chariots), so that in both of them David smote chariots, horsemen, and foot.

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The Keil & Delitzsch Old Testament Commentary is a derivative of a public domain electronic edition.
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Keil, Carl Friedrich & Delitzsch, Franz. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:6". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/kdo/2-samuel-10.html. 1854-1889.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

(6) ¶ And when the children of Ammon saw that they stank before David, the children of Ammon sent and hired the Syrians of Bethrehob, and the Syrians of Zoba, twenty thousand footmen, and of king Maacah a thousand men, and of Ishtob twelve thousand men.

Spiritualizing still the subject, we may in this verse behold the folly, as well as sin, of men, in setting up resistance against the Lord. Who hath hardened himself against him, and hath prospered? Job 9:4.

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Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:6". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/2-samuel-10.html. 1828.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

2 Samuel 10:6 And when the children of Ammon saw that they stank before David, the children of Ammon sent and hired the Syrians of Bethrehob, and the Syrians of Zoba, twenty thousand footmen, and of king Maacah a thousand men, and of Ishtob twelve thousand men.

Ver. 6. Saw that they stank before David.] Who could not but be very sensible, they knew, of their odious indignity done to his ambassadors, and would surely revenge it; as there was never any prince so poor and despicable that would put up such an affront: and shall Jesus Christ? I think not. Julian, for instance, paid for his petulancy.

And of Ishtob.] Which signifieth, A good man; but this was such another for true goodness as our late Bishop Goodman, who died a professed Papist, Feb. 19, 1655, soon after whom followed, to the great grief of all good men, that most reverend Archbishop Ussher, an Ishtob indeed, who better deserved the surname of Bonus Good, than ever did Phocion the Athenian. (a)

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:6". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/2-samuel-10.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

2 Samuel 10:6. Saw that they stank See Genesis 34:30 and 1 Chronicles 19:6. The children of Ammon, instead of apologizing, or making any reparation for the insult to David's ambassadors, joined their own forces to a Syrian army of 33,000 men, which aggravated their former outrage, and rendered them worthy of the most signal chastisement. Beth-rehob was a city belonging to the Canaanites rather than the Syrians, which stood in the tribe of Asher, though the Canaanites kept possession of it. Maacah was a city of Palestine beyond Jordan, situated in the tribe of Manasseh, and Ish-tob, which might be rendered the men of Tob, was the place whither Jephthah fled from the cruelty of his brethren, Judges 11:3.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:6". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/2-samuel-10.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Beth-rehob, near Hamath, Numbers 13:21.

Zoba; of which see 1 Samuel 14:47 2 Samuel 8:3.

Of king Maacah, i. e. of that part of Syria which was under king Maacah; for Syria was a large country, and there were divers kings in the several parts of it. This part was near Gilead. See Deuteronomy 3:14.

Of Ish-tob; or, of the men of Tob, the country where Jephthah dwelt, Jude 11:3. Besides these, they hired others out of Aram-naharaim, or Mesopotamia, as appears from 1 Chronicles 19:6 Psalms 60:1. And all these were forward enough to combine against David, both to revenge their former losses and reproaches, and to give check to his growing greatness.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:6". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/2-samuel-10.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

6.Stank — Were held in abomination. See note on 1 Samuel 13:4.

Sent and hired the Syrians — In the note on 2 Samuel 8:3, we have argued that probably this act of the Syrians in helping the Ammonites in their war against Israel was the occasion of David’s Aramean wars. The mere fact that this account occurs in a subsequent chapter does not prove that the events themselves were in the like chronological sequence. The conquest of Ammon is also mentioned in that chapter, (2 Samuel 10:12;) but it could have been no conquest previous to this one, for if David had subdued them before the death of Nahash, how could he have presumed to send this embassy of condolence to Hanun? And, further, if the complete subjugation into which David reduced Hadarezer and his people were previous to this, is it not strange that in this more detailed narrative there is no mention of their revolting from their allegiance?

Beth-rehob — Called also in 2 Samuel 10:8, Rehob; a district lying probably southwest of Damascus, and north of Lake Merom. See on Judges 18:28.

Of king Maacah — Rather, of the king of Maacah, Maacah being the name of the place, not of the king. The region of Maacah seems to have bordered on Beth-rehob, and extended southward from Mount Hermon. See on Joshua 12:5.

Ish-tob — Rather, men of Tob. Tob was the district northeast of Gilead into which Jephthah fled when driven from his father’s house. See margin, and Judges 11:3. In 1 Chronicles 19:6, we are told that the Ammonites derived help from Mesopotamia also, and, according to our interpretation of chap. viii, at a later stage of this same war with Syria, when the Syrians of Damascus interfered to succour Hadarezer, they were also smitten before the army of Israel, and thus all these confederate principalities of Syria became subject to David. Thus the fragmentary narratives of chaps. viii and x of this book of Samuel, and the parallel passages in 1 Chronicles, make up at best only a broken and disconnected account of David’s Syrian wars; and therefore, for want of sufficient data, we may not expect to clear up all discrepancies in numbers that appear between the separate accounts.

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:6". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/2-samuel-10.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

2 Samuel 10:6. When the children of Ammon saw that they stank, &c, — They wanted not intelligence how heinously David resented the barbarous usage of his ambassadors; which is expressed by a phrase signifying that they were become very odious to him.

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Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:6". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/2-samuel-10.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Rohob, the capital, between Libanus and Antibanus. --- Soba was subject to Adarezer, chap. viii. 3. --- Maacha, at the foot of Hermon. --- Istob (Hebrew ish tob) signifies, the man, or prince, or "the master of Tob," (Calmet) where Jephte lived, Judges xi. 5. (Du Hamel) (Salien) --- Josephus thinks that Istob is the name of a fourth king, who, together with the king of Micha, brought 22,000 into the field. The first he styles king "of the Mesopotamians," (1 Paralipomenon xix. 6.) which Salien explains of the country between Abana and Pharphar, the two great rivers of Syria, (4 Kings v. 12,) though, on this occasion, he allows that Adarezer hired forces from the utmost parts beyond the Euphrates. (Haydock)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:6". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/2-samuel-10.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

men. Hebrew. ish, App-14.

Ish-tob = men of Tob.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:6". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/2-samuel-10.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And when the children of Ammon saw that they stank before David, the children of Ammon sent and hired the Syrians of Bethrehob, and the Syrians of Zoba, twenty thousand footmen, and of king Maacah a thousand men, and of Ishtob twelve thousand men.

When the children of Ammon saw that they stank before David. To chastise those insolent and When the children of Ammon saw that they stank before David. To chastise those insolent and inhospitable Ammonites, who had violated the common law of nations, David sent a large army under the command of Joab, while they, informed of the impending attack, made energetic preparations to repel it by engaging the services of an immense number of Syrian mercenaries.

Beth-rehob - the capital of the low-lying region between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon.

Zoba - (see the notes at 2 Samuel 8:3.)

Of king Maacah. His territories lay on the other side of Jordan, near Gilead (Deuteronomy 3:14).

Ish-tob - i:e., the men of Tob; the place of Jephthah's marauding adventures (see also 1 Chronicles 19:6; Psalms 60:1, title). As the Israelite soldiers poured into the Ammonite territory, that people met them at the frontier town of Medeba (1 Chronicles 19:7-9), the native troops covering the city, while the Syrian mercenaries lay at some distance encamped in the fields. In making the attack, Joab divided his forces into two separate detachments-the one of which, under the command of his brother Abishai, was to concentrate the attack upon the city, while he himself marched against the overwhelming host of mercenary auxiliaries. It was a just and necessary war that had been forced on Israel, and they could hope for the blessing of God upon their arms. With great judgment the battle opened against the mercenaries, who could not stand against the furious onset of Joab; and not feeling the cause their own, consulted their safety by flight. The Ammonites, who had placed their chief dependence upon a foreign aid, then retreated to intrench themselves within the walls of the town.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:6". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/2-samuel-10.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(6) Saw that they stank.—The Hebrew, translated literally, shows that they were conscious that this was by their own fault—“that they had made themselves stink,” and is so rendered in 1 Chronicles 19:6.

Hired.—Chronicles gives the amount of the subsidy, 1,000 talents of silver, a sum variously estimated at from £125,000 to twice that amount. It shows at once the wealth of Ammon, the importance of the auxiliaries, and the grave character of the war.

Syrians of Beth-rehob.—Called simply Rehob in 2 Samuel 10:8. This has been understood of several different places. It can hardly have been the Rehob (or Beth-rehob) of Numbers 13:21; Judges 18:28, since that was near Laish, and within the territory of the Israelites. Some identify it with “Ruhaibeh,” twenty-five miles N.E. of Damascus; but it is more likely to have been “Rehoboth by the river” (i.e., near the Euphrates) of Genesis 36:37, as this corresponds with “out of Mesopotamia’ in the parallel passage 1 Chronicles 19:6, the situation of which is not more definitely known.

Zoba.—See Note on 2 Samuel 8:3.

King Maacah.—Read, King of Maacah, as in Chronicles. For the situation of the country see Deuteronomy 3:14; Joshua 12:5. It furnished only one thousand auxiliaries.

Ish-tob.—Translated, men of Tob, the first syllable not being a part of the proper name. Jephthah here found refuge when exiled by his countrymen (Judges 11:3; Judges 11:5). It was probably just east of Gilead, between Syria and the land of Ammon; it is not mentioned in Chronicles.

The total number of auxiliaries mentioned in 1 Chronicles 19:7, thirty-two thousand, is the same as given here, Maacah being omitted from the number; but the composition of the force is different. Here only infantry are mentioned, there only chariots and cavalry. It is plain from the result of the battle (2 Samuel 10:18 in both places) that all three arms of the service were employed; either, therefore, some words have dropped out from both texts, or else the writer in each case did not care to go into details. Chronicles mentions that the allies mustered in Medeba, a place on a hill in the Belka plain, about four miles south-east of Heshbon, and well fitted strategically to repel an attack upon Rabbah. It had been originally assigned to the tribe of Reuben (Joshua 13:9).

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Bibliographical Information
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:6". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/2-samuel-10.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And when the children of Ammon saw that they stank before David, the children of Ammon sent and hired the Syrians of Bethrehob, and the Syrians of Zoba, twenty thousand footmen, and of king Maacah a thousand men, and of Ishtob twelve thousand men.
stank
Genesis 34:30; Exodus 5:21; 1 Samuel 13:4; 27:12; 1 Chronicles 19:6,7
Syrians of Beth-rehob
8:3,5,12
Zobah
Proverbs 25:8; Isaiah 8:9,10
Maacah
Joshua 13:11-13
Ish-tob
or, the men of Tob.
Judges 11:3,5
Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 3:14 - Geshuri;  Judges 18:28 - Bethrehob;  1 Samuel 14:47 - Zobah;  2 Samuel 10:8 - Rehob;  1 Chronicles 18:3 - Zobah;  Psalm 9:5 - rebuked;  Psalm 48:4 - GeneralPsalm 83:5 - they are;  Psalm 144:11 - and deliver me;  Ecclesiastes 3:8 - a time of war;  Jeremiah 40:8 - Maachathite;  Jeremiah 46:21 - her hired;  Ezekiel 27:16 - Syria

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 10:6". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/2-samuel-10.html.