Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

2 Timothy 3:10

Now you followed my teaching, conduct, purpose, faith, patience, love, perseverance,
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Longsuffering;   Minister, Christian;   Patience;   Wicked (People);   Zeal, Religious;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Patience;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Timothy;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Endurance;   Evangelist;   Iconium;   Lystra;   Patience;   Timothy;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Education in Bible Times;   Timothy, First and Second, Theology of;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Jesus Christ;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Lystra;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Titus, Epistle to;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Longsuffering;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Brotherly Love;   Long-Suffering ;   Longsuffering;   Love;   Patience;   Paul;   Perseverance;   Timothy;   Timothy and Titus Epistles to;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Perilous Times;   Timothy, Epistles to;   11 To Desire, Will, Purpose;   33 Patience Long-Suffering Forbearance;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Charity;   Doctrine;   Life;   Lystra;   Manner;   Paul, the Apostle;   Timothy;  
Devotionals:
Every Day Light - Devotion for November 4;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Thou hast fully known my doctrine - And having long had the opportunity of knowing me, the doctrine I preached, my conduct founded on these doctrines, the object I have in view by my preaching, my fidelity to God and to my trust, my long-suffering with those who walked disorderly, and opposed themselves to the truth, and did what they could to lessen my authority and render it suspected, my love to them and to the world in general, and my patience in all my adversities; thou art capable of judging between me and the false teachers, and canst easily discern the difference between their doctrines, conduct, motives, temper, spirit, etc., and mine.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 3:10". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/2-timothy-3.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

But thou hast fully known my doctrine … - Margin, “been a diligent follower of.” The margin is more in accordance with the usual meaning of the Greek word, which means, properly, to accompany side by side; to follow closely; to trace out; to examine Luke 1:3, and to conform to. The meaning here, however, seems to be, that Timothy had an opportunity to follow out; i. e., to examine closely the manner of life of the apostle Paul. He had been so long his companion, that he had had the fullest opportunity of knowing how he had lived and taught, and how he had borne persecutions. The object of this reference to his own life and sufferings is evidently to encourage Timothy to bear persecutions and trials in the same manner; compare 2 Timothy 3:14. He saw, in the events which began already to develope themselves, that trials must be expected; he knew that all who would live holy lives must suffer persecution; and hence, he sought to prepare the mind of Timothy for the proper endurance of trials, by a reference to his own case. The word “doctrine,” here, refers to his “teaching,” or manner of giving instruction. It does not refer, as the word now does, to the opinions which he held; see the notes at 1 Timothy 4:16. In regard to the opportunities which Timothy had for knowing the manner of Paul‘s life, see the introduction to the Epistle, and Paley, Hor. Paul., “in loc.” Timothy had been the companion of Paul during a considerable portion of the time after his conversion. The “persecutions” referred to here 2 Timothy 3:11 are those which occurred in the vicinity of Timothy‘s native place, and which he would have had a particular opportunity of being acquainted with. This circumstance, and the fact that Paul did not refer to other persecutions in more remote places, is one of the “undesigned coincidences,” of which Paley has made so much in his incomparable little work - Horae Paulinae.

Manner of life - Literally, “leading, guidance;” then, the method in which one is led - his manner of life; compare the notes at 1 Thessalonians 2:1.

Purpose - Plans, or designs.

Faith - Perhaps fidelity, or faithfulness.

Long-suffering - With the evil passions of others, and their efforts to injure him. See the word explained in the notes at 1 Corinthians 13:4.

Charity - see the notes at 1 Corinthians 13.

Patience - “A calm temper, which suffers evils without murmuring or discontent.” Webster.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 3:10". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/2-timothy-3.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

But thou didst follow my teaching, conduct, purpose, faith, longsuffering, love, patience,

In this and the following verse Paul listed ten aspects of his own life which he was leaving to Timothy as an example of faithful conduct. As Spain said, "They serve as a sort of check list for Timothy to use as he reflects on his close companionship with Paul through the years."[19]

Much could be said about every one of these words; but perhaps the big lesson may be found in their order. As always, Paul put DOCTRINE first. Other things are important, but the true doctrine is the most important of all. Without exception, Paul stressed the doctrine, then the pragmatic teaching derived from it. None of his major epistles departs from this order: doctrine first, then the practical admonitions. This needs to be pondered by some current preachers who boast that they do not preach doctrine; in reply to which it might be stated that if one does not preach doctrine he does not preach the gospel Paul preached.

Thou didst follow ... A marvelous compliment to Timothy is inherent in this. As Ward noted, the meaning is, "You, in contrast to the false teachers."[20] Through a long time, Timothy had been given every opportunity to listen and to observe Paul's life and teachings, finding absolutely nothing in either that was inconsistent with the whole; and therefore he had wholeheartedly followed the blessed apostle's example.

[19] Carl Spain, op. cit., p. 145.

[20] Ronald A. Ward, op. cit., p. 194.

Copyright Statement
Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 3:10". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/2-timothy-3.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

But thou hast fully known my doctrine,.... This, with what follows, is said in opposition to the characters, principles, and practices of the above wicked men, and for the imitation and encouragement of Timothy, and of others, whether ministers or private believers: the apostle calls the doctrine he delivered, "my doctrine": not because he was the author of it, or that it was a scheme of principles formed and contrived by him; but because it was the doctrine which he had received from God, which was given him to preach, and which he did preach purely and faithfully; otherwise it was the doctrine of Christ, and the same with that which was preached by the rest of the apostles; and which was the doctrine of the Scriptures, and was according to godliness; and as preached by him, was all of a piece, and without any adulteration, or mixture, and was open and manifest, and well known to Timothy, and others; for he used no hidden things of dishonesty, nor did he conceal his principles, or keep back anything that was profitable. And as well known was his

manner of life; both his civil life, how he spent his time, not in ease and idleness, but oftentimes in labour with his own hands; nor did he live in a sensual and voluptuous manner, but frequently was in hunger, and thirst, and nakedness; and likewise his religious life, and conversation, not only in the church, which was spent in the ministry of the word, and ordinances; but in the world, which, by the grace of God, was in simplicity and godly sincerity, in a very just, holy, and unblamable manner: his life was agreeable to his doctrine, and ornamental to his profession: and even the secrets of his mind, his views, his aims and ends in all he did, which are signified by his

purpose, were open and manifest; and which were not to obtain glory and applause from men, nor to gather wealth and riches for himself; but that God might be glorified in the salvation of men; that Christ might be magnified both in his life and death; that his Gospel might be spread, his kingdom be enlarged, and that many souls might be converted and brought to the knowledge of him; and hence he became all things to all, that he might gain some. And as the doctrine of

faith, embraced, professed, and preached by him, was well known, so no less conspicuous was the grace of faith in him, with respect to his interest in God's everlasting love, in salvation by Jesus Christ, and in eternal glory and happiness; of which be had a full assurance, and which remained constant and firm in him to the end. Unless rather his faithfulness in the discharge of his ministerial work should be here designed, for which he was very remarkable; as also for his

longsuffering both towards those that were without, the open enemies and persecutors of the Gospel, and towards them that were within, the brethren, whose infirmities he bore; and also for the success of the Gospel as the husbandman has long patience, and waits long for the former and latter rain to which is added

charity; which suffers long, and is kind; and may include his love to God, to Christ, and to the souls of men; which was very great, and particularly to his countrymen, the Jews, and also to the Gentiles; and especially to the churches he was more immediately concerned with, and even to all the saints: this is left out in the Alexandrian copy: it follows,

patience; in bearing all indignities, reproaches, afflictions, and persecutions, for the sake of Christ and his Gospel; by which he was not in the least moved, but persevered with, great courage and constancy to the end.

Copyright Statement
The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 3:10". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/2-timothy-3.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

4 But thou hast b fully known my doctrine, manner of life, purpose, faith, longsuffering, charity, patience,

(4) So that we are not deceived by such hypocrites, we must set before us the virtues of the holy servants of God, and we must not be afraid of persecution which they suffered willingly, and which always follows true godliness. But we must especially hold fast the doctrine of the apostles, the sum of which is this, that we are saved through faith in Christ Jesus.

(b) You thoroughly know not only what I taught and did, but also how I thought and was inclined.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 3:10". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/2-timothy-3.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

fully known — literally, “fully followed up” and traced; namely, with a view to following me as thy pattern, so far as I follow Christ; the same Greek as in Luke 1:3, “having had perfect understanding of all things.” His pious mother Eunice and grandmother Lois would recommend him to study fully Paul‘s Christian course as a pattern. He had not been yet the companion of Paul at the time of the apostle‘s persecutions in Antioch, Iconium, and Lystra (Acts 13:50; Acts 14:5, Acts 14:19), but is first mentioned as such Acts 16:1-3. However, he was “a disciple” already, when introduced to us in Acts 16:1-3; and as Paul calls him “my own son in the faith,” he must have been converted by the apostle previously; perhaps in the visit to those parts three years before. Hence arose Timothy‘s knowledge of Paul‘s persecutions, which were the common talk of the churches in those regions about the time of his conversion. The incidental allusion to them here forms an undesigned coincidence between the history and the Epistle, indicating genuineness [Paley, Horae Paulinae]. A forger of Epistles from the Acts would never allude to Timothy‘s knowledge of persecutions, when that knowledge is not expressly mentioned in the history, but is only arrived at by indirect inference; also the omission of Derbe here, in the Epistle, is in minute accordance with the fact that in Derbe no persecution is mentioned in the history, though Derbe and Lystra are commonly mentioned together. The reason why he mentions his persecutions before Timothy became his companion, and not those subsequent, was because Timothy was familiar with the latter as an eye-witness and Paul needed not to remind him of them, but the former Timothy had traced up by seeking the information from others, especially as the date and scene of them was the date and scene of his own conversion.

doctrine — “teaching.”

manner of life — “conduct,” “behavior.”

purpose — The Greek is elsewhere usually used of God‘s “purpose.” But here, as in Acts 11:23, of Paul‘s determined “purpose of heart in cleaving unto the Lord.” My set aim, or resolution, in my apostolic function, and in every action is, not my selfish gain, but the glory of God in Christ.

long-suffering — towards my adversaries, and the false teachers; towards brethren in bearing their infirmities; towards the unconverted, and the lapsed when penitent (2 Timothy 4:2; 2 Corinthians 6:6; Galatians 5:22; Ephesians 4:2; Colossians 3:12).

charitylove to all men.

patience — “endurance”; patient continuance in well-doing amidst adversities (2 Timothy 3:11; Romans 2:7).

Copyright Statement
These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 3:10". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/2-timothy-3.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Didst follow (παρηκολουτησαςparēkolouthēsas). First aorist active indicative of παρακολουτεωparakoloutheō for which see note on 1 Timothy 4:6. Some MSS. have perfect active παρηκολουτηκαςparēkolouthēkas (thou hast followed). Nine associative-instrumental cases here after the verb (teaching, διδασκαλιαιdidaskaliāi Romans 12:7; conduct, αγωγηιagōgēi old word here only in N.T.; purpose, προτεσειprothesei Romans 8:28; faith, πιστειpistei 1 Thessalonians 3:6; longsuffering, μακροτυμιαιmakrothumiāi Colossians 1:11; persecutions, διωγμοιςdiōgmois 2 Thessalonians 1:4; sufferings, πατημασινpathēmasin 2 Corinthians 1:6.). The two last items belong to 2 Timothy 3:11.

Copyright Statement
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Bibliographical Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 3:10". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/2-timothy-3.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Hast fully known ( παρηκολούθησας )

Better, thou didst follow. See on 1 Timothy 4:6. oP.

Manner of life ( ἀγωγῇ )

Or conduct. N.T.olxx, mostly 2nd and 3rd Macc. Often in Class., but mostly in a transitive sense, leading, conducting.

Purpose ( προθέσει )

See on Acts 11:23; see on Romans 9:11. In Paul, only of the divine purpose.

Long-suffering, charity, patience

For long -suffering, see on James 5:7. For charity rend. love, and see on Galatians 5:22. For patience, see on 2 Peter 1:6; see on James 5:7.

Copyright Statement
The text of this work is public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 3:10". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/2-timothy-3.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

А ты последовал. Для воодушевления Тимофея апостол прибегает к доводу, состоящему в том, что тот не невежда и не новобранец, без всякого опыта выходящий на поле битвы. Он – тот, кого Павел самолично обучал через долгое воспитание. И здесь идет речь не только об учении. Немаловажны и другие упомянутые Павлом качества, так что его слова как бы рисуют перед нами живой портрет доброго пастыря. А добрый пастырь воспитывает и обучает своих учеников не только словом, но и в некотором смысле открывает им свое сердце, давая понять, что учит их от всей души. Именно это и означает здесь «намерение».

Апостол присоединяет к нему и другие свидетельства серьезного и неподдельного чувства. Таковы: вера, любовь, великодушие и терпение. И Тимофей уже впитал в себя эти начатки, пребывая в школе апостола. Хотя Павел упоминает не только о том, чему Тимофей научился лично у него, но и свидетельствует о его предыдущей жизни, таким образом, побуждая его к проявлению стойкости. Он расхваливает Тимофея за то, что тот подражал присущим Павлу добродетелям. Апостол как бы говорит: ты уже привык следовать моим установлениям, продолжай же делать то, что ты начал. И все же Павел хочет, чтобы пример его веры, любви и терпения постоянно находился перед глазами Тимофея, и поэтому, прежде всего, упоминает о гонениях, более всего известных его адресату.

 

 

 

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Calvin, John. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 3:10". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/2-timothy-3.html. 1840-57.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

10 But thou hast fully known my doctrine, manner of life, purpose, faith, longsuffering, charity, patience,

Ver. 10. But thou hast fully known] παρηκολουθηκας. Or, thou hast exactly trod in my track, followed my footsteps; as Irenaeus did Polycarp’s, as Paraeus did Ursin’s; whence Paulus Melissus,

"- Sacra docente Pareo,

Vividus Ursini spiritus ora movet."

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Trapp, John. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 3:10". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/2-timothy-3.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

2 Timothy 3:10. But thou hast fully known Having in the preceding verses described the apostates of the last days, and shewn how much the wicked Judaizers made way for that apostacy, the apostle here, by way of opposition, proposes his own example and doctrine, that Timothy might observe and follow them: to incite him to which, he appeals to his many and great sufferings, as proofs of his sincerity; and he not only intimates that Timothy had been instructed by one who had sufficient attestations to his apostolic character, but that the true Christian revelation was agreeable to the scriptures of the Old Testament, with which Timothy had been acquainted from his infancy, and which might still be profitably read, if carefully compared with, and made subservient to the true Christian revelation. In this view the study of them would not lead him aside, as it did the Judaizers, but would help to make him a proper and perfect instructor of mankind in the Christian religion.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 3:10". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/2-timothy-3.html. 1801-1803.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

A special mean is here propounded, how Timothy and his successors may be preserved from the seduction of false teachers, namely, by setting before themselves the example of the great apostle St. Paul; we are more easily led by precedents than by precepts; therefore the apostle propounds his own example as a pattern; Thou hast fully known my doctrine, my manner of life and conversation, my purpose to adhere to, my faith in Christ, my long-suffering and patience in undergoing persecution for him at Antioch, at Iconium, at Lystra, and how God was graciously pleased to deliver me out of all.

Learn hence, 1. That younger ministers ought especially to observe the doctrine and conversation of the elder, the pious way and walking of the graver ministers, and must follow them. Aged Paul propounds his virtues to young Timothy for imitation; Thou hast fully known my doctrine and manner of life; my doctrine to be sound and sincere, my life to be holy and unblameable.

Learn, 2. That it is both lawful and laudable, at sometimes, and upon some occasions, to mention both the graces which God hath wrought in us, and also the sufferings and persecutions which we endure and undergo for him; Thou knowest what persecutions I endured at Antioch, Iconium, and Lystra.

Learn, 3. That always opposition, and often persecution, attends the preaching of the gospel wherever it goes. St. Paul went to Antioch, from Antioch to Iconium, from Iconium to Lystra, preaching the gospel; but pesecution followed him hard at the heels wherever he went. But observe how the goodness of God accompanied him too; Out of them all the Lord delivered me; not only our dangers, but our deliverances also, must be recorded and observed.

Observe, farther, How the apostle argues, from his own persecutions in particular, to all the godly's persecutions in general; Yea, and all that will live godlily in Christ Jesus, shall suffer persecution;

Mark, Not this or that godly man, but all, every one without exception; the better the men, the sooner persecuted; the devil shoots his arrow at the whitest and fairest mark.

Again, all that will, he doth not say, All that wish well to godliness, but All that will,all that are absolutely resolved so to do.

And farther, if he will live, if he can or will keep his godliness in his heart, and not discover it in his life, he may escape hatred and persecution: but if he will live religiously, let him look for persecution.

Observe, farther, It is said, He that will live godlily, and not civilly, but living godlily, exposes to the world's scorn and hatred; In a word, his godliness in Christ Jesus, that is, such godliness as is exerted in the virtue, strength, and power of Christ Jesus particularly.

Godliness in Christ Jesus is real and true godliness; 'tis exact godliness, 'tis an active godliness, 'tis a prevailing godliness, it is a world condemning godliness; such godliness cannot escape the world's hatred.

Learn, That all those that shew forth the power of religion in an holy conversation, must certainly look for persecution.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Burkitt, William. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 3:10". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/2-timothy-3.html. 1700-1703.

Charles Simeon's Horae Homileticae

DISCOURSE: 2254

CHARACTER OF ST. PAUL

2 Timothy 3:10. Thou hast fully known my doctrine, manner of life, purpose, faith, long suffering, charity, patience.

IN every age of the world there have been persons adverse to the truth of God, and actively engaged in frustrating his designs for the salvation of men. In the days of Moses, Jannes and Jambres sought to harden the heart of Pharaoh: and in the apostolic age, many seducers arose to draw away from the faith those who had embraced the Gospel of Christ. Against their influence St. Paul guards his son Timothy: and that this young minister might be the better able to distinguish them, the Apostle reminds him of “all that he had heard and seen in him.”

The word which, in the text, is translated, “thou hast fully known,” is in the margin translated, “thou hast been a diligent follower of.” And from this little diversity of construction, I shall take occasion to propose to you the character of the Apostle, for your investigation, that you may “fully know it;” and for your imitation, that you may “diligently follow it.”

I propose it, then,

I. For your investigation—

Take notice, then, what was,

1. His doctrine—

[This was uniformly an exhibition of the Lord Jesus Christ, as crucified for the sins of men, and as effecting thereby our reconciliation with God — — — On this subject he maintained the utmost jealousy; suffering nothing, either in himself or others, to obscure it. When St. Peter himself had, by undue concessions, endangered the purity of this doctrine, St. Paul reproved him before the whole Church [Note: Galatians 2:14.]. And, if an angel from heaven had attempted to establish any doctrine in opposition to this, he was prepared to denounce him as accursed [Note: Galatians 1:8-9.]. All that he preached, either led to this doctrine, or arose out of it; for “he had determined to know nothing but Christ, and him crucified.”]

2. His spirit—

[This was in perfect accordance with the doctrine which he preached. “The whole manner of his life” was regulated by it; and marked a determined “purpose” to live only for the Saviour in whom he believed, and to put forth all his powers for the propagation of the Gospel of Christ. In the discharge of this duty he had shewn the utmost “fidelity [Note: This is here the import of the word translated “faith.”];” concealing nothing that could be profitable to his hearers, but boldly “declaring to them the whole counsel of God.” He knew that, “in every place, bonds and afflictions awaited him:” but “none of these things could move him:” neither counted he his life dear to him, if only he might discharge, to the satisfaction of his own conscience, the high office which had been committed to him. This was his uniform course of life, from the first moment of his conversion: and all who knew him could bear witness to it.]

3. His conduct—

[His zeal for God was duly blended with love to men. He bore with all, however weak, however ignorant, however perverse, they were: nor could the most cruel treatment divert him from his purpose. In the midst of all the injuries he sustained, he still prosecuted his labours of love with all imaginable “long-suffering, and charity, and patience;” “becoming all things to all men, if by any means he might save some;” and accounting it rather a matter of self-congratulation than of grief, if he should be called to pour forth his blood as a libation upon the sacrifice and service of his people’s faith [Note: Philippians 2:17.]. O that men would study this character, and seek to have it embodied in their own experience! For this end]

I will propose it,

II. For your imitation—

St. Paul himself says, “Be ye followers of me, as I am of Christ.” And so would I say to you, as in my text, Be diligent followers of him in the above respects.

1. Embrace his principles—

[It is observable, that the Apostle himself takes for granted that every true Christian will resemble him in his views of divine truth: for, having spoken of the sufferings which he had been called to endure, he adds, “Yea, and all that will live godly in Christ Jesus will suffer persecution.” “The living godly in Christ Jesus” marks at once “his doctrine and his manner of life.” “A life of faith on the Son of God” is that which characterizes every Christian under heaven. Yet it is not the faith alone which so distinguishes him, but its operation on the heart and life: it is “the living godly in Christ Jesus.” The faith and practice must go together. If separated, they are of no value: faith is of no value, if not productive of works; and works are of no value, if not proceeding from faith. I wish this to be clearly and fully understood. In truth, there is not a person in the universe who can act up to this high standard, unless he live under the influence of faith. Nothing but a sense of redeeming love can constrain any man to such an entire surrender of his soul to God. But, on the other hand, no man who truly believes in Christ will ever stop short of it. Be ye, therefore, followers of Paul in this respect.]

2. Expect his trials—

[We are ready to think, that sufferings for righteousness’ sake were the portion of the Apostles only, or of the primitive Christians: but they are, and will inevitably be, the portion of all believers; as St. Paul tells us in the words which we have just cited; “All who will live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution.” Persons may be ever so wise, and ever so prudent, and ever so blameless in the whole of their conversation; but they never can escape persecution of some kind. They may not, indeed, be called to endure the sufferings inflicted on St. Paul: through the tender mercy of our God, that measure of persecution is now prevented by the laws, which afford protection to all classes of the community: but hatred, and contempt, and obloquy, will attach to all who resemble our blessed Lord, and to all who tread in the steps of the Apostle Paul. It is in vain for any one to hope that he shall be a follower of Christ without having a cross to bear: for, “if men called the Master of the house Beelzebub, much more will they those of his household.” In this respect, therefore, as well as in his religious sentiments and feelings, every one of you must prepare to resemble this bright pattern of all that was great and good.]

3. Maintain his conduct—

[Imitate his zeal for God: and let it be seen that you live only for God. Let your whole manner of life be consistent. Let your determined purpose be manifest: let it be evident to all, that you have but one wish, one desire. And let nothing under heaven cause you to turn aside, even for a moment, from the path of duty. “Be steadfast, and immoveable, and always abounding in the work of the Lord.” At the same time, imitate his love to man. Whatever treatment you meet with in the world, be long-suffering and loving towards all; and “let patience have its perfect work, that ye may be perfect and entire, lacking nothing.” In all this, let your conduct be so uniform, that you may appeal to those who have the nearest access to you, and opportunities of observing you at all times, that this is the constant tenour of your way. It is an easy matter to be Christians in public: but, to preserve a perfect consistency in the whole of your deportment in private, requires an unintermitted watchfulness, and a measure of grace that is possessed by few. But, indeed, I must say, that it is by such fruits alone that the goodness of the tree can be discerned. May God enable all of us so to walk, that we may be able to make our appeal, both to God and man, without fear and contradiction; and to the praise of that God who hath wrought all our good works within us!]

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Simeon, Charles. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 3:10". Charles Simeon's Horae Homileticae. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/shh/2-timothy-3.html. 1832.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

2 Timothy 3:10. σὺ δὲ, but thou) An antithesis: so again after new descriptions of evils, 2 Timothy 3:14, ch. 2 Timothy 4:5.— παρηκολούθηκας, thou hast followed out) [fully followed up, traced out and known]. Timothy became the companion of Paul after the persecutions mentioned in this place, Acts 13:50; Acts 14:5; Acts 14:19; Acts 16:3. This is therefore a well chosen word to employ here, as in Luke 1:3. So Antiochus concerning his son: “I am persuaded that he, understanding my mind ( παρακολουθοῦντα, following up my mode of thinking); 2 Maccabees 9:27.— τῇ ἀγωγῇ) ἀγωγὴ, mode of life, Fr. conduite.— τῇ προθέσει, purpose) His purpose for the future follows close after his (present) mode of life; comp. Acts 11:23, note; and long-suffering follows close after faith, as in Hebrews 6:12 : patience follows close after love, as in 2 Thessalonians 3:5.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 3:10". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/2-timothy-3.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

But thou hast fully known my doctrine: our translation here seemeth a little strange, for the Greek is: Thou hast diligently followed me in doctrine, eu de parhkolouyhdav mou th didaskalia that is: Thou wert in my company, thou wert a follower of me, and so must know what doctrine I preached; what

manner of life I lived; what my

purpose, whole scope and design, was; what

faith I taught and professed; what

long-suffering I used, both towards my malicious adversaries and my weaker brethren; what

charity or love I showed towards all men, whether friends or foes; what

patience I showed in bearing injuries.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 2 Timothy 3:10". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/2-timothy-3.html. 1685.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

‘But YOU are familiar with my teaching, conduct, purpose, faith, longsuffering, love, patient endurance,’

Note the emphatic ‘you’. Paul knows that Timothy is not like these false teachers, if for no other reason than because he is familiar with Paul’s life and ministry. He knows what the genuine article is like. He is familiar with what Paul teaches, he knows how he behaves, he knows what his fixed purpose is, he knows the quality of his faith, he knows how longsuffering he is, he knows the love with which he is filled, love for God and love for the elect (compare 2 Timothy 2:10), and he knows his patient endurance and fortitude. All this should make absolutely clear to Timothy the difference between him and the false teachers, between the true and the false.

These are not the boasts of a man seeking to boost his own ego, but the words of a man under sentence of death who has reviewed his life and knows what he is, and who is reminding Timothy of those happy days when as a young man he had first come into contact with him (Paul) and had been moved by observing his life and what he saw of him to a new dedication. Meeting Paul and seeing what he was and what he had experienced had changed his life, and Paul now says, remember Timothy, for what convinced you then is still equally true today. So go back to your foundations.

‘Are familiar with.’ The verb originally meant ‘to follow up, trace out’ but came to mean ‘are cognisant of, are familiar with’ as used for example in the papyri.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Pett, Peter. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 3:10". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/2-timothy-3.html. 2013.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

2 Timothy 3:10. Thou hast followed. Better, ‘thou didst follow.’ The pronoun is emphatic, and the tense points to a definite time, probably that of Timothy’s early discipleship, which St. Paul had in his memory. It half suggests, too, what the English perfect almost excludes, that the apostle was looking on what he speaks of as belonging to a vanished past. It had been. Was the present like it?

Doctrine.Teaching in its widest sense.

Purpose. Here only used by St. Paul of himself, elsewhere of the Divine purpose.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 3:10". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/2-timothy-3.html. 1879-90.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

hast, &c. = didst follow up. See 1 Timothy 4:6.

manner of life. Greek agoge. Only here.

purpose. See 2 Timothy 1:9.

charity. See 2 Timothy 2:22,

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 3:10". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/2-timothy-3.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

But thou hast fully known my doctrine, manner of life, purpose, faith, longsuffering, charity, patience,

Fully, known, [ pareekoloutheesas (Greek #3877)] - 'fully followed up;' traced, with a view to following me as thy pattern, so far as I follow Christ. Compare Greek, Luke 1:3, "having had perfect understanding of." Lois and Eunice would recommend him to study fully Paul's Christian course. He was not yet the companion of Paul's at the apostle's persecutions in Antioch, Iconium, and Lystra (Acts 13:50; Acts 14:5; Acts 14:19), but is first mentioned as such, Acts 16:1-3. However, he was 'a disciple' already when introduced in Acts 16:1-3. As Paul calls him "my own son in the faith," he must have been converted by the apostle previously: perhaps in the visit to those parts three years before. Hence arose Timothy's knowledge of Paul's persecutions, which were generally spoken of in the churches there at the time of his conversion. The incidental allusion to them forms an undesigned coincidence between the history and the letter, indicating genuineness, (Paley's 'Hor. Paul.') A forger of letters from the Acts would never allude to Timothy's knowledge of persecutions, when that knowledge is not mentioned in the history, but is only arrived at by indirect inference; also the omission of Derbe here minutely agrees with the fact that in Derbe no persecution is mentioned in the history, though Derbe and Lystra are commonly mentioned together. His reason for mentioning his persecutions before Timothy became his companion, and not those subsequent, was because Timothy being familiar with the latter as an eye-witness, Paul needed not to remind him of them, but the former Timothy had traced up by information from others. Perhaps Paul's sufferings were what tint impressed Timothy. If Timothy was converted at Lystra (as seems probable: see 'Introduction'), he may have witnessed the almost-completed martyrdom, of Paul (Acts 14:19).

Doctrine - `teaching.'

Manner of life - `conduct' (1 Corinthians 4:17).

Purpose, [ prothesei (Greek #4286)] - elsewhere used of God's "purpose;" but here, as in Acts 11:23, of Paul's 'purpose of heart in cleaving unto the Lord:' my set aim in my apostolic function not selfish gain, but the glory of God.

Long-suffering - toward adversaries and the false teachers; toward brethren in bearing their infirmities; toward the unconverted, and the lapsed when penitent (2 Timothy 4:2; 2 Corinthians 6:6; Galatians 5:22; Ephesians 4:2; Colossians 3:12).

Charity - love to all.

Patience - `brave endurance:' patient continuance in well-doing amidst adversities (2 Timothy 3:11; Romans 2:7).

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 3:10". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/2-timothy-3.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(10) But thou hast fully known my doctrine.—Literally, But thou wert a follower of my doctrine; thou followedst as a disciple, and thus hast fully known. The Greek word translated “fully known” (see 1 Timothy 4:6) denotes a diligently tracing out step by step. See Luke 1:3, where the same word is rendered, in the English version: “having had perfect understanding,” having traced up to their source all the events relating to the foundation of Christianity. Here St. Paul recalls to Timothy’s mind what had been his—St. Paul’s—life, and words, and works. No one knew the history of this life like Timothy, the pupil and the friend, who had been long trained to assist in carrying on his teacher’s work after St. Paul was removed. And this appeal to Timothy’s recollection of the past has two distinct purposes: (1) It was to contrast that life of St. Paul’s, with which the disciple was so well acquainted, with the lives of those false men, of whom Timothy was warned so earnestly, who were poisoning the stream of Christianity at Ephesus; and (2) the memory of the master was to serve as a spur to the disciple, the heroic faith of the old man was to act as an incentive to the young teacher to suffer bravely in his turn.

With this pattern of steady faith and heroic work before his eyes, Timothy would never be able to endure the wretched mock Christianity these new teachers were labouring to introduce into the communities of the believers of Asia; he would at once separate himself and his from these evil influences.

My doctrine.—Or, teaching, in which the leading of a pure self-denying life was inseparably bound up with a belief in the great Christian doctrines. “This hast thou, my pupil from boyhood, known in all its details. Thou hast known how I taught others.”

Manner of life.—“And also how I lived myself:” “my ways which be in Christ,” as he once before phrased it (1 Corinthians 4:17), “my conduct.”

Purpose.—“My purpose—from which you know I never swerved—of remaining true to the Gospel of my Lord and to my great life’s mission to the Gentiles.” (See Acts 2:23, where the word is used in respect to others’ purpose.)

Faith.—Possibly, trust in God, but better, St. Paul’s faith or belief in the fundamental doctrines of Christianity.

Longsuffering.—Towards his many bitter adversaries, especially those among his own countrymen. In spite of all that long, unwearied, sleepless persecution, which he, the former Pharisee leader, endured at the hands of the Jews, he loved Israel to the end, with a love intense as it was changeless, loved them even to be willing for their sake to give up his eternal hopes. (See Romans 9:3.)

Charity.—My love, which (in his own sunny words) beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things—the love which never faileth. (See 1 Corinthians 13)

Patience.—That characteristic virtue of St. Paul, that “brave patience” which hopefully endured opposition to his favourite schemes, which cheerfully bore the most painful suffering when it came as a consequence of work in his Master’s cause. This concluding word led naturally on to the brief catalogue of persecutions of the next verse.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 3:10". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/2-timothy-3.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

But thou hast fully known my doctrine, manner of life, purpose, faith, longsuffering, charity, patience,
thou hast fully known
or, thou hast been a diligent follower of.
Luke 1:3; Philippians 2:22; 1 Timothy 4:6; *Gr:
my
16,17; 4:3; Acts 2:42; Romans 16:17; Ephesians 4:14; 1 Timothy 1:3; 4:12,13; Titus 2:7; Hebrews 13:9; 2 John 1:9,10
manner
Acts 20:18; 26:4; 1 Thessalonians 1:5; 2 Peter 3:11
purpose
Daniel 1:8; Acts 11:23; 2 Corinthians 1:17
faith
2:22; 2 Corinthians 6:4-10; 1 Timothy 4:12; 6:11; 2 Peter 1:5-7
Reciprocal: Romans 12:12 - patient;  1 Corinthians 4:17 - my ways;  1 Corinthians 13:4 - suffereth;  1 Corinthians 14:6 - doctrine;  2 Corinthians 6:6 - knowledge;  1 Thessalonians 2:10 - how;  1 Thessalonians 3:7 - in all;  1 Timothy 4:10 - therefore;  2 Timothy 1:12 - the which;  2 Timothy 4:2 - all;  2 Timothy 4:5 - endure;  3 John 1:11 - follow

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 3:10". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/2-timothy-3.html.

Stanley Derickson - Notes on Selected Books

"But thou hast fully known my doctrine, manner of life, purpose, faith, longsuffering, charity, patience, 11 Persecutions, afflictions, which came unto me at Antioch, at Iconium, at Lystra; what persecutions I endured: but out of [them all the Lord delivered "

We have a series of personal items then two items that were without Paul. Is he giving us to lists of qualities, or just including the persecutions and afflictions as just a part of who he is? The later seems to be quite consistent.

Now a word from our sponsors, so to speak, Paul has laid out the false prophets, now he wants the people to understand where the truth is coming from.

Paul sets about listing his qualifications to be heard as one with authority.

Doctrine: This is the normal term for teaching, doctrine, or that which is taught. Paul reminds the reader of his teaching - teaching that is based on the revelation of God via the Old Testament as well as personal revelation in the wilderness from Christ Himself.

Now, personally that is enough to lead me to want to listen intently to what he has to offer, yet he continues on with other marks of his authority.

Manner of life: One of the clearest of passages to show that our life before the world and before the church is of utmost importance. Paul called upon this as a basis for others to listen to him, how can we think we should be any different?

If you have questions about how to live your life, go to the epistles and see if you can find out how Paul lived his. He mentions we are to use him as an example. We are also to use Christ as our example - what question can remain in our minds as to how to live, if we look at these two as our example for life?

The question might come to mind - if you were trying to gather support for something you were telling someone, could you call upon your life before them as an example? If not, then possibly you need to seek some changes in your life.

In essence, whether you call yourself as an example when teaching or preaching, you are being examined as such. We are automatically using our life as backing for what we say. If people see our life lacking, then they will also see our teaching and preaching as lacking.

Purpose: What was Paul's purpose? He was always about the preaching of the coming kingdom and bringing people into a proper relationship to Christ. In the final chapter of Acts in the final days of his life, he is still preaching the kingdom (Acts 28:30-31 "30 And Paul dwelt two whole years in his own hired house, and received all that came in unto him, 31 Preaching the kingdom of God, and teaching those things which concern the Lord Jesus Christ, with all confidence, no man forbidding him.")

Faith: By faith Paul walked across Asia and Europe, in and out of prison preaching and setting up churches. What a testimony to his faith are the churches he planted.

We may not plant many churches, but we can certainly walk by faith and see what God can do. If we don't step out in faith to do the small things for Him there is no way that He will do great things with us.

It is our steps of faith that allow God to use us. It is the lack of steps of faith that limit our usefulness to Him.

What is really sad is that as we step out for Him, He provides the way and means for anything He requests - we don't have to do anything - only take the step in faith and He does the rest — and yet many do not take that first step for Him.

Longsuffering: I assume that he references his suffering physically primarily - the ship wreck, the beatings, the jailings etc. However there is also the longsuffering for the churches/believers mentally. He took all he was involved with seriously and all this was also a burden to be dealt with.

A brief look at the book of Colossians will show that he was burdened for the people and that he was praying for them. If he was concerned for the Colossians, you can be sure the other churches were on his mind as well.

Charity: The love he had for the people and churches are most likely exhibited in the longsuffering mentioned above. It is the Greek word agape or self-sacrificing love. This is clear in his life - he was willing to suffer for those he reached with the Gospel, indeed, he also suffered for those that rejected his message. He suffered so he could spread the Gospel to all that he found.

Another point of application - suffer for all, both lost and saved if you are going to use Paul as your example.

Patience: This term can be translated steadfastness as well as patient. His steadfastness in ministry is quite plain in the New Testament.

His patience with believers is also evident in his writings. He put up with their following of false teaching and patiently reminded them of good doctrine. He sent workers to the churches to help them straighten out problems that they were having. He could have blasted them, but he taught them as he found their problems.

Persecutions: He endured persecutions at the cities listed, we won't go into that but a quick look at a concordance will give you further information. He suffered all these things and the people knew of what he had been through. His persecution and afflictions are due to his doctrine and his work - part of who he was at that point in his life. This was one of his credentials - he was the real thing - he was withstanding the Devil's wiles for the Lord's sake.

Verse eleven ends with the following "I endured: but out of [them] all the Lord delivered me." He not only endured all that was sent his way, but he realized it was the Lord that delivered him. Thus it must be today when we fall into less than nice times - allow God to deliver you rather than to take things into your own hands.

Copyright Statement
Copyright 2008. Used by Permission. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the author, except as provided by U.S.A. copyright laws. Do feel free to make copies for friends that might be interested as long as you do not make profit from the copies. This is God's work and I don't want anyone to profit from it in a material way.
Bibliographical Information
Derickson, Stanley. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 3:10". "Stanley Derickson - Notes on Selected Books". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/sdn/2-timothy-3.html.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

2. But as Timothy knows the trueness and purity of Paul, 2 Timothy 3:10-13.

10.But—Contrastive; introducing a picture antithetic to the above gloomy portraiture.

Thou—Greek, emphatic, both by insertion and position; in antithesis to the errorists above described.

Hast fully known—With thorough study and acquaintance as of a pattern and lesson. Timothy’s acquaintance with Paul’s example as an eyewitness commenced at Lystra, but the report of his previous endurances at Antioch and Iconium, Acts xiv, must have been perfectly known to him at the time. Lystra—The apostle stops his enumeration in precise accordance with the history in Acts 14:20-21, where see notes.

 

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 3:10". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/2-timothy-3.html. 1874-1909.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

: See note on 1 Timothy 1:10.

: conduct (R.V.). The A.V., manner of life has perhaps reference to guiding principles of conduct rather than to the external expression of them, which is meant here.

: For in this sense of human purpose see reff. Here it means what St. Paul had set before himself as the aim of his life. In Romans 8:28; Romans 9:11, Ephesians 1:11; Ephesians 3:11, 2 Timothy 1:9 the word is used of God’s eternal purpose for man.

: See on 1 Timothy 6:11.

 

 

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 3:10". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/2-timothy-3.html. 1897-1910.

The Bible Study New Testament

10. But you have followed. Paul is thinking here of the point in time when Timothy obeyed the truth and become a Christian. Teaching. See 1 Timothy 1:11; 1 Timothy 2:7and notes. Conduct. Especially the motivation which lies back of it. Purpose. The aim or goal of his life. In becoming a Christian, Timothy had made these things his own. My faith. Loyalty to Christ and the truth. Patience. Even when annoyed (1 Thessalonians 5:14). love. Compare 1 Timothy 1:5and notes. Christian love is to treat others as God has treated you in Christ! Paul did this! Endurance. One who does not give up in the race until he finishes.

 

 

 

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 3:10". "The Bible Study New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/2-timothy-3.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

10But thou hast followed (185) In order to urge Timothy, he employs this argument also, that he is not an ignorant and untaught soldier, because Paul carried him through a long course of training. Nor does he speak of doctrine only; for those things which he likewise enumerates add much weight, and he gives to us, in this sentence, a very lively picture of a good teacher, as one who does not, by words only, train and instruct his disciples, but, so to speak, opens his very breast to them, that they may know, that whatever he teaches, he teaches sincerely. This is what is implied in the word purpose He likewise adds other proofs of sincere and unfeigned affection, such as faith, mildness, love, patience Such were the early instructions which had been imparted to Timothy in the school of Paul. Yet he does not merely bring to remembrance what he had learned from him, but bears testimony to his former life, that in this manner he may urge him to perseverance; for he praises him as an imitator of his own virtues; as if he had said, “Thou hast been long accustomed to follow my instructions; I ask nothing more than that thou shouldst go on as thou hast begun.” It is his wish, however; that the example of his “faith, love, and patience” should be constantly before the eyes of Timothy; and for that reason he dwells chiefly on his persecutions, which were best known to him.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Calvin, John. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 3:10". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/2-timothy-3.html. 1840-57.