Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Daniel 9:5

we have sinned, committed iniquity, acted wickedly and rebelled, even turning aside from Your commandments and ordinances.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Intercession;   Nation;   Prayer;   Prophets;   Repentance;   Sin;   Thompson Chain Reference - Confession of Sin;   Nation;   Sin;   The Topic Concordance - Disobedience;   Iniquity;   Israel/jews;   Rebellion;   Servants;   Sin;   Transgression;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Prayer;   Prayer, Intercessory;   Rebellion against God;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Daniel;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Confession;   Daniel;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Humility;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Reconciliation;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Confession;   Sanctification;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Captivity;   Chronicles, the Books of;   Prayer;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Daniel, Book of;   Ezekiel;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Daniel, Book of;   Prayer;   Thessalonians, Second Epistle to the;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Sacrifices ;   Synagogue;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Confession;  
Encyclopedias:
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - Babylonish Captivity, the;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Precept;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Confession of Sin;   Prayer;   Sin;  
Devotionals:
Every Day Light - Devotion for February 17;  

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

We have sinned - Though Daniel was alone, he spake in the name of the people in general - doubtless recounting the long series of crimes in the nation which had preceded the captivity, and which were the cause of the ruin of the city and temple.

And have committed iniquity … - These varied forms of expression are designed to give “intensity” to what he says. It is equivalent to saying that they had sinned in every way possible. The mind, in a state of true repentance, dwells on its sins, and recounts the various forms in which iniquity has been done, and multiplies expressions of regret and sorrow on account of transgression.

From thy precepts - Thy commands; thy laws.

Thy judgments - Thy laws - the word “judgments” in the Scripture denoting what God judges to be right for us to do, as well as what it is right for him to inflict.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Daniel 9:5". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/daniel-9.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

We have sinned, and have committed iniquity, and have done wickedly, and have rebelled,.... Some think there is a gradation in these words; that they had committed some sins through error and ignorance; others through infirmity and obliquity, or in the perverseness of their spirits, and the crookedness of their ways; and others wilfully and in malice, in the wickedness of their hearts; and others were open acts of hostility against God, casting off his yoke, and refusing obedience to him, and obstinately persisting therein. Jacchiades refers them to sins of actions, words, and thoughts, which they proudly and presumptuously committed. This heap of phrases seems to be used to take in all kind of sin committed by them, and rather to exaggerate than to extenuate them, and to confess them with all their aggravated circumstances; and Daniel puts in himself among the body of the people, as being a member of it, and as well knowing he was not without sin; and therefore willingly took his part in the blame of it, in confession of it, and confusion for it:

even by departing from thy precepts, and from thy judgments; both of a moral and positive nature, which were enjoined by the law of Moses, as the rule of their conduct; but from this they swerved.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Daniel 9:5". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/daniel-9.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Compare Nehemiah‘s confession (Nehemiah 9:1-38).

sinned  …  committed iniquity  …  done wickedly  …  rebelled — a climax. Erred in ignorance  …  sinned by infirmity  …  habitually and willfully done wickedness  …  as open and obstinate rebels set ourselves against God.

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Daniel 9:5". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/daniel-9.html. 1871-8.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Daniel 9:5 We have sinned, and have committed iniquity, and have done wickedly, and have rebelled, even by departing from thy precepts and from thy judgments:

Ver. 5. We have sinned, and have committed iniquity, and have done wickedly, and have rebelled.] Mark how full in the mouth the good prophet is, and how he exaggerateth, confessing against himself and his people, laying on load. Good men extenuate not their offences; every sin swelleth as a toad in their eyes.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Daniel 9:5". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/daniel-9.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Daniel 9:5. We have sinned, and have committed iniquity Daniel here puts up the confession prescribed in Solomon's consecration-prayer, to be used by the Jews in the land of their captivity.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Daniel 9:5". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/daniel-9.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

As if he had said, We are not only sinners, but our sin is wickedness aggravated to the height: thus much the gradation here intimates, by

doing wickedly and rebelling. In our confessions of sin to God there must be no mincing nor cloaking of sin, but a full and naked discovery, with selfjudging and self-abhorrence. Note here, all along after, this holy man Daniel puts himself in the number of the greatest sinners: so when we are suppliants and penitents, we must include ourselves in the general petition.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Daniel 9:5". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/daniel-9.html. 1685.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

“We have sinned and have dealt perversely, and have done wickedly and have rebelled, even turning aside from your precepts and from your judgments.”

Daniel here identifies himself with his people. Note the multiplying of words to express sinfulness; wandered from the right way, behaved unrighteously, falling short of God’s requirements, doing wickedly by following that which was positively known to be wrong, acting in rebellion against God, and a deliberate turning aside from His Law as revealed in the Scriptures. Yet he no doubt felt its truth about himself deeply. None are more conscious of sin than the truly righteous.

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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Daniel 9:5". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/daniel-9.html. 2013.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Daniel 9:5. We have sinned, and have committed iniquity — Daniel uses the same confession here that is prescribed, in Solomon’s consecration prayer, to be used by the Jews in the land of their captivity; with a promise subjoined, of a favourable answer that God would make to their supplications presented to him on such an occasion: see the margin. And being one of the Jewish nation, he speaks of their sins as his own; and, though certainly a most holy man, puts himself among the greatest sinners. There seems to be a kind of gradation in the prophet’s confessions here, beginning with sins in general, and rising to rebellion and apostacy.

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Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Daniel 9:5". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/daniel-9.html. 1857.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

We. Note that Daniel associates himself with his People. Compare Neh 1; and Daniel 9:33-38. Ezra 9:5-15.

wickedly = lawlessly. Hebrew. rasha, App-44.

rebelled = revolted. Hebrew. marad. Usually of revolt against Deity or royalty.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Daniel 9:5". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/daniel-9.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

We have sinned, and have committed iniquity, and have done wickedly, and have rebelled, even by departing from thy precepts and from thy judgments:

We have sinned, and have committed iniquity - (cf. Nehemiah's confession, Nehemiah 9:1-38).

Sinned ... committed iniquity ... done wickedly ... rebelled - a climax: meaning respectively, erred in ignorance ... sinned by infirmity ... habitually and willfully done wickedness ... as open and obstinate rebels set ourselves against God.

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Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Daniel 9:5". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/daniel-9.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(5) We have sinned.—It has been remarked that four stages of sin are pointed out by the prophet, corresponding to the four different words which he uses. “Sin” refers especially to sins of deed, “committing iniquity” to sins of word, “done wickedly” to sins of thought, “rebelled” implies the person against whom the sin has been committed. The whole result of sin under these several aspects is expressed by the words “departing from Thy precepts.”

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Daniel 9:5". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/daniel-9.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

We have sinned, and have committed iniquity, and have done wickedly, and have rebelled, even by departing from thy precepts and from thy judgments:
have sinned
15; 1 Kings 8:47-50; 2 Chronicles 6:37-39; Ezra 9:6; Nehemiah 1:6-8; 9:33,34; Psalms 106:6; Isaiah 64:5-7; Jeremiah 3:25; 14:7
departing
Psalms 18:21; 119:102; Isaiah 59:13; Ezekiel 6:9; Hosea 1:2; Malachi 3:7; Hebrews 3:12
Reciprocal: Exodus 32:31 - sinned;  Numbers 14:9 - Only rebel;  2 Kings 21:15 - since the day;  2 Kings 22:13 - great;  Ezra 5:12 - But after;  Ezra 9:7 - Since the days;  Nehemiah 1:7 - dealt;  Job 40:4 - Behold;  Psalm 5:10 - they;  Isaiah 1:23 - princes;  Isaiah 24:2 - as with the people;  Isaiah 24:5 - because;  Isaiah 59:12 - we know;  Jeremiah 14:20 - We acknowledge;  Jeremiah 19:4 - they have;  Jeremiah 44:3 - of their;  Jeremiah 44:9 - ye forgotten;  Jeremiah 44:17 - our fathers;  Lamentations 3:42 - transgressed;  Ezekiel 2:3 - rebelled;  Ezekiel 12:2 - thou;  Ezekiel 12:16 - that they;  Ezekiel 14:13 - when;  Ezekiel 39:24 - GeneralDaniel 9:4 - made;  Daniel 9:9 - though;  Hosea 2:5 - hath done;  Amos 2:4 - because;  Zephaniah 1:17 - because;  Zechariah 7:11 - they refused;  Malachi 2:8 - ye are;  Luke 13:9 - if not;  Luke 18:13 - God;  Ephesians 2:3 - we

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Daniel 9:5". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/daniel-9.html.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

Daniel here continues his confession of sin. As we have already stated, he ought to begin here, because we must remark in general the impossibility of our pleasing God by our prayers, unless we approach him as criminals, and repose all our hopes on his mercy. But there was a special reason for the extraordinary nature of the Prophet’s prayers, and his use of fasting, sackcloth, and ashes. This was the usual method of confession by which Daniel united himself with the rest of the people, for rite purpose of testifying throughout all ages the justice of the judgment which God had exercised in expelling the Israelites from the promised land, and totally disinheriting them. Daniel, therefore, insists upon this point. Here we may notice, in the first place, how prayers are not rightly conceived, unless founded on faith and repentance, and thus not being according to law, they cannot find either grace or favor before God. But great weight is to be attached to the phrases where Daniel uses more than a single word in saying the people acted impiously. He puts חטאנו, chetanu, we have sinned, in the first place, as the word does not imply any kind of fault, but rather a serious crime or offense. We, therefore, have sinned; then we have done wickedly; afterwards we have acted impiously; for רשע, reshegn, is stronger than חטא, cheta. We have done wickedly, we have been rebellious, says he, in transgressing thy statutes and commandments Whence this copiousness of expression, unless Daniel wished to stimulate himself and the whole people to penitence? For although we are easily induced to confess ourselves guilty before God, yet scarcely one in a hundred is affected with serious remorse; and those who excel others, and purely and reverently fear God, are still very dull and cold in recounting their sins. First of all, they acknowledge scarcely one in a hundred; next, of those which do come into their minds, they do not fully estimate their tremendous guilt, but rather extenuate their magnitude; and, although they perceive themselves worthy of a hundred deaths, yet they are not touched with their bitterness, and fear to humble themselves as they ought, nay, they are scarcely displeased with themselves, and do not loathe their own iniquities. Daniel, therefore, does not accumulate so many words in vain, when he wishes to confess his own sins and those of the people. Let us learn then how far we are from penitence, while we only verbally acknowledge our guilt; then let us perceive the need we have of many incentives to rouse us up from our sloth; for although any one may feel great terrors and tremble before God’s judgments, yet all those feelings of dread vanish away too soon. It therefore becomes necessary to fix God’s fear in our hearts with some degree of violence. Daniel shews us this when using the phrase, The people have sinned; they have acted unjustly; they have conducted themselves wickedly and become rebellious, and declined from the statutes and commandments of God This doctrine, therefore, must be diligently noticed, because, as I have said, all men think they have discharged their duty to God, if they mildly profess themselves guilty before him, and acknowledge their fault in a single word. But as real repentance is a sacred thing, it is a matter of far greater moment than a fiction of this kind. Although the multitude do not perceive how they are only deceiving themselves when they confess a fault, yet in the meantime they are only trifling with God like children, while some say they are but men, and others shelter themselves in the crowd of offenders. “What could I do? I am but a man; I have only followed the example of the many.” Lastly, if we examine carefully the confessions of men in. general, we shall always find some latent hypocrisy, and that there are very few who prostrate themselves before God as they ought. We must understand, therefore, this confession of Daniel’s as stimulating himself and others to the fear of God, and as laying great stress upon the sins of the people, that every one may feel for himself real and serious alarms.

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on Daniel 9:5". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/daniel-9.html. 1840-57.