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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Esther 2:23

Now when the plot was investigated and found to be so, they were both hanged on a gallows; and it was written in the Book of the Chronicles in the king's presence.

Adam Clarke Commentary

It was found out - It was proved against them, in consequence of which they were hanged. Perhaps the words עץ על ויתלו vaiyittalu al ets, they were hung upon wood or a tree, may refer to their being impaled. A pointed stake is set upright in the ground, and the culprit is taken, placed on the sharp point, and then pulled down by his legs till the stake that went in at the fundament passes up through the body and comes out by the side of the neck. A most dreadful species of punishment, in which revenge and cruelty may glut the utmost of their malice. The culprit lives a considerable time in excruciating agonies.

It has been observed that the name of God does not once occur in this book. This is true of the Hebrew text, and all translations from it; but in the Septuagint we find the following words, in Esther 2:20, after, Esther had not showed her kindred: Οὑτως γαρ ενετειλατο αυτῃ Μαρδοχαιος, φοβεισθαι τον Θεον, και ποιειν τα προσταγματα αυτου, καθως ην μετ ' αυτου ; "For so Mordecai had charged her to fear God, and to keep his commandments, as she did when with him." This, as far as the Septuagint is concerned, takes away the strange reproach from this book. It must be owned that it was not because there were not many fair opportunities that the sacred name has not been introduced.


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Esther 2:23". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/esther-2.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Both hanged on a tree - i. e. “crucified” or “impaled” the ordinary punishment of rebels and traitors in Persia.

The book of the chronicles - Ctesias drew his Persian history from them, and they are often glanced at by Herodotus.


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Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Esther 2:23". "Barnes' Notes on the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/esther-2.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And when inquisition was made of the matter, it was found out,.... That these two men had entered into a conspiracy to take away the king's life; full proof and evidence were given of it:

therefore they were both hanged on a tree; JosephusF5Ibid. (Antiqu. l. 11. c. 6. sect. 4.) says they were crucified; but hanging was frequent among the Persians, as Grotius observes, and better agrees with the word here used:

and it was written in the book of the chronicles before the king; in a diary kept by the king's order, in which memorable events were set down, and might be done in the presence of the king, as well as the book lay open before him to read at any time; and this is observed to agree with the manner of Xerxes, who is reportedF6Plutarch. in Themistocle. to sit on a throne of gold to behold a sea fight between the Grecians and Persians, and had several scribes by him to take down whatever was done in the fight.


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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Esther 2:23". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/esther-2.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

And when inquisition was made of the matter, it was found out; therefore they were both hanged on a tree: and it was written in the book of the o chronicles before the king.

(o) In the chronicles of the Medes and Persians, (Esther 10:2).

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Bibliography
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Esther 2:23". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/esther-2.html. 1599-1645.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Esther 2:23 And when inquisition was made of the matter, it was found out; therefore they were both hanged on a tree: and it was written in the book of the chronicles before the king.

Ver. 23. And when inquisition was made of the matter] The king neither slighted this accusation, nor too hastily believed it. Not this, lest he should discover a needless fear, or precipitate a wrong sentence. Not that, lest he should betray his own life, and put all into a confusion, as Gedaliah did, Jeremiah 40:13-16; Jeremiah 41:1-3, and as he in the history did, who, being forewarned by a letter of a dangerous plot laid for his life, laid aside the letter with these words, εις αυριον τα σπουδαια, Tomorrow we will mind these serious businesses, but ere the morrow he was despatched. The matter was here inquired into, saith the text, lest haply it might be misreported, and so the innocent be punished. Or, if not innocent, yet doth our law condemn any before his cause be heard? Surely Pilate and Festus were far better judges than Caiaphas and Lysias, for they would execute a man in the morning, and then sit upon him in the afternoon. Aeneas Sylvius, in his twentieth chapter of Europe, tells of some places, wherein, if anyone be suspected of theft, he is forthwith taken and trussed up. Three days after they judge the suspicion; and if they find the man guilty, they let his carcase hang till it rot; as if otherwise, they take it down, and bury it honourably at the public charge. This is preposterous justice, judgment turned into gall, and righteousness into hemlock.

It was found out] As treason usually is, and strangely: witness those in Queen Elizabeth’s reign, and the gunpowder plotters. Creighton, the Jesuit, a Scot, falling into Scotland, and being taken by certain Netherland pirates, had torn certain papers in pieces; but the torn pieces, being thrown out of the ship, were blown back again by the wind, and cast by a providence into the ship, not without a miracle, as Creighton said himself; which, being set together, by Wade, with much labour and singular cunning, discovered new designs of the pope and his agents here against England, A.D. 1585 (Cared. Eliz.). Detexit facinus fatuus et non implevit, saith Tacitus of one about his time. Either the traitor’s own tongue shall betray him (as it befell those two sent by Mahomet to kill Scanderbeg), or the fowls of heaven shall reveal the mischief, and that which hath wing shall tell the matter, Ecclesiastes 10:20 (it was a piece of a wing, a quill, that discovered that hellish gunpowder plot), or some other way it shall be found out, as here, and the conspirators brought to condign punishment.

Therefore they were both hanged on a tree] Traitors, like bells, will be never well tuned till well hanged, till they have worn a Tyburn tippet, as father Latimer phrased it. Campian, that spider, was swept down by the hand of justice, and drew his last thread in the triangle of Tyburn. His words in his epistle to the honourable counsellors of Queen Elizabeth were these, Quamdiu vel unus quispiam e nobis supererit qui Tyburno vestro fruatur, &c., As long as there is any one of us left to enjoy your Tyburn, &c. Much joy may they have of it, since it is their ambition, and may their quarters be set as high as that false Edric’s head once was by King Canute, viz. upon the highest part of the tower of London, therein performing his promise to a traitor, of advancing him above any lord of the land.

And it was written in the book of the chronicles] Heb. In the book of the words of days, in the diary of the kings, or in the book of remembrance. As the Jews, so the Persians, had their chronicles or public commentaries, wherein all memorable acts were recorded, and scribes or historiographers for that purpose appointed and maintained. Plutarch writeth, that at that great naval battle between Themistocles and the Persians, Xerxes sat in a throne of gold, and saw the conflict, having many scribes about him, whose office was to set down all that was done that day. This was a commendable custom, and might be a motive to their kings and great ones to take heed of doing aught that they would not have registered and read by succeeding ages. Suetonius telleth us that Augustus upon this account forbade his daughter and nieces to say or do anything that they would not have to be chronicled (Suet. in August.).

Before the king] Perhaps in his presence, and for his special use. though Mordecai’s good service was soon forgotten, God forgat not to recompense Ahasuerus’s love to Esther and courtesy to her people, by detecting and defeating those conspirators that sought his life. But he soon forgets Mordecai, God’s instrument for his deliverance, though the matter were written in a book before him; hence he goes noted with a black coal for his ingratitude. Tamerlane had a catalogue of the names of such as had best deserved of him, which he daily perused, oftentimes saying that day to be lost wherein he had not given them something. There was a providence in it that nothing was yet done for Mordecai. God’s time is the best, and we shall one day say so; neither is there anything lost by waiting his leisure, he bottles up our tears, he books up our sighs, he writes down all we say or do in his roll of remembrance, Malachi 3:6; Malachi 3:16. {See Trapp on "Malachi 3:6"} {See Trapp on "Malachi 3:16"}


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Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Esther 2:23". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/esther-2.html. 1865-1868.

Arno Gaebelein's Annotated Bible

ESTHER CHOSEN QUEEN AND MORDECAI’S DISCOVERY

CHAPTER 2

1. The suggestion (Esther 2:1-4)

2. Mordecai and Esther introduced (Esther 2:5-7)

3. Esther brought to the king’s house (Esther 2:8-11)

4. Esther chosen as queen (Esther 2:12-18)

5.Mordecai’s discovery and exposure of the plot (Esther 2:19-23)

Esther 2:1-4. This probably did not happen immediately after the feast. We learn this from verse 16 in this chapter. He took Esther in the place of Vashti in the seventh year of his reign, but the feast described in the opening chapter happened in the third year. About four years elapsed. During these years, profane history tells us, Ahasuerus (Xerxes I), undertook a campaign against Greece with which many misfortunes were connected. He must have returned exhausted and unhappy. Then his conscience spoke. He probably missed the companionship of Vashti and he remembered her and what was decreed against her. But why did the monarch not take Vashti back into favor and forgive her, if remorse troubled him? As nothing more is said of Vashti it is more than probable that she was put to death. Perhaps the unfortunate war, the great losses he had sustained, were looked upon by the king as being the punishment for his drunken wrath against the queen. Then the courtiers made their suggestions which is in fullest keeping with the customs of Persia and still practised by oriental sultans and shahs. Fair young virgins are to be brought to the harem, the house of the women, under the custody of Hegai, the king’s chamberlain and keeper of the women. The king was well pleased with this suggestion.

“One cannot but admire the simple, quiet historical style of our narrative. Laying aside all the reports which only would prolong our way of coming to the essential part of the contents of the book, there is nothing omitted which would contribute to the historical and psychological introduction and illustration. How much is necessary to happen before Israel could have ready help in time of need! What great things, according to the external appearance, must precede, in order to make it possible that a Jewish girl by the influence of her charms ascend the throne of the Persian Empire! The great conference of all the officers of the state, the dreadful war with Greece, and the unfortunate issue of the same, were they not in the hands of Providence so many stepping stones in the path of Esther’s ascendancy? in order to replace the loss of Vashti, a woman of equal endowments must be sought for the king, wherever and however it might be! How many things must subserve to the frustration of Haman’s wicked plan! The wrath of Xerxes against Greece, and his wrath against his wife. Court intrigues against the powerful influences of a wife, and the vain conceit of offended sovereignty? First drunkenness, then homicidal passion, then new excited sensuality, were the sad instruments which preceded Israel’s redemption.

“When the people were delivered, they could well be penitent when they considered the way in which Vashti--though not herself guiltless--was one of the main causes of their deliverance. And if deep penitence must have resulted from the reflection that a woman like Vashti had to die a violent death in order that the people of God should live,--what kind of penitence must the thought call forth when we remember that Christ gave His Life in order that Israel and the Gentiles might live” (Professor P. Cassel).

Esther 2:5-7. These verses introduce us now to the leading actors in this book. Mordecai, the Jew, was the son of Jair, the son of Shimei, the son of Kish, a Benjamite; who had been carried away from Jerusalem with the captives which had been carried away with Jechoniah king of Judah, whom Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon had carried away.

Here we face one of the inconsistencies charged by higher criticism. But their mistake is quite apparent. They claim that Mordecai belonged to the captives carried away by Nebuchadnezzar. Then they say, that being the case Mordecai must have been over 130 years old and Esther at least 70 years. But does it say that Mordecai was carried away at the time of King Jechoniah? It was not Mordecai who was carried away but his great-grandfather Kish. “The clear and instructive intentions of the historian in this genealogical passage are evident. He points out, through the enumeration of the four generations from Kish to Mordecai, the time which elapsed since the banishment of Jechoniah, which took place before the destruction of the temple. The period of about 120 or more years which since then elapsed to the sixth year of Xerxes are exactly expressed by the four generations. We have also some intimation concerning the period of the narrative, which is assigned to the reign of Xerxes I. That Kish was a Benjamite, is only told for the purpose of distinguishing him from other men with the same name who belonged to the tribe of Levi. One might have thought it impossible that Biblical expositors should commit the mistake of making the information concerning the exile of Jechoniah refer to Mordecai himself--an idea for which there is neither textual nor historical foundation, but rather both against it” (Professor Cassel). Mordecai had brought up Hadassah. She was an orphan, fair of form and good of countenance, his uncle’s daughter. Mordecai had adopted her. Hadassah means “myrtle” and Esther “star.” Critics have identified the name Esther with Babylonian goddess Isthar (similar to Ashtoreth), and they also claim that Hadassah was the Babylonian title for the same goddess. But such statements are mere inventions.

Esther 2:8-11. Esther on account of her great beauty was taken with the many other virgins in obedience to the King’s command. Jewish tradition informs us that Mordecai, her guardian and second father, had kept her concealed, in order not to be obliged to deliver her to the royal agents, but people who knew her, and who had not seen her for some time drew the attention of the agents to the concealment. She with the others is placed in charge of Hegai the keeper of women. In all we see the hand of the Lord preparing step by step the help needed for the preservation and deliverance of His people during the approaching crisis. And Esther pleased Hegai; he showed her kindness. This kindness was expressed in furnishing her the means of improving her appearance, such as cosmetics and perfumes, according to Oriental customs. Then she received no doubt beautiful garments and jewelry to enhance her person still more. Then the best place in the house of the women was given to her and the seven maids who waited on her. (Very interesting and curious is the Jewish tradition concerning these seven servants. This tradition as preserved in the Targumim makes their names to correspond with the work of the six days of creation. Thus the fourth maid-servant’s name was “Starlight” because on the fourth day the heavenly bodies came into view. Remarkable is the name of the maid who attended her on the sixth day--Friday; her name was “Lamb.” On the seventh day, the Sabbath, the servant’s name, who waited on her was “Rest”‘ she reminded Esther of the Sabbath. And the Servant who attended her on the day after the Sabbath (Our Lord’s day) bore the name of the mystical bird Phoenix, the symbol of light, rising out of the fire and out of death. It is certainly interesting, to say the least, to find such traditional statements.)

And Esther had not showed her people and her kindred. This was done on the advice of Mordecai. This has been characterized as deception, extraordinary adroitness, and cowardice. It was neither. Divine Providence ordered it thus. Inasmuch as Esther’s parents were dead such concealment of nationality was not difficult; had her parents lived it would have been next to impossible. Had it been known that she belonged to the alien race, intrigues for her destruction would have soon been set afoot. Haman’s wicked endeavour may even then have been in process of planning. Mordecai walking daily before the court of the women’s house, proves his great concern for his adopted daughter.

Esther 2:12-18. The description of Esther 2:12-14 is a perfect picture of Persian customs and the licentiousness of Persian and other Oriental rulers. In due time Esther’s turn came to be presented to the king. “She required nothing.” Professor Cassel in his exposition gives the best exposition of this statement. The other women could not find enough artificial means with which to make an impression upon the king. But Esther cared nothing about these things. She had no such ambitious desires. Her heart did not burn to become something illustrious, yet unbecoming to a Jewess. Reluctantly she must have left her home, and reluctantly she must have put on the ornaments. She was wanted, and was ordered to appear, and therefore she obeyed Hegai and allowed herself to be prepared for the occasion. She was compelled to be there, while no doubt in heart she detested the whole affair.

She was brought in to the king. Attracted by her beauty he set the royal crown upon her head and the Jewish maiden became queen in the place of Vashti. This took place in the month Tebeth in the seventh year of the reign of Ahasuerus.

Then a great feast was made, even Esther’s feast, a release was made, probably a release of prisoners and taxes and gifts were bestowed. God in His providence.

Esther 2:19-23. This paragraph contains another important providential event which in the subsequent history plays a very leading part. The opening words of verse 19 have been pronounced obscure by critics. “And when the virgins were gathered together the second time.” Jewish expositors have explained this as meaning a conspiracy, that the enemies of the new queen had collected more virgins so that in some way Esther might be eclipsed and placed into the background. It is claimed by others that the words “the second time” should be omitted from the text as there is some doubt about them. If this is done the statement would then refer to the gathering of the virgins mentioned in the eighth verse of the chapter. But the suggestion that the second gathering was an act of conspiracy might be the true meaning; it would show the purpose of the unseen enemy and it also explains the watchfulness of Mordecai. He sat at the king’s gate. It was according to oriental custom a place of public resort, where news was heard and conversation with friends and others were carried on. The suggestion by some that Mordecai sat in the king’s gate because he was an official of the government must be dismissed as incorrect.

Esther 2:20 informs us of two interesting facts. Esther did not disclose her nationality and she continued in humble obedience to her foster father as if she were still under his roof and not the great queen. The royal glory and dignity which surrounded her on all sides had not affected her in the least. She had not forgotten that the whole royalty was not a matter of pleasure to her, but only an act of obedience, the providential purpose of which she did not know, but which she found out afterward. Her interest was with Mordecai outside and not with the royal splendour inside.

Let us note the providential leading in all this. If Esther had revealed her connection, if it had become known that Mordecai at the gate was her uncle and she his adopted daughter, he would not have remained in the obscure position before the gate. Then the conspirators would have been cautious and not spoken within the hearing of such a person so closely related to the queen. The knowledge of the planned attempt upon the life of the King Mordecai owed to the fact that nobody knew who he was and therefore paid no attention to him.

The conspirators were Bigthan and Teresh. They sought to lay hands on the king. According to Jewish tradition they intended to put a venomous reptile in the king’s cup when he was about to drink. The plot was overheard by Mordecai who at once communicated the fact to Esther and she told the king of it in the name of Mordecai. She did so guided by the divine hand, which is so evident in this remarkable history. The plot is at once investigated and the report is found true. The conspirators were hanged and the event is historically recorded in the book of the Chronicles. (King Ahasuerus, Xerxes, lost his life by assassination in 465 B.C. Artaban, the commander of his cavalry, conspired with Mithridates, his confidential chamberlain, who admitted him into the king’s bedroom, and Artaban stabbed him to death while he slept.)

Esther had saved the king’s life by giving him the report of Mordecai. And Mordecai received no reward. His faithfulness was evidently forgotten; but God had ordered it all.

Typical Applications

Dispensationally Esther typifies the Jewish remnant, which will be called by the King of Israel, our Lord, when Gentile-Christendom has been disowned and set aside for its unfaithfulness, as Vashti was set aside. The parable of the good and the wild olive tree in Romans 11 is thus illustrated by Vashti and Esther. The branches of the wild olive tree--professing Christendom (but not the true Church) which were grafted in upon the root of the good olive tree (Israel and the Abrahamic covenant) on account of their failure will be cut out and cast aside. The broken off branches (the remnant of Israel) will be put back upon the root of the good olive tree. (See annotations on Romans 11, or for a fuller exposition read “The Jewish Question,” an exposition of Romans 11 by A.C. Gaebelein.) This remnant will then be brought into definite relationship with the Lord, pass through the period of the great tribulation, foreshadowed in Haman’s wicked Plot, and then receive the kingdom, be delivered and have part in the kingdom, as it was the case with Esther, Mordecai and the Jews at Shushan.

The gospel application is also of interest. The humble Jewish girl is raised to the place of a queen, to the place beside the King. She did not seek that place. It never entered into her mind to receive such a place. She was sought for. All this illustrates the gospel by which the beggar upon the dunghill is raised to sit amongst princes and to inherit the throne of glory (1 Samuel 2). She, who was a foreigner, becomes married to the king, to share his glory, his riches and his honors. And so the believing sinner becomes one spirit with the Lord, a member of His body “flesh of His flesh and bone of His bones,” to share His eternal glory and His eternal riches.


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Bibliography
Gaebelein, Arno Clemens. "Commentary on Esther 2:23". "Gaebelein's Annotated Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gab/esther-2.html. 1913-1922.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

REFLECTIONS

READER! let the view here afforded of the sad corruption and base lusts of our poor fallen nature, add one conviction more to all thou hast already received of the great necessity and immense blessing of the pure gospel of CHRIST. Well might the angels call it glad tidings of great joy, which should be to all people. For what tidings more glad, or what joy greater, than to tell a poor sinner, who feels a body of sin and death, of uncleanness and inordinate affection, that there is a fountain open to him for sin and uncleanness; that there is a spirit to mortify the deeds of the body, by which he may live. Oh! the unspeakable mercy folded up in this proclamation of liberty to poor captives. Captives to sin, to Satan, to divers lusts and pleasures, to the effect of anger, malice, hatred, variance, and all the works of the flesh. Yes! precious JESUS, thou hast brought deliverance in thy gospel from the vile passions of our nature in this life; and by thy great salvation deliverance from the wrath to come. Oh! LORD deliver me from myself, from my own corrupt nature; from a body of corruption under which I yet groan. Make me holy as thou art holy, and never, dearest LORD, suffer me upon any occasion, or from any cause, to be making provision for the flesh to fulfil the lusts thereof?

Reader! when you have gathered this instruction from the view of the ungoverned lusts of men, as read to us in this chapter; turn your thoughts and gather another sweet instruction, from the overruling providence of GOD, as sweetly taught us in this history in making the very corrupt passions of men, minister to his glory. Never doth the LORD manifest more strikingly his sovereignty and grace, than when he compels the very passions of bad men, to promote the sacred purposes of his holy will. The church of GOD was about to be brought into danger. How shall the LORD, without openly displaying his interposition, preserve it? Why thus. Ahasuerus turning off his queen Vashti to gratify his anger, shall be influenced to the choice of Esther, to supply her place. And Esther, unknown to him, being of the children of the captivity, shall be brought forward as the LORD'S instrument, to the preservation of his people. Neither is this all. For as a secondary aid to the accomplishment of this purpose, Mordecai shall be brought acquainted with a plot laid against the king's life, a record shall be made of his loyalty, which shall not immediately be rewarded, but brought forth in due season. Oh! how beautiful is it, to watch the ways and works of our wonder-working GOD. Justly is it said, that his way is in the sea, and his path in the great waters, and his footsteps are not known. Reader! make application of this blessed doctrine to your own person and circumstances, and depend upon it you will find continual opportunity, of proving the same thing. The eyes of the LORD run to and fro throughout the whole earth, to show himself strong in behalf of them whose heart is perfect toward him.


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Bibliography
Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on Esther 2:23". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/esther-2.html. 1828.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

This may be referred, either,

1. To the writing, to note that this was written in the king’s presence by scribes, who were continually present with the king to write all remarkable passages happening in the court from time to time. Or,

2. To the book, which was laid up before the king, that he might more easily and frequently peruse it for his own delight or direction.


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Bibliography
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Esther 2:23". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/esther-2.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

23. Hanged on a tree — This punishment was performed by the Persians by crucifying or impaling. Grecian writings and the Behistun inscription frequently mention this kind of execution. The criminal was sometimes first slain, but generally impaled alive.

The book of the chronicles — Official records, made and kept by the royal scribes, and constituting a body of state papers or annals. See note on Ezra 4:15, 2 Samuel 8:17, and Introduction to Kings, on the sources.


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Bibliography
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Esther 2:23". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/esther-2.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Esther 2:23. It was written in the book of the Chronicles — A day-book, wherein all memorable things were recorded. Before the king — This may refer either, 1st, To the writing of it, signifying that it was written in the king’s presence by scribes, who were continually with the king, to record all remarkable things which happened in the court from time to time: or, 2d, To the book, which was laid up before the king, that he might more easily and frequently peruse it for his own direction or amusement. Here we see the danger and infelicity of the greatest men, the life of a most potent monarch depending upon the fidelity of one single person, whose service was neglected by the court, though a memorial was made of it. Thus all masters of families are obnoxious to the perfidiousness, of those that wait upon them.


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Bibliography
Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Esther 2:23". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/esther-2.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

King. Such histories were preserved with great care, 1 Esdras vi. 1. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "the king ordered a memorial to it to be kept in the royal library, for the praise of Mardochai's good will." (Haydock) --- The latter also wrote an account, chap. xii. 4.


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Bibliography
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Esther 2:23". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/esther-2.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

written. See note on Esther 6:1.


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Bibliography
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Esther 2:23". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/esther-2.html. 1909-1922.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(23) Hanged on a tree.—Were crucified; a common punishment among the Persians, especially on rebels (Herod. iii. 120, 125, 159, &c). The dead body of Leonidas was crucified by Xerxes’ orders after the desperate stand at Thermopylæ.

Book of the chronicles.—A sleepless night of Xerxes accidentally brought this matter, after it had been forgotten, before the king’s mind. Herodotus often refers to these Persian Chronicles (vii. 100; viii. 85, 90).


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Bibliography
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Esther 2:23". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/esther-2.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And when inquisition was made of the matter, it was found out; therefore they were both hanged on a tree: and it was written in the book of the chronicles before the king.
hanged
5:14; 7:10; Genesis 40:19,22; Deuteronomy 21:22,23; Joshua 8:29
the book
6:1,2; Malachi 3:16

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Bibliography
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Esther 2:23". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/esther-2.html.


Lectionary Calendar
Monday, December 10th, 2018
the Second Week of Advent
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