Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

John 20:14

When she had said this, she turned around and *saw Jesus standing there, and did not know that it was Jesus.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Friendship;   Jesus, the Christ;   Jesus Continued;   Love;   Mary;   Trouble;   Women;   Thompson Chain Reference - Dead, the;   Mary;   Mortality-Immortality;   Resurrection;  
Dictionaries:
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Resurrection;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Angel;   Resurrection;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Resurrection of Christ;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Tammuz;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Death, Second;   Hour;   John, the Gospel of;   Mary;   Resurrection of Jesus Christ;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - John, Gospel of;   Resurrection;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Body (2);   Manuscripts;   Mary;   Tears;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Mary Magdalene ;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Chief parables and miracles in the bible;   Smith Bible Dictionary - John, Gospel of;   Ma'ry Magdalene;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Mary;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Body, Spiritual;   Papyrus;   Text and Manuscripts of the New Testament;   Woman;  
Devotionals:
Every Day Light - Devotion for November 1;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

She turned herself back - Or, εστραφη εις τα οπισω, she was turned back, i.e. to go again with the other women to Jerusalem, who had already departed; but she had not as yet gone so far as to be out of the garden.

Knew not that it was Jesus - John has here omitted what the angels said to the women, about Christ's being risen; probably because it was so particularly related by the other evangelists: Matthew 28:5-7; Mark 16:6, Mark 16:7; Luke 24:5-7. Mary was so absorbed in grief that she paid but little attention to the person of our Lord, and therefore did not at first discern it to be him; nor could she imagine such an appearance possible, as she had no conception of his resurrection from the dead. She was therefore every way unprepared to recognize the person of our Lord.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on John 20:14". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/john-20.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Knew not that it was Jesus - She was not expecting to see him. It was yet also twilight, and she could not see distinctly.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on John 20:14". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/john-20.html. 1870.

The Biblical Illustrator

John 20:14

And when she had thus said, she turned herself back.

Why? Simply because she had now no care about glimpses of a mere heaven--felt no interest in the discourse of mere angels, but only longed to have her grief out uninterruptedly? Perhaps. But some of the earliest teachers of the Church thought that it was because at this point of the dialogue she saw a new expression rise on the faces of the two shining ones, as if suddenly looking at some august appearance dawning behind her. This explanation is more fascinating, and not less likely to be true; but we cannot know: we only know that she turned--perhaps turned mechanically, turned without interest or expectation. (C. Stanford, D. D.)

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Exell, Joseph S. "Commentary on "John 20:14". The Biblical Illustrator. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tbi/john-20.html. 1905-1909. New York.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

When she had thus said, she turned herself back, and beholdeth Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus.

Why did not Mary inquire of the angels where the body lay? Was there something in their look, attitude, or actions which directed her attention to one whom she supposed to be the gardener? It is simply a marvel, any way it may be viewed. The appearance of the Lord might have drawn the adoring attention of the angels, which, in turn, would have directed Mary's eyes to the Saviour.

And knew not that it was Jesus ... What an insight is this into the fact of mankind's inability to recognize that which is best and highest; nor is this exceptional. The apostles "knew not that it was Jesus" at the sea of Tiberius (20:4); and all of the great leaders in Jerusalem "knew him not, nor the voices of the prophets which are read every sabbath, fulfilled them by condemning him" (Acts 13:27). And of men today, are we any more able than they to know him? Concerning the reasons why men do not recognize the Lord: (1) some, like Mary, are blinded by grief; (2) some are blinded by prejudice and preconceived notions, as were the leaders in Jerusalem; (3) some are blinded by Satan (2 Corinthians 4:4); and (4) some are blinded by the lowliness of our Saviour's birth and life, as was Nathaniel (John 1:46).

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
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Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on John 20:14". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/john-20.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And when she had thus said,.... As soon as the words were out of her mouth, before she could have an answer from the angels:

she turned herself back; perceiving, either by the looks and gesture of one of the angels, or by hearing a noise, that somebody was behind her:

and saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus; she saw a person, but did not know who he was, by reason of the form of his appearance, the difference of his clothes, and not expecting to see him alive; or through modesty, she might not look wistfully at him; and besides, her eyes were filled with tears, and swollen with weeping; so that she could not see clearly; and her eyes might be holden also, as the disciples were, that as yet she might not know him: so sometimes, in a spiritual sense, Christ is with, and near his people, and they know it not: Christ, as God, is omnipresent; he is every where, and in all places; the spiritual presence of Christ, is more or less, in some way or another, always in all his churches, and among his dear people; but the sight of him is not always alike to them, nor does he appear to them always in the same form; sometimes against them, at least in their apprehensions, nor always in a manner agreeably to their expectations; nor is his grace always discovered in the same way, nor has it the same effect.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on John 20:14". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/john-20.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

3 And when she had thus said, she turned herself back, and saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus.

(3) Jesus witnesses by his presence that he is truly risen.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on John 20:14". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/john-20.html. 1599-1645.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

She turned herself back (εστραπη εις τα οπισωestraphē eis ta opisō). Second aorist passive indicative of στρεπωstrephō in an intransitive and almost reflective sense. In the disappearance of the aorist middle before the aorist passive see Robertson, Grammar, p.817. See also στραπεισαstrapheisa (second aorist passive participle) in John 20:16. On εις τα οπισωeis ta opisō see John 6:66; John 18:6.

Standing (εστωταhestōta). Second perfect active (intransitive) of ιστημιhistēmi Instinctively Mary felt the presence of some one behind her.

Was
(εστινestin). Present active indicative retained in indirect discourse after ηιδειēidei (knew).

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
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Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on John 20:14". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/john-20.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Turned herself back

Canon Westcott, with that beautiful subtilty of perception which so eminently characterizes him, remarks: “We can imagine also that she became conscious of another Presence, as we often feel the approach of a visitor without distinctly seeing or hearing him. It may be, too, that the angels, looking toward the Lord, showed some sign of His coming.”

Saw ( θεωρεῖ )

Present tense. Rev., beholdeth. She looks at Him steadfastly and inquiringly as at a stranger. The observance of these distinctions between verbs of seeing, is very important to the perception of the more delicate shading of the narrative.

Knew not ( ᾔδει )

Indicating a knowledge based on spiritual fellowship and affinity, an inward, conscious, sure conviction of His identity.

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on John 20:14". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/john-20.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

The Fourfold Gospel

When she had thus said, she turned herself back, and beholdeth Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus1.

  1. She turned herself back, and beholdeth Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus. Before the angels can speak the glad news to Mary, Jesus himself becomes his own messenger. That Mary did not recognize him may be due to her grief, for tears blind our eyes to many of the tender providences of God; but to reason by analogy it seems more likely that her eyes "were holden" (Luke 24:16), lest the shock of his sudden appearance might be too much for her, as it was for even his male disciples (Luke 24:37). Conversation with him assured her that he was not a disembodied spirit.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website. These files were made available by Mr. Ernie Stefanik. First published online in 1996 at The Restoration Movement Pages.
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J. W. McGarvey and Philip Y. Pendleton. "Commentary on John 20:14". "The Fourfold Gospel". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tfg/john-20.html. Standard Publishing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1914.

Abbott's Illustrated New Testament

Turned herself back; to go home.

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Abbott, John S. C. & Abbott, Jacob. "Commentary on John 20:14". "Abbott's Illustrated New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ain/john-20.html. 1878.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

Увидела Иисуса стоящего. Можно спросить, почему Мария не узнала Иисуса, Которого должна была хорошо знать? Некоторые думают, будто Он явился в ином облике, но я полагаю, что недостаток надо приписывать зрению женщин. То же самое говорится у Луки о двух других учениках (24:16). Итак, мы не говорим, что Христос, подобно Протею, неожиданно принял иной вид. Скорее Бог, Который дал людям глаза, притупляет их зрение, когда Ему угодно. Дабы они, видя, не могли видеть. Более того, в лице Марии мы видим пример того, как заблуждается человеческий разум. Хотя Христос ясно Себя нам показывает, мы измышляем для Него разные формы, чтобы помыслить что угодно, только не истинного Христа. Ведь очи нашего разума лживы, и потому сатана и мир одурманивают его, дабы он не различал истины.

 

 

 

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on John 20:14". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/john-20.html. 1840-57.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

14 And when she had thus said, she turned herself back, and saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus.

Ver. 14. She turned herself back] As not able to abide the brightness of those glorious angels any longer. To the gardener therefore she addresseth herself for further direction. See what a happiness it is to be taught by the ministry of men, like ourselves, and to have angels about us, but invisible.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on John 20:14". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/john-20.html. 1865-1868.

Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

14.] ἐστράφη—having her attention attracted by the consciousness of some one [being] present near her—not perhaps by the approach of Jesus. Or it might be (Stier, Ebrard) with intent to go forth and weep again, or further to seek her Lord. Chrysostom’s reason is very beautiful, but perhaps hardly probable: καὶ ποία αὕτη ἀκολουθία, πρὸς ἐκείνους διαλεγομένην, καὶ μηδέπω μηδὲν ἀκούσασαν παρʼ αὐτῶν, στραφῆναι πρὸς τὰ ὀπίσω; ἐμοὶ δοκεῖ ταῦτα λεγούσης αὐτῆς, ἄφνω φανεὶς ὁ χριστὸς ὄπισθεν αὐτῆς ἐκπλῆξαι τοὺς ἀγγέλους, κἀκείνους θεασαμένους τὸν δεσπότην, καὶ τῷ σχήματι, καὶ τῷ βλέμματι, καὶ τῷ κινήματι εὐθέως ἐμφῆναι, ὅτι τὸν κύριον εἶδον· καὶ τοῦτο τὴν γυναῖκα ἐπέστρεψε, καὶ εἰς τὰ ὀπίσω στραφῆναι ἐποίησεν. Homil. in Joann. lxxxvi. 1. We need not surely enquire too minutely, why she did not know Him. The fact may be psychologically accounted for—she did not expect Him to be there, and was wholly preoccupied with other thoughts: or, as Dräseke (cited by Stier, vii. 12, edn. 2) says, “Her tears wove a veil, which concealed Him who stood before her. The seeking after the Dead prevents us from seeing the Living.”

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Alford, Henry. "Commentary on John 20:14". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hac/john-20.html. 1863-1878.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

John 20:14. εἰποῦσα ἐστράφη, having said thus, she turned) She does not attend to what one might speak, or who might speak it, in the sepulchre. It is Jesus that she is seeking.

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on John 20:14". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/john-20.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

And presently Christ himself appeareth to her, though at first she did not know him.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on John 20:14". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/john-20.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

не узнала, что это Иисус Точно не известна причина, по которой Мария не смогла узнать Иисуса. Возможно, она не узнала Его потому, что слезы застилали ей глаза (ст. 11). Также вероятно, что в ее разуме все еще были живы воспоминания об избитом и ослабленном Теле Иисуса, а перемена во внешнем облике воскресшего Иисуса была настолько разительной, что она не смогла Его узнать. Однако, возможно, что ей, подобно ученикам по дороге в Еммаус, была сверхъестественным образом закрыта возможность узнать Его до тех пор, пока Он не позволил ей сделать это (см. Лк. 24:16).

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on John 20:14". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/john-20.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

Christ is often much nearer to us, and much better acquainted with our condition, than we imagine; and he can easily so manifest himself that our weeping shall be turned to joy, and our mourning to praise.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on John 20:14". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/john-20.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

14.Turned herself back—Simply her recoil from her stooping posture and turning to her natural position.

Knew not that it was Jesus—Her eyes doubtless being half covered with weeping, she did not fully glance at him until she fully turned round, at John 20:16.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on John 20:14". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/john-20.html. 1874-1909.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

Mary"s near hysteria could account for her failing to recognize Jesus at first too. She apparently withdrew from the tomb and saw (Gr. theorei, cf. John 20:6) Jesus standing outside it. She beheld Him attentively, but she did not recognize Him for who He was.

"The fact that He appeared to Mary rather than to Pilate or Caiaphas or to one of His disciples is significant. That a woman would be the first to see Him is an evidence of Jesus" electing love as well as a mark of the narrative"s historicity. No Jewish author in the ancient world would have invented a story with a woman as the first witness to this most important event. Furthermore, Jesus may have introduced Himself to Mary first because she had so earnestly sought Him. She was at the cross while He was dying ( John 19:25), and she went to His tomb early on Sunday morning ( John 20:1)." [Note: Blum, p342.]

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on John 20:14". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/john-20.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

John 20:14. When she had thus said, she turned herself back; and she beholdeth Jesus standing, and perceived not that it was Jesus. Mary has answered the inquiry of the angels; and, satisfied that the Lord is not in the sepulchre, she turns round to see if information regarding Him can be obtained from any other source. Could we think that the morning was still dark, it might be possible to trace Mary’s non-recognition of Jesus to that cause: but, if light was already dawning when she came first to the sepulchre, day must by this time have fully broken. That she did not know Jesus must, therefore, have proceeded from some other cause. This could not be the outward glory of His appearance, or she would not have supposed Him to be the gardener (John 20:15). Nor does it seem desirable to resort to the explanation offered by many, that glorified corporeity has the power of making itself visible or invisible,. or of assuming different forms of manifestation at its pleasure. Much may be attributed to Mary’s total want of preparation for the fact. The idea that Jesus had risen from the grave had not yet dawned upon her: the form now in her presence could not be His: no supposition lay so near as that it was the gardener who had drawn near. More, however, must be said; and the key to the solution of the difficulty is to be found in Luke 24:16 (see also chap. John 21:4). Her ‘eyes were holden’ that she should not discern her Lord. She was not yet ready for any such recognition as might correspond to the new stage of existence upon which He had entered. She would have seen the human friend,—Jesus as He had been, not as He now was. Some further training, therefore, is still needed, and then the glorious revelation shall be given.

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on John 20:14". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/john-20.html. 1879-90.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

John 20:14. ’ “And she sees Jesus standing and did not know that it was Jesus”; not merely because her eyes were dim with tears, but because He was altered in appearance; as Mark (Mark 16:12) says, . So little was her ultimate recognition of Jesus the result of her expectation or her own fancy embodied.

 

 

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Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on John 20:14". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/john-20.html. 1897-1910.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

may be asked, why Magdalene, after putting the question to the angels, turns around, without waiting for the answer. No doubt, as soon as she had spoken, the heavenly messengers perceived their Lord behind Mary, and by their looks and actions, gave her to understand that they beheld their Lord. This caused her immediately to look behind her. (St. John Chrysostom, hom. lxxxv. in Joan.)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on John 20:14". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/john-20.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

when, &a. = having said these things.

turned . . . back: i.e. turned half round.

back. Greek. eis (App-104.) ta opiso.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on John 20:14". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/john-20.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And when she had thus said, she turned herself back, and saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus.

And when she had thus said, she turned herself back, and saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on John 20:14". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/john-20.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(14) And saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus.—There is no need to imagine an external cause for her turning round, and if there was one it is useless for us to ask what it was. She has expressed her woe, and turns aside again to weep, when she sees another form. Weighed down by her sorrow, not looking intently, it may be, or seeing indistinctly through tear-filled eyes, she does not recognise her Lord. We know not what the appearance was. Figure, feature, clothing, there must have been; but these differing, in this as in other manifestations, from those with which they had been familiar. She, perhaps, hardly looked at all, but supposed that the only person there at that early hour would be the keeper of the garden.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on John 20:14". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/john-20.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And when she had thus said, she turned herself back, and saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus.
and saw
Song of Solomon 3:3,4; Matthew 28:9; Mark 16:9
and knew
8:59; 21:4; Mark 16:12; Luke 4:30; 24:16,31
Reciprocal: Genesis 42:8 - but they knew;  John 20:25 - We

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on John 20:14". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/john-20.html.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

14.And seeth Jesus standing It may be asked, Whence arose this mistake, that Mary does not recognize Jesus, with whom she must have been intimately acquainted? Some think that he appeared in a different form, but I think that the fault lay rather in the eyes of the women, as Luke (Luke 24:16) says of the two disciples, their eyes were withheld from knowing him We will not say, therefore, that Christ was continually assuming new shapes, like Proteus (197) but that it is in the power of God, who gave eyes to men, to lessen their sharpness of vision whenever he thinks proper, that seeing they may not see.

In Mary we have an example of the mistakes into which the human mind frequently falls. Though Christ presents himself to our view, yet we imagine that he assumes various shapes, so that our senses conceive of any thing rather than of the true Christ; for not only are our powers of understanding liable to be deceived, but they are also bewitched by the world and by Satan, that they may have no perception of the truth.

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on John 20:14". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/john-20.html. 1840-57.