Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Joshua 5:10

While the sons of Israel camped at Gilgal they observed the Passover on the evening of the fourteenth day of the month on the desert plains of Jericho.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Passover;   Thompson Chain Reference - Feast;   Feasts;   Hebrew;   Passover;   Unleavened Bread;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Feast of the Passover, the;   Tabernacle;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Gilgal;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Passover;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Desert;   Pentateuch;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Bochim;   Gilgal;   Jordan;   Palestine;   Passover;   Pentateuch;   Rahab (1);   Holman Bible Dictionary - Arabah;   Circumcision;   Festivals;   Joshua, the Book of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Jericho;   Joshua;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Joram;   Passover;   Passover (I.);   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Gilgal;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Passover;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Gil'gal;  
Encyclopedias:
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - Conquest of Canaan;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Champaign;   Gilgal;   Joshua (2);   Joshua, Book of;   Manna;   Passover;   Plain;   Tabernacle;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Manna;   Passover;   Triennial Cycle;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Kept the passover on the fourteenth day of the month - If the ceremony of circumcision was performed on the eleventh day of the month, as many think; and if the sore was at the worst on the thirteenth, and the passover was celebrated on the fourteenth, the people being then quite recovered; it must have been rather a miraculous than a natural healing. We have already seen from the account of Sir J. Chardin, that it required about three weeks to restore to soundness adults who had submitted to circumcision: if any thing like this took place in the case of the Israelites at Gilgal, they could not have celebrated the passover on the third or fourth day after their circumcision. The apparent impossibility of this led Mr. Harmer to suppose that they kept the passover on the fourteenth day of the second month, the preceding time having been employed in the business of the circumcision. See his Observations, vol. iv., p. 427, etc.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Joshua 5:10". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/joshua-5.html. 1832.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And the children of Israel encamped in Gilgal,.... Not after their circumcision, but before, and where they continued encamped during that, and until the passover had been kept by them; this was little more than a mile from Jericho; see Gill on Joshua 4:19,

and kept the passover on the fourteenth day of the month at even; exactly as it was ordered to be observed, and was observed when first kept, Exodus 12:6,

in the plains of Jericho: a proper place both for their encampment, and the celebration of the passover, and where very likely they met with lambs enough for their purpose, which belonged to the inhabitants of Jericho; or however being now got into the good land, they needed not, and were under no temptation of sparing their own: historians agree, as StraboF5Geograph. l. 16. p. 525. , JosephusF6De Bello Jud. l. 4. c. 8. sect. 2. , and others, that Jericho was seated in a plain.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Gill, John. "Commentary on Joshua 5:10". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/joshua-5.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

kept the passover on the fourteenth day of the month at even — The time fixed by the law (see on Exodus 12:17; see on Leviticus 23:5; see on Numbers 28:16). Thus the national existence was commenced by a solemn act of religious dedication.

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Joshua 5:10". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/joshua-5.html. 1871-8.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

What a beautiful instruction doth Joshua and his army hold forth to all the soldiery, and all armies who profess to have the Lord for their God. You observe, that the campaign against Canaan is opened with prayer. And, Reader! never lose sight of this universal maxim, which must hold good in all ages: whatever is begun in prayer will give cause to end in praise. If any one of our soldiers or sailors in our British service should peruse this humble Commentary, I would beg of him to pause in this place; and, while he beholds this General in God's army, with his whole soldiery, bending the knee before the God of their salvation, may he learn from hence, that the most lovely of all sights is here manifested before him. True courage can only arise front this source. While God is our hope and strength, we need not fear what man can do unto us. It is sure confidence and sure victory when, like another of the Lord's warriors, the soldier fights in the, Lord's cause, and can say, as he did, the sword of the Lord and of Gideon. Judges 7:20. But while I desire the military Reader to make this observation on the passage, I would call upon every real Christian Reader, whether of the soldiery or not, to make a yet more particular remark on the festival, which Joshua and his army observed in this opening of their campaign, and in the face of the enemy. It was the celebration of the passover. And that passover pointed to Christ. Compare Exodus 12:11, with 1 Corinthians 5:7-8; Luke 22:15. And Reader! do not fail, to connect the services of circumcision and the passover together. When the people had received one sign or seal of the covenant, to testify their acceptance of it, the Lord brought them to the enjoyment of the other. When the Holy Ghost hath circumcised the foreskin of the heart, believers are prepared to feast on the body and blood of Jesus. Hence we find in the first days of the gospel church, after the disciples of Jesus had received the Holy Ghost, and were baptized, the next account is, that they were engaged in breaking of bread and in prayer, that is, celebrating the Lord's supper. Acts 2:41-42. I only detain the Reader to make one observation more, on this delightful passage in the history: and it is just to remark, how very gracious is our God, that he should feast his people even in the very face of their enemies, and so powerfully restrain those enemies, by his terror put into their hearts, that though all this was done in the plains of Jericho, not a soul ventured to stir, or lift up a sword against them. Reader! depend upon it, so it is now. Jesus will spread his table for his saints, in the presence of their enemies: it is He which anointeth our head, and maketh our cup run over. Psalms 23:5.

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Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on Joshua 5:10". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/joshua-5.html. 1828.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And the children of Israel encamped in Gilgal, and kept the passover on the fourteenth day of the month at even in the plains of Jericho.

The passover — Which was their third passover: the first was in Egypt, Exodus 12:11-24, the second at mount Sinai, Numbers 9:1-5, the third here; for in their wilderness travels, these and all other sacrifices were neglected, Amos 5:25. While they were in the wilderness, they were denied the comfort of this ordinance, as a farther token of God's displeasure. But now God comforted them again, after the time that he had afflicted them.

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Wesley, John. "Commentary on Joshua 5:10". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/joshua-5.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Joshua 5:10 And the children of Israel encamped in Gilgal, and kept the passover on the fourteenth day of the month at even in the plains of Jericho.

Ver. 10. And kept the Passover.] Which it seemeth they had not done for a long time before. See Numbers 9:1-2. So that they were without the use of those two standing sacraments during their abode in the wilderness; peradventure, saith one, (a) through a profane carelessness of the people, which God punished by suffering them to go on in their sin without admonishing, or reproving them for it.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Joshua 5:10". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/joshua-5.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Ver. 10. And the children of Israel—kept the passover This was the third time they had celebrated this feast: the first time was on their departure from Egypt, and the second the year following, when the tabernacle was reared at the foot of mount Sinai; so that for thirty-nine years they had not celebrated it, nor dared they so to do, being uncircumcised. Besides, this feast was established only for the time of their peaceable possession of the land of Canaan.

In the plains of Jericho For this purpose, the tabernacle was set up in the middle of the camp, for sacrificing the lamb according to the law, and that those who were beyond Jordan might come to it with less difficulty than they afterwards did to Jerusalem from various parts of the Holy Land.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Joshua 5:10". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/joshua-5.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

This was their third passover: the first was in Egypt, Exo 12; the second at Mount Sinai, Num 9; the third here; for in their wilderness travels these and all other sacrifices were neglected, Amos 5:25.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Joshua 5:10". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/joshua-5.html. 1685.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

And the children of Israel encamped in Gilgal, and they kept the passover on the fourteenth day of the month in the evening, in the plains of Jericho.’

There are six mentions of the keeping of the Passover in the Old Testament, Exodus 12; Numbers 9:2-5 (at the first movement towards the land); 2 Chronicles 30:15-17 (Hezekiah’s revival); 2 Kings 23:21-23 (Josiah’s revival); Ezra 6:19-22 and here, all important occasions. But there is no good reason for doubting that it was observed every year. As Numbers 9:2-5 demonstrates that the Passover was observed in the wilderness it would seem that the requirement for circumcision (Exodus 12:48) was suspended when they were ‘by the way’ (on their journey), (although it may have been because at that stage, within two years of leaving Egypt, only infants would have been uncircumcised). There was in fact no specific provision in the Law of Sinai about circumcision in relation to the Passover, and the only previous provision in respect of the Passover was for slaves and new adherents to be circumcised before they could observe the Passover, for the aim of the provision about circumcision in Exodus 12:44; Exodus 12:48 was so that only those dedicated to YHWH should partake. It simply assumed true Israelites were being circumcised in accordance with the provisions in Genesis 17. Thus when circumcision was seemingly suspended for Israelites during the period in the wilderness the proviso there would no longer be a suitable test. It would only apply once they were in the land and being circumcised once again. Deuteronomy 16 demonstrates that the final intention was that Passover should be celebrated at the central sanctuary and that the ritual was flexible.

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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Joshua 5:10". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/joshua-5.html. 2013.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

THE THIRD PASSOVER AND CEASING OF THE MANNA, Joshua 5:10-12.

10.And kept the passover — This institution was in memory of their deliverance from the plague which had destroyed the firstborn in Egypt, (Exodus 12,) and was the second feast which had been observed since leaving that land of bondage. The first was at Sinai, in the second year of their journey in the desert. Numbers 9. There was no observance of it in the desert subsequent to this, on account of the rejection of Israel from the covenant. See on Joshua 5:6 and note introductory to Joshua 5:2.

On the fourteenth day of the month — This was the month Abib, the first month of the Hebrew year. After the captivity it was called Nisan. The fourteenth of this month corresponded with about the middle of our April.

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Joshua 5:10". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/joshua-5.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Joshua 5:10. The children of Israel kept the passover — Which was their third passover: the first was in Egypt, Exodus 12.; the second at mount Sinai, Numbers 9.; the third here; for in their wilderness travels, these and several other sacrifices were neglected, Amos 5:25. While they were in the wilderness, they were denied the comfort of this ordinance, as a further token of God’s displeasure. But now God comforted them again, after the time that he had afflicted them.

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Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Joshua 5:10". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/joshua-5.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Phase. This was the third. The first was celebrated in Egypt, Exodus xii. The second at Sinai, Numbers ix. (Menochius) --- Afterwards it was disused till the Israelites took possession of Chanaan, as it was chiefly designed for that country, Exodus xii. 25.

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Joshua 5:10". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/joshua-5.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

kept the passover. Some codices, with two early printed editions, and Manuscript of Aramaic, add "in the first [month]". The second of the ten Passovers recorded. See note on Exodus 12:28.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Joshua 5:10". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/joshua-5.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And the children of Israel encamped in Gilgal, and kept the passover on the fourteenth day of the month at even in the plains of Jericho.

Kept the Passover on the fourteenth day of the month at even - the time fixed by the law (see Exodus 12:18; Leviticus 23:5; Numbers 28:16).

Thus, the people having been circumcised, the national existence was commenced by a solemn act of religious dedication. There is no record of more than one Passover having been observed during the whole sojourn in the wilderness (Numbers 9:1).

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Joshua 5:10". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/joshua-5.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(10) The passover.—This is the third Passover in Israel’s history. The first two were kept under Moses—(1) in Egypt, when the Lord delivered them; (2) the second at Sinai, when He had “brought them unto Himself.” (3) The third is on the other side Jordan under Joshua. Two belong to the Exodus, or going out; one to the Eisodus, or coming in. Compare Luke 22:16 : “I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.”

Observe the connection between the Passover and circumcision. The law in Exodus 12:48 is, “no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof.” Hence, while they wandered in the wilderness, this uncircumcised generation could not keep the Passover.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Joshua 5:10". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/joshua-5.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And the children of Israel encamped in Gilgal, and kept the passover on the fourteenth day of the month at even in the plains of Jericho.
kept the passover
Ezekiel 12:3,6,7-16; Numbers 9:1-5
Reciprocal: Exodus 12:21 - and take;  Exodus 12:25 - when;  Exodus 23:15 - the feast;  Leviticus 23:5 - GeneralNumbers 9:2 - his appointed;  Numbers 9:5 - they kept;  Joshua 2:1 - even Jericho;  Joshua 3:15 - all the time;  Joshua 4:13 - to the plains;  Joshua 9:6 - the camp;  Joshua 10:6 - to the camp;  Joshua 12:23 - Gilgal;  Joshua 15:7 - Gilgal;  Ezra 6:19 - kept;  Jeremiah 39:5 - in the plains;  Micah 6:5 - Shittim

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Joshua 5:10". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/joshua-5.html.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

10.And the children of Israel. kept the Passover, etc Here it is stated that the Passover was celebrated on the regular day, although there are some who think that the words used imply that the practice was unusual. They hence infer that, like circumcision, it had been interrupted for a period of forty years, as it would have been absurd for persons uncircumcised to take part in a sacred feast. To confirm this view, they observe that we do not read of the Passover having been observed after the beginning of the second year. But it is not probable that that which God had lately ordered to be perpetual, (Exodus 12:42) was suddenly cast aside. For it had been said to them, It is a night to be observed by the children of Israel in all their generations. How inconsistent, then, would it have been had this practice, which was to be observed throughout all ages, become obsolete in the course of two years! And again, how heartless it would have been to bury the memory of a recent favor within so short a period!

But it is said that the want of circumcision must have kept back a large proportion, that the mystery might not be profaned; for at its institution it had been declared, No uncircumcised person shall eat of it. To this I have already answered, that it was an extraordinary privilege; as the children of Israel were freed from the law. (54) For it is certain that they continued to use sacrifices, and to observe the other parts of legal worship, although this was unlawful, unless something of the form prescribed by the law had been remitted by divine authority. It is certain that unclean persons were prohibited from entering the court of the tabernacle, and yet the children of Israel, while uncircumcised, offered sacrifices there, thus doing what was equivalent to the slaying of the Passover. They were therefore permitted, by sufferance, to do that which it was not lawful to do according to the rule of the law.

The mention made by Moses of the second celebration of the Passover (Numbers 9:0) is for a different purpose, namely, for the purpose of indirectly censuring the carelessness and sluggishness of the people, who would not have observed the sacred anniversary at the end of the first year if they had not been reminded of it. For although God had proclaimed that they should through all ages annually renew the memory of their deliverance, yet they had grown so oblivious before the end of the year, that they had become remiss in the discharge of the duty. It is not without cause they are urged by a new intimation, as they were not sufficiently attentive of their own accord. That passage, therefore, does not prove that the use of the Passover was afterwards interrupted; on the contrary, it may, with some probability, be inferred from it that it was annually observed; as the Lord, towards the end of the year, anticipates the observance, telling them to make careful provision for it in future, and never deviate from the command which had been given them. (55)

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on Joshua 5:10". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/joshua-5.html. 1840-57.