Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Luke 10:1

Now after this the Lord appointed seventy others, and sent them in pairs ahead of Him to every city and place where He Himself was going to come.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Charism;   Disciple;   Jesus, the Christ;   Minister, Christian;   Seventy;   Thompson Chain Reference - Association-Separation;   Associations;   Co-Operation;   Companionship;   Moses;   Periods and Numbers;   Seventy;   Unity-Strife;   The Topic Concordance - Despisement;   Disciples/apostles;   Evangelism;   Harvest;   Hate;   Healing;   Hearing;   Kingdom of God;   Labor;   Receiving;   Sending and Those Sent;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Ministers;   Missionary Work by Ministers;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Adummim;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Follow, Follower;   Mission;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Eldad;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Barnabas;   Disciples;   Food;   Luke, Gospel of;   Number Systems and Number Symbolism;   Ordination, Ordain;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Apostles;   Canon of the New Testament;   Jesus Christ;   Joseph;   Luke, Gospel According to;   Martha;   Mary;   Matthias;   Number;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Activity;   Barnabas ;   Church;   City;   Dates (2);   Discourse;   Dominion (2);   Epaphroditus ;   Following;   Joseph ;   Loneliness;   Lord (2);   Matthias;   Missions;   Names and Titles of Christ;   Numbers (2);   Seventy (2);   Morrish Bible Dictionary - New Testament;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Seventy;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Bethsaida;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Parable;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Ezekiel;   Healing, Gifts of;   Jesus Christ (Part 2 of 2);   Joseph Barsabbas;   Number;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Apostle and Apostleship;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

The Lord appointed other seventy - Rather, seventy others, not other seventy, as our translation has it, which seems to intimate that he had appointed seventy before this time, though, probably, the word other has a reference to the twelve chosen first: he not only chose twelve disciples to be constantly with him; but he chose seventy others to go before him. Our blessed Lord formed every thing in his Church on the model of the Jewish Church; and why? Because it was the pattern shown by God himself, the Divine form, which pointed out the heavenly substance which now began to be established in its place. As he before had chosen twelve apostles, in reference to the twelve patriarchs, who were the chiefs of the twelve tribes, and the heads of the Jewish Church, he now publicly appointed (for so the word ανεδειξεν means) seventy others, as Moses did the seventy elders whom he associated with himself to assist him in the government of the people. Exodus 18:19; Exodus 24:1-9. These Christ sent by two and two:

  1. To teach them the necessity of concord among the ministers of righteousness.
  • That in the mouths of two witnesses every thing might be established. And,
  • That they might comfort and support each other in their difficult labor. See on Mark 6:7; (note).
  • Several MSS. and versions have seventy-two. Sometimes the Jews chose six out of each tribe: this was the number of the great Sanhedrin. The names of these seventy disciples are found in the margin of some ancient MSS., but this authority is questionable.

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    Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/luke-10.html. 1832.

    Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

    After these things - After the appointment of the twelve apostles, and the transactions recorded in the previous chapters.

    Other seventy - Seventy others besides the apostles. They were appointed for a different purpose from the apostles. The apostles were to be with him; to hear his instructions; to be witnesses of his miracles, his sufferings, his death, his resurrection and ascension, that they might “then” go and proclaim all these things to the world. The seventy were sent out to preach immediately, and chiefly where he himself was about to come. They were appointed for a temporary object. They were to go into the villages and towns, and prepare the way for his coming. The number “seventy” was a favorite number among the Jews. Thus, the family of Jacob that came into Egypt consisted of seventy, Genesis 46:27. The number of elders that Moses appointed to aid him was the same, Numbers 11:16, Numbers 11:25. The number which composed the great Sanhedrin, or council of the nation. was the same. It is not improbable that our Saviour appointed this number with reference to the fact that it so often occurred among the Jews, or after the example of Moses, who appointed seventy to aid him in his work; but it is evident that the office was “temporary” - that it had a specific design - and of course that it would be improper to attempt to find now a “continuation” of it, or a parallel to it, in the Christian ministry.

    Two and two - There was much wisdom in sending them in this manner. It was done, doubtless, that they might aid one another by mutual counsel, and that they might sustain and comfort one another in their persecutions and trials. Our Lord in this showed the propriety of having “a religious friend,” who would be a confidant and help. Every Christian, and especially every Christian minister, needs such a friend, and should seek some one to whom he can unbosom himself, and with whom he can mingle his feelings and prayers.

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    Bibliographical Information
    Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/luke-10.html. 1870.

    The Biblical Illustrator

    Luke 10:1

    The Lord appointed other seventy

    Our Lord’s instructions to the severity

    I.
    CHRIST SENT OUT THE SEVENTY BY PAIRS.

    II. OUR BLESSED LORD FAIRLY AND FAITHFULLY WARNED THE SEVENTY OF THE DIFFICULTY AND DANGER OF THE CHARGE WHICH THEY WERE UNDERTAKING.

    III. OUR LORD CAUTIONS HIS MISSIONARIES AGAINST AN OVER CURIOUS AND MINUTE REGARD TO ACCOMMODATION PREPARATORY TO THEIR ENTERING ON THEIR MISSION, AND WHILE EMPLOYED IN EXECUTING THE BUSINESS OF IT.

    IV. OUR LORD RECOMMENDS TO THE DISCIPLES UNDIVIDED, UNDEVIATING ATTENTION TO WHAT WAS SPECIALLY COMMITTED TO THEM.

    V. OUR LORD’S INSTRUCTIONS TO THE SEVENTY RESPECTING THEIR WORK AND THE MANNER IN WHICH THEY WERE TO PERFORM IT.

    VI. CHRIST ENCOURAGES HIS DISCIPLES WITH THE ASSURANCE THAT HE SHOULD CONSIDER THE RECEPTION WHICH THEY MET WITH, AS GIVEN TO HIMSELF. (H. Hunter, D. D.)

    Two and two

    Two and two before His face

    Yet questions of high interest immediately arise. Why should there be any forerunners? What were they sent to do? In order to the full, personal influence and reign of Christ anywhere, there is a law of necessary preparation. Very impressive it is to see that God, when He has any great gift to communicate, proceeds by pre-arrangement. He never bursts into His family with thunders of revelation too sudden or loud for them to bear. Take the one signal event which stands in the centre of all history,--the personal coming of the Son of God on the earth. The prophetic spirit of His nation had been looking out for Him, as nightly watchers on Mount Moriah looked out for the dawn toward Hebron, two thousand years. In fact, to eyes that see the divinity in the Saviour’s face at all, it is not difficult to discern, all along those earlier ages, heralds like “the other seventy also,” going before that Face into the places whither He Himself was afterward to come. Now on that great scale of time and space we have a picture, in colossal proportions, of what goes on in every one of our own breasts. Conscious of it or not, agencies are at work in us to make ready, if we only will for the entrance of the Lord of the heart into His home and dwelling-place there. Having created us for Christian service, as the true end and real glory of our being, our Father takes pains to fit and to fashion us for that destiny, with all its honour and all its joy. By secret influences, untraceable as the wind that bloweth where it listeth, silently pressing on the springs of feeling and principle within us; by strange sorrows and misgivings there. That we may become wise and strong and pure in our grief, this process of personal preparation is in continual operation. The heralds are out, sent by Him who is coming after them. The “other seventy” are proceeding on their errand. We ourselves are the cities and places whither He would come. Again, it appears from the Lord’s sending of the seventy that all personal efforts and public movements for extending truth and increasing righteousness in the world are really parts of His work, and are dependent on His spiritual power. Christendom everywhere is full of beneficent activities. The benefactions of this late age, half-blind though they may be, or forgetful of their Author, were born at Bethlehem, and grew in stature at Nazareth, and conquered their enemies--selfishness and pride and wrath--at Calvary, and went out among thenations with the apostles, if we had seen one of the seventy walking in some by-way of Jericho or Bethany, we might have seen no badge of Christ upon him, and wondered at his eager gait or absorbed expression. But he was going where the Master sent him, and the Master’s mantle was on him, and the Master’s secret in his soul. Thither, after him, the Master Himself would come, to reaffirm and fulfil his words, to deepen, sanction, complete his work. (Bishop F. D. Huntington.)

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    Bibliographical Information
    Exell, Joseph S. "Commentary on "Luke 10:1". The Biblical Illustrator. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tbi/luke-10.html. 1905-1909. New York.

    Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

    With this chapter begins the great body of material unique to Luke, comprising some of the most glorious teachings the Saviour delivered to mankind, and making this some of the most interesting writings in the sacred Scriptures. The sending forth of the seventy (Luke 10:1-16), their return (Luke 10:17-20), the rejoicing of Jesus (Luke 10:21-24), the account of the good Samaritan (Luke 10:25-37), and an incident in the home of Martha and Mary (Luke 10:38-42) are narrated in Luke 10.

    THE SENDING OF THE SEVENTY

    Now after these things the Lord appointed seventy others, and sent them two and two before his face into every city and place, whither he himself was about to come. (Luke 10:1)

    Seventy others ... It is of no consequence that some ancient authorities add "and two," making this place read "seventy and two"; the teaching is not altered by such a slight variation.

    Others ... This word derives from [@heterous], meaning "others of a different kind,"[1] thus distinguishing this group from the Twelve.

    Two by two ... This plan provided courage, companionship, and credibility on the part of those delivering the message, and also afforded protection for the messengers from both physical and moral dangers.

    Every city and place ... The time for the crucifixion of Christ was rapidly approaching; there were many places which Jesus had not been able to visit; and the sending of this group provided an extension of his ministry possible in no other way. Also, Dummelow thought, "He wished to train his followers to act alone after his departure."[2] It is significant that Jesus was able to command such a large group of men in such a mission, indicating the power his ministry had already generated. Jesus followed up their visits by going personally to all those places.

    The number sent on this mission (whether seventy or seventy-two) had spiritual and symbolic overtones. The Jews held that the Gentiles were made up of seventy nations; and at their feast of Tabernacles, "seventy bullocks were offered on behalf of the Gentile nations ... to make atonement for them."[3] The cities and places to which these seventy were dispatched were in Trans-Jordan[4] where Gentile population predominated.

    [1] Herschel H. Hobbs, An Exposition of the Gospel of Luke (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1966), p. 178..

    [2] J. R. Dummelow, Commentary on the Holy Bible (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1937), p. 751.

    [3] Ibid.

    [4] Norval Geldenhuys, Commentary on the Gospel of Luke (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1952), p. 299.

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    Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
    Bibliographical Information
    Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/luke-10.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

    John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

    After these things,.... After the calling and mission of the twelve apostles, and giving them their powers, commissions, and instructions, with other things that followed thereon; Luke 9:1

    the Lord appointed other seventy also; not that he had appointed before seventy, and now made an appointment of seventy more; but as the Syriac version renders it, "Jesus separated out of his disciples, seventy others" that is, besides the twelve, whom he chose and called out, from among the multitude of the disciples, and ordained them apostles, he selected and ordained seventy others, in allusion to the seventy elders of Israel, Numbers 11:16. The Vulgate Latin and Persic versions read, "seventy two", and so does EpiphaniusF24Contr. Haeres. haeres. 20. . The Jewish sanhedrim is sometimes said to consist of seventy oneF25Maimon. Hilchot Sanhedrim, c. 1. sect. 3. , and sometimes of seventy twoF26Misn. Yadim, c. 3. sect. 5. Aben Ezra in Num 11. 25. ; though commonly said to be of the round number seventy, as these disciples might be. The above mentioned ancient writer gives the names of some of them, as the seven deacons; Stephen, Philip, Prochorus, Nicanor, Timon, Parmenas, and Nicolas; together with Matthias, Mark, Luke, Justus, Barnabas, Apelies, Rufus, and Niger. The names of all these disciples, according to ancient traditions, though not to be depended on, are given in an alphabetical order, with the places where they afterwards presided as bishops, or pastors, by a late learned writerF1Fabricii lux Evangelii, p. 115, 116, &c. , and are as follow, viz. Agabus, the prophet; Amphias, of Odyssus, sometimes called Amphiatus; Ananias, who baptized Paul, bishop of Damascus; Andronicus, of Pannonia, or Spain; Apelies, of Smyrna, or, according to others, of Heraclea; Apollo, of Caesarea; Aristarchus, of Apamea; Aristobulus, of Britain; Artemas, of Lustra; Asyncritus, of Hyrcania; Barnabas, of Milgin; Barnabas, of Heraclea; Caesar, of Dyrrachium; Caius, of Ephesus; Carpus, of Berytus, in Thracia; Cephas, bishop of Konia; Clemens, of Sardinia; Cleophas, of Jerusalem; Crescens, of Chalcedon, in Galatia; Demas, a priest of idols; Epaenetus, of Carthage; Epaphroditus, of Andriace; Erastus, of Paneas, or, according to others, of the Philippians; Evodus, of Antioch; Hermas, of Philippi, or Philippolls; Hermes, of Dalmatia; Hermogenus and Phygellus, who followed Simon Magus; Hermogenus, bishop of the Megarenes; Herodion, of Tarsus; James, the brother of our Lord, of Jerusalem; Jason, of Tarsus; Jesus Justus, bishop of Eleutheropolis: Linus, of Rome; Luke, the evangelist: Lucius, of Laodicea, in Syria; Mark, who is also John, of Biblopohs, or Byblus; Mark the evangelist, bishop of Alexandna; Mark, the sister's son of Barnabas, bishop of Apolloma; Matthias, added to the apostles; Narcissus, of Athens; Nicanor, he died when Stephen suffered martyrdom; Nicolaus, of Samaria; Olympius, a martyr at Rome; Onesiphorus, bishop of Corone; Parmenas, of the Soli, Patrobulus, the same with Patrobas, in Romans 16:14 of Puteoli, or as others, of Naples; Philemon, of Gaza; Philemon (in the Acts he is called Philip), by whom the eunuch of the queen of Ethiopia was baptized, of Trallium, of Asia; Philologus, of Sinope; Phlegon, bishop of Marathon; Phygellus, of Ephesus; Prochorus, of Nicomedia, in Bithynia; Pudens; Quartus, of Berytus; Rhodion, a martyr at Rome; Rufus, of Thebes; Silas, of Corinth; Sylvanus, of Thessalonica; Sosipater, of Iconium; Sosthenes, of Colophon; Stachys, of Byzantium; Stephen, the first martyr; Tertius, of Iconium; Thaddaeus, who carried the epistle of Jesus to Edessa, to Abgarus; Timon, of Bostra, of the Arabians; Trophimus, who suffered martyrdora with the Apostle Paul; Tychicus, bishop of Chalcedon, of Bithynia; Tychicus, of Colophon; Urbanus, of Macedonm; and, Zenas, of Diospolis. According both to this account, and Epiphanius, Luke was one of these seventy, and he is the only evangelist that makes mention of the appointment of them:

    and sent them two and two before his face: as he did the twelve before, to be his harbingers and forerunners:

    into every city and place, whither he himself would come: which he intended to visit: he sent them beforehand to acquaint the inhabitants of it; and prepare them by their ministry, for the reception of him; as John the Baptist, who was in a more eminent sense the harbinger and forerunner of Christ, went before him in his ministry, and prepared the way for him.

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    The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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    Bibliographical Information
    Gill, John. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/luke-10.html. 1999.

    Geneva Study Bible

    After 1 these things the Lord appointed other seventy also, and sent them two and two before his face into every city and place, whither he himself would come.

    (1) The seventy are sent as the second forewarners of the coming of Christ.
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    Bibliographical Information
    Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/luke-10.html. 1599-1645.

    Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

    Luke 10:1-24. Mission of the seventy disciples, and their return.

    As our Lord‘s end approaches, the preparations for the establishment of the coming Kingdom are quickened and extended.

    the Lord — a becoming title here, as this appointment was an act truly lordly [Bengel].

    other seventy also — rather, “others (also in number), seventy”; probably with allusion to the seventy elders of Israel on whom the Spirit descended in the wilderness (Numbers 11:24, Numbers 11:25). The mission, unlike that of the Twelve, was evidently quite temporary. All the instructions are in keeping with a brief and hasty pioneering mission, intended to supply what of general preparation for coming events the Lord‘s own visit afterwards to the same “cities and places” (Luke 10:1) would not, from want of time, now suffice to accomplish; whereas the instructions to the Twelve, besides embracing all those to the Seventy, contemplate world-wide and permanent effects. Accordingly, after their return from this single missionary tour, we never again read of the Seventy.

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    Bibliographical Information
    Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/luke-10.html. 1871-8.

    John Lightfoot's Commentary on the Gospels

    1. After these things the Lord appointed other seventy also, and sent them two and two before his face into every city and place, whither he himself would come.

    [Seventy.] Why the Vulgar should have seventy-and-two, they themselves, I suppose, are able to give no very good reason: much less the interpreter of Titus Bostrensis, when in the Greek copy before him he saw only seventy, why he should render it seventy-two.

    Aben Ezra upon the story of Eldad and Medad hath this passage: "The wise men say, That Moses took six out of every tribe, and the whole number amounted to seventy-and-two: but whereas the Lord had commanded only seventy, the odd two were laid aside." Now if God laid aside two of those who had been enrolled, and endowed with the Holy Spirit, that so there might be the just number of seventy only, we can hardly imagine why our Saviour should add two, to make it seventy-two and not seventy. "It was said to Moses at Mount Sinai, Go up, thou and Aaron, and Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel: so will the holy blessed God ordain to himself in the world to come a council of elders of his own people." Now the number of this consistory, the doctors determine to be no other than seventy. A council of seventy-two was never heard of amongst the Jews, but once only at Jabneh.

    "R. Simeon Ben Azzai saith, I received it from the mouths of the seventy-two elders, on the day when they made R. Eliezer Ben Azariah one of the Sanhedrim." Nor did they then remove Rabban Gamaliel, although he had displeased them.

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    Lightfoot, John. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". "John Lightfoot Commentary on the Gospels". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jlc/luke-10.html. 1675.

    People's New Testament

    After these things. All that we can be certain of as to the time when the seventy were appointed is that it was {after} the events Luke has already related. There are reasons for thinking that it was near the close of our Lord's ministry. It is usually located in the country east of the Jordan, when the Lord began his last journey to Jerusalem.

    Appointed seventy others. He had already sent forth the apostles (Luke 9:1), and he now sent forth seventy preachers more. That he could find seventy fitted for this mission shows that his teaching was making a deep impression on the Galileans.

    Sent them two and two. That each one might have a helper, a counsellor and a

    sympathizer.

    Into every city and place. As the time of his earthly ministry shortened, it increased in earnestness and activity. The Lord in person visited as many places as possible, and these messengers were sent before to preach to the people and to prepare the way.

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    These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
    Original work done by Ernie Stefanik. First published online in 1996 at The Restoration Movement Pages.
    Bibliographical Information
    Johnson, Barton W. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". "People's New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pnt/luke-10.html. 1891.

    Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

    Appointed (ανεδειχενanedeixen). First aorist active indicative of αναδεικνυμιanadeiknumi an old verb, not only common, but in lxx. In the N.T. only here and Acts 1:24. Cf. αναδειχιςanadeixis in Luke 1:80. To show forth, display, proclaim, appoint.

    Seventy others (ετερους εβδομηκοντα καιheterous hebdomēkonta kai). The “also” (καιkai) and the “others” point back to the mission of the Twelve in Galilee (Luke 9:1-6). Some critics think that Luke has confused this report of a mission in Judea with that in Galilee, but needlessly so. What earthly objection can there be to two similar missions? B D Syr. Cur. and Syr. Sin. have “seventy-two.” The seventy elders were counted both ways and the Sanhedrin likewise and the nations of the earth. It is an evenly balanced point.

    Two and two (ανα δυοana duo). For companionship as with the Twelve though Mark 6:7 has it δυοduo (vernacular idiom). B K have here ανα δυοana duo a combination of the idiom in Mark 6:7 and that here.

    He himself was about to come (ημελλεν αυτος ερχεσταιēmellen autos erchesthai). Imperfect of μελλωmellō with present infinitive and note αυτοςautos Jesus was to follow after and investigate the work done. This was only a temporary appointment and no names are given, but they could cover a deal of territory.

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    The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
    Bibliographical Information
    Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/luke-10.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

    Vincent's Word Studies

    Appointed ( ἀνέδειξεν )

    Used by Luke only. Lit., to lift up and shew, as Acts 1:24: “Shew which one thou hast chosen.” Hence to proclaim any one elected to an office. See on the kindred noun, shewing, Luke 1:80.

    Other seventy

    Wrong; for he had not appointed seventy previously. Rev., rightly, seventy others, with reference to the twelve.

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    Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/luke-10.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

    The Fourfold Gospel

    Now after these things the Lord appointed seventy others1, and sent them two and two before his face into every city and place2, whither he himself was about to come.
      MISSION AND RETURN OF THE SEVENTY. (Probably in Judea, October, A.D. 29.) Luke 10:1-24

    1. Now after these things the Lord appointed seventy others. That is, other messengers in addition to the twelve apostles.

    2. And sent them two and two before his face into every city and place,
    3. whither he himself was about to come. Luke has told us of the journey through Samaria to Jerusalem (Luke 9:52), and John has told us what occurred at the Feast of Tabernacles in Jerusalem (John 7:2). We learn from John also that Jesus was at the Feast of Dedication (John 10:22). The first feast was in October and the latter in December. Jesus evidently spent the time between these feast in Judea, making a tour of that province and sending the seventy before him, thus thoroughly evangelizing it as he had Galilee, by sending out the twelve.

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    These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website. These files were made available by Mr. Ernie Stefanik. First published online in 1996 at The Restoration Movement Pages.
    Bibliographical Information
    J. W. McGarvey and Philip Y. Pendleton. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". "The Fourfold Gospel". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tfg/luke-10.html. Standard Publishing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1914.

    Frédéric Louis Godet - Commentary on Selected Books

    1 st. The Sending, Luke 10:1-16.

    Ver. 1. The Mission.᾿αναδείκνυμι, to put in view; and hence, to elect and install (Luke 1:80); here, to designate. The word instituer (Crampon) would wrongly give a permanent character to this mission. Schleiermacher and Meyer think that by the καὶ ἑτέρους, others also, Luke alludes to the sending of the two messengers (Luke 9:52). But those two envoys are of too widely different a nature to admit of being put on the same footing, and the term. ἀνέδειξεν could not be applied to the former. The solemn instructions which follow leave no room to doubt, that by the others also, Luke alludes to the sending of the Twelve. The term ἑτέρους, others, authorizes the view that the Twelve were not comprehended in this second mission; Jesus kept them at this time by His side, with a view to their peculiar training for their future ministry.

    The oscillation which prevails in the MSS. between the numbers seventy and seventy-two, and which is reproduced in Luke 10:17, exists equally in several other cases where this number appears, e.g., the seventy or seventy-two Alexandrine translators of the Old Testament. This is due to the fact that the numbers 70 and 72 are both multiples of numbers very frequently used in sacred symbolism—7 times 10 and 6 times 12. The authorities are in favour of seventy, the reading in particular of the Sinaïticus. Does this number contain an allusion to that of the members of the Sanhedrim (71, including the president),—a number which appears in its turn to correspond with that of the 70 elders chosen by Moses (Numbers 11:16-25)? In this case it would be, so to speak, an anti-Sanhedrim which Jesus constituted, as, in naming the Twelve, He had set over against the twelve sons of Jacob twelve new spiritual patriarchs. But there is another explanation of the number which seems to us more natural. The Jews held, agreeably to Genesis 10, that the human race was made up of 70 (or 72) peoples, 14 descended from Japhet, 30 from Ham, and 26 from Shem. This idea, not uncommon in the writings of later Judaism, is thus expressed in the Clementine Recognitions (Luke 2:42): "God divided all the nations of the earth into 72 parts." If the choice of the Twelve, as it took place at the beginning, had more particular relation to Christ"s mission to Israel, the sending of the seventy, carried out at a more advanced epoch, when the unbelief of the people was assuming a fixed form, announced and prepared for the extension of preaching throughout the whole earth.

    Jesus sent them two and two; the gifts of the one were to complete those of the other. Besides, did not the legal adage say, In the mouth of two or three witnesses shall every word be established?

    Lange translates οὗ ἔμελλεν, "where He should have come," as if the end of the visit made by the seventy had been to make up for that for which Jesus had not time. This meaning is opposed to the text, and particularly to the words before Him.

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    Godet, Frédéric Louis. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". "Frédéric Louis Godet - Commentary on Selected Books". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsc/luke-10.html.

    James Nisbet's Church Pulpit Commentary

    THE MISSION OF THE SEVENTY

    ‘The Lord appointed other seventy also, and sent them forth two and two.’

    Luke 10:1

    In our Lord’s charge to the seventy observe:—

    I. The importance of prayer and intercession.—This is the leading thought with which our Lord opens His address. Before He tells His ambassadors what to do, He first bids them to pray. ‘Pray ye the Lord of the harvest that He would send forth labourers into His harvest.’ Prayer is one of the best and most powerful means of helping forward the cause of Christ in the world.

    II. The perilous nature of the work in which they were about to be engaged.—The words describe a state of things which may be seen at this very day. So long as the Church stands, believers must expect to be like ‘lambs among wolves.’ They must make up their minds to be hated, and persecuted, and ill-treated by those who have no real religion. ‘All that will live godly in Jesus Christ,’ says St. Paul, ‘shall suffer persecution’ (1 John 3:13; 1 Peter 3:8).

    III. The thorough devotion to their work which He enjoins upon them. They were to abstain even from the appearance of covetousness, or love of money, or luxury: ‘Carry neither purse, nor scrip, nor shoes.’ They were to behave like men who had no time to waste on the empty compliments and conventional courtesies of the world: ‘Salute no man by the way.’

    IV. The simple-minded and contented spirit which He bade them to exhibit.—Wherever they tarried, in travelling about upon their Master’s business, they were to avoid the appearance of being fickle, changeable, delicate livers, or hard to please about food and lodging. They were to ‘eat and drink such things’ as were given them. They were not to ‘go from house to house.’

    Illustrations

    (1) ‘The Greek word translated “appointed” is only found in one other place in the New Testament (Acts 1:24), where it is rendered “shew.” According’ to Parkhurst, it signifies “to mark out, or, appoint to an office by some outward sign, and is often used in this sense by profane writers and in the apocryphal books.” John the Baptist’s “shewing” to Israel (Luke 1:80) is a substantive derived from this word.’

    (2) ‘We know nothing of the names or subsequent history of these seventy disciples. They are nowhere else mentioned in the New Testament. Most commentators remark on the selection of the number seventy, and assign reasons for it. Grotius says that they were chosen according to the number of the Jewish Sanhedrim, and so were seventy-two, six being chosen out of every tribe of Israel. Wordsworth remarks that “the number seventy was that of the heads of the families of Israel (Genesis 46:27), and of the elders constituted by Moses (Numbers 11:16; Numbers 11:25), and of the palm trees at Elim (Exodus 15:27). And the Jews supposed that the languages of the world were seventy.”’

    (3) ‘The mission of the disciples in pairs deserves remark, and ought to be remembered in modern missionary work. “Two are better than one” (Ecclesiastes 4:9). Cornelius à Lapide has a long and interesting note to show the wisdom of the arrangement.’

    (4) ‘The Greek expression “He would come” would be more literally rendered “was about to come.”’

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    Nisbet, James. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". Church Pulpit Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cpc/luke-10.html. 1876.

    John Trapp Complete Commentary

    1 After these things the Lord appointed other seventy also, and sent them two and two before his face into every city and place, whither he himself would come.

    Ver. 1. Other seventy also] As his heralds, to foreshow his coming to Jerusalem, and to proclaim the true Jubilee.

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    Trapp, John. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/luke-10.html. 1865-1868.

    Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

    The Captain general of our salvation, Christ Jesus, having called, commissioned, and sent forth his twelve apostles, as great commanders to subdue his native kingom of Israel to himself, at the sixth chapter of this Gospel; Luke 6:12-16 in this chapter he sends after them a band of seventy auxiliary forces, to aid and assist them: After these things the Lord appointed other seventy disciples, and sent them two and two before his face.

    Where note, 1. The person commissioning and sending them forth: Christ himself.

    Thence learn, that none ought to take upon them the office of preaching, or other ministerial functions in the church, until thereunto called by Christ himself. The twelve apostles and seventy disciples, had an immediate mission from Christ himself; all his ministers are now called mediately, and receive their authority from Christ by the hands of the governors of his church.

    Note, 2. The manner of their sending: two and two in a company, partly to make their message of more authority, partly to testify their mutual consent in the doctrine they taught, and partly to comfort and encourage, to help and strengthen, to assist and support each other.

    In imitation of this example, the Jesuits sent forth their emissaries by pairs.

    Learn hence, that the ministers of the gospel do stand in great need of the mutual help and comfort, of the united assistance and encouragement of each other, in the weighty duties of their calling and function.

    Our Saviour in the next verse compares his ministers to harvest laborers, who are to help and assist one another, the strong endeavoring to strengthen the hands of the weak.

    But, Lord, what tears are sufficient to bewail the want of love and unity, yea, the prevalency of that envy and malignity, which is found too often among the ministers of the gospel; so that instead of going forth two by two, happy is he that is alone in a place.

    Well might Melancthon bless God, when he lay dying, that he was going to a place where he should be freed from the implacable hatred of divines; this is, and ought to be, for a lamentation.

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    Burkitt, William. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/luke-10.html. 1700-1703.

    Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

    1.] μετὰ ταῦτα—chronological—after these things, not ‘besides these things,’ as Schleiermacher and Olsh. render it.

    ἀνέδ., an official word: see reff. Bleek has observed, that ὁ κύριος, of our Lord, in narration, is peculiar to St. Luke, and to narrations which he alone gives. Cf. ch. Luke 7:13; Luke 11:39; Luke 12:42; Luke 13:15; Luke 17:5-6; Luke 18:6; Luke 22:31; Luke 22:61. But this is only true of the Synoptic Gospels. It occurs in the fragment at the end of St. Mark (Mark 16:19), and in John (John 4:1 reff.). In the Acts, the usage is very general: see Luke 2:47; Luke 5:9; Luke 5:14; Luke 9:1, &c.;—and in St. Paul’s Epistles: see 1 Corinthians 6:14; 1 Corinthians 6:17; 1 Corinthians 7:10, &c.

    [ καὶ] ἑτ. ἑβδ., not ‘other seventy also,’ but others [also], seventy in number. The ἑτέρους may refer, either to the Twelve, ch. Luke 9:1, or perhaps, from the similarity of their mission, to the ἄγγελοι in ch. Luke 9:52. But perhaps the first is more probable, from the similarity of the discourses.

    The number of seventy might perhaps have reference to the seventy elders of Israel, Exodus 24:1; Numbers 11:16 :—all sorts of fanciful analogies have been found out and insisted on (and moreover forced into the text), which are not worth recounting.

    οὗ for οἷ,—see reff.

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    Alford, Henry. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hac/luke-10.html. 1863-1878.

    Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament

    Luke 10:1. The appointment and mission of the Seventy are transferred by Luke to this last journey of Christ, and are narrated as if they were supposed by the author to have some reference to Luke 9:52 ( ἀπέστειλεναὐτοῦ). Hence: καὶ ἑτέρους, which does not refer to the Twelve (Bleek and others), but to the intimation, which is nearer to it, both in place and meaning, in Luke 9:52; and μετὰ ταῦτα, which points back to Luke 9:57-62, although de Wette regards the reference as obscure and inappropriate. With arbitrary erroneousness Olshausen says that in this communication there is adopted a fragment from an earlier period, and that μετὰ ταῦτα is not chronological (after this, see Luke 5:27, Luke 18:4), but besides (following Schleiermacher, p. 169).

    ἀνέδειξεν] renuntiavit, He announced them as nominated, Acts 1:24; 2 Maccabees 9:25; 2 Maccabees 10:11; 2 Maccabees 14:26; 2 Maccabees 3 Esdr. Luke 1:37, Luke 2:3; occurs often in the classical writers; comp. ἀνάδειξις, Luke 1:80.

    ἑβδομήκοντα] In accordance with the apostolic number of twelve, so far as this had reference to the tribes of the people, it is probable that Jesus had in view the ancient Hebrew analogue of the seventy (originally seventy-two) elders of the people (see Ewald, Alterth. p. 284 f.; Saalschütz, Mos. R. p. 39). It is unlikely that there is any reference to the Gentile nations numbering seventy, according to Genesis 10. (Eisenmenger, Entdeckt. Judenthum, II. p. 3, 736 f.; Gieseler, Versuch, p. 128), since there is no mention at all of any destination for the Gentiles (a subject on which Luke, least of all, would have been silent; in opposition to Olshausen, de Wette, Bleek, Gieseler, and others, especially Baur and his school, Köstlin also); nay, according to Luke 9:53-56, and according to the particulars of the journey, Samaria should not at all be regarded (in opposition to Wieseler, p. 326 f., Baur, and others) as the theatre of their ministry. Moreover, no reference is to be assumed (as with Theophylact, Euthymius Zigabenus, Valla, and others) to the seventy palm-trees of Exodus 15:27.

    οὗ] see Winer, p. 419 [E. T. 592]. Lange, II. p. 1057 f., is wrong in explaining: into the places which He had Himself previously designed to visit; that Jesus, namely, sent the Seventy through Samaria; that He Himself did not make this circuit, but that, nevertheless, He was not willing to give up the Samaritan people (as representatives of the seventy Gentile nations), and therefore determined to convey the gospel to them by means of the Seventy. Against this invention of a “generous revenge,” πρὸ προσώπου αὐτοῦ and the imperfect ἤμελλεν are decisive. In general it is a mistake to assume that the mission of the Seventy went beyond the bounds of Judaism—on which assumption Baur and his school base the supposed Pauline tendency of the narrative. The region of the Samaritans is scarcely trodden before it is again forsaken, Luke 9:56, prior to the appointment of the Seventy. Weiss in the Stud. u. Krit. 1861, p. 711, is right in saying: “Of any appointment of the seventy disciples for Samaria, or for the heathen world at all, there is not a single word said.” Comp. Holtzmann, p. 393.

    REMARK.

    The narrative of the Seventy has been relegated into the unhistorical domain by Strauss, de Wette, Gfrörer (Jahr. d. Heils, II. p. 371), Theile (z. Biogr. J. p. 51 f.), von Ammon (L. J. II. p. 355 ff.), Baur (Evang. p. 498 ff.), Schwegler, Bruno Bauer, Köstlin, Zeller, Ritschl, and others. But (1) as they accept the position that this was only a temporary and special appointment for the present journey, and not a permanent function, Luke 10:1, the silence of the rest of the evangelists, who indeed have not in general the detailed thread of this journey, as well as the silence of the subsequent history about their doings, is very easy to understand.—(2) That Jesus in general had around Him a larger circle of constant disciples, besides the Twelve, from whom He could appoint seventy for a special commission, is in itself, and from the evidence of such passages as Acts 1:15; Acts 1:21, 1 Corinthians 15:6, as well as John 6:60, not to be doubted.—(3) The tradition would hardly have restrained itself within these narrow limits, but would have gone further than simply to allow the Seventy to be appointed and sent forth, and then to return and vanish; and would especially have passed over into the apostolic history.—(4) That Jesus gave them a commission similar to that which He gave the Twelve, arose from the similar character of their temporary relation, in respect whereof, moreover, it is to be conceded that the tradition involuntarily mingles elements out of the two commissions.(126) (5) If the narrative had been, as has been supposed (see especially Baur, Evang. p. 435 ff., 498 ff.), an invention of the author, intended typically to keep the apostolic call of Paul in incessant contrast with that of the Twelve, it would have been just as necessary as it was easy to the inventor to relate what they did, or at least to inweave into the commission characteristic references to the ministry of Paul, yet these are entirely wanting (comp. rather Luke 24:47 f.; Acts 1:8); moreover, the Acts of the Apostles would not have been perfectly silent about the Seventy. In like manner as Baur, Köstlin also, p. 267 f., judges, deriving the narrative, as an account typically prefiguring the mission to the heathen,(127) from the supposed Gospel of Peter, without, however, acquiescing in the opposition to the Twelve asserted by Baur. Ewald (Evang. p. 285, Gesch. Chr. p. 349), with whom in substance Holtzmann, p. 392 f., agrees, refers the narrative to a later period, in which the gradual disappearance of the Twelve gave to the Lord’s remaining companions so much more importance, that what was at first true only of the Twelve was involuntarily transferred to a wider circle; comp. also Weizsäcker, p. 161 f., 409 f. But against this also the reasons specified under 1–4 hold good. Ewald, in his Gesch. d. Apost. Zeitalt. p. 158, supposes that they belonged to the hundred and twenty persons mentioned in Acts 1:15.

    The purpose of the mission was not in any way to further the personal faith of those who were sent (Hase, p. 200; Krabbe, p. 306), but, as is evident from the commission itself (see especially Luke 10:9), to prepare, by miraculous cures and by preaching, for the imminent advent of the Messiah. This entire journey of Jesus was intended to afford the people an opportunity for a final decision before the Lord’s departure from what had up to this time been His field of action, and to be in every quarter that Messianic entry which culminated in the final entry into Jerusalem. This function of forerunners, which, according to Luke 10:1, was held in that respect by the Seventy, is at variance neither with Luke 10:7, which assumes no relatively long sojourn, but only forbids the change of quarters, nor with the return at Luke 10:17, which was necessary for pointing out the route of the journey.

    The source from which Luke derived the section is none other than that of the entire narrative of the journey (see on Luke 9:51). That he gave to a fragment of the Logia “an expansion of the original title, from a mere calculation of what was probable,” is too hastily concluded by Holtzmann, p. 146.

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    Meyer, Heinrich. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hmc/luke-10.html. 1832.

    Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

    CONTENTS

    The Lord appoints other Seventy also to go before him. Christ pronounceth a woe upon Chorazin and Bethsaida. Jesus in sweet Communion with his Father. The Parable of the Samaritan. Martha reproved.

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    Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/luke-10.html. 1828.

    Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

    Luke 10:1. ΄ετὰ ταῦτα, after these things) i.e. after proving those who were fit for the embassy or the contrary, of whom three are mentioned in ch. Luke 9:57, et seqq.— ἀνέδειξεν, declared or designated) as His ambassadors [Engl. Vers. appointed].— κύριος, the Lord) There is described in this passage an act truly worthy of the Lord [Luke 10:2-3; Luke 10:9; Luke 10:11].— ἐτέρους, others) [of whom the embassy was not indeed of loner continuance, but yet was of such a nature as to be very nearly approximating to the apostolical office, so as that also not a few of them might be able in subsequent times to establish the testimony concerning Jesus Christ. Nay, indeed, individuals among them, who had seen and heard Jesus, as well as also through the faith which they entertained towards Him, testified concerning Him, had something analogous, according to their position (in their own sphere), to the eminence of the apostles themselves.—Harm., p. 391]. The kingdom of God is always acquiring more strength, and good undertakings have a tendency to growth: especially the prophetical office of Christ was not without speedy fruits appearing. The number increased from twelve to seventy, then to five hundred and more; see 1 Corinthians 15:6.— ἑβδομήκοντα, seventy) L. Valla remarks: “We observe the number both of the apostles and of the disciples prefigured by the Lord in the books of Moses, by the twelve fountains and seventy palms in the desert [Exodus 15:27]. Therefore we ought to read here seventy [not seventy-two]: which was also the number of those upon whom God bestowed a portion of the spirit which was in Moses [Numbers 11:16-17].” Valla finds fault with the Latin of the Vulgate, which has “septuaginta duos.” The word δύο follows within four words after ἑβδομήκοντα, [ ἀνὰ δύο.] It would seem that some very ancient transcriber hastily transferred the word δύο from thence to this place. Or else Luke wrote the accurate number, seventy-two, in the first verse, and then in the seventeenth verse wrote in round numbers seventy: and so others set down in both verses either seventy or seventy-two.(91)—[ καὶ ἀπέστειλεν, and sent them) It is not said that power was granted to these, as to the Twelve, to heal the sick and to cast out demons (comp. Luke 10:17, note).—V. g.]— ἀνὰ δύο, two by two) There were thus thirty-five or else thirty-six pairs.— οὗ ἔμελλεν αὐτὸς ἔρχεσθαι, whither He Himself was about to come) So, when the apostles preceded the Lord, those who wished to hear and to be healed, were able to flock together to Christ from the localities on both sides, adjoining the route through which they were directing their journey.—[ δεήθητε οὖν, pray ye then) By this precept Jesus forthwith provoked the longing desires of the workmen, as also their prayers, and satisfied those prayers.—V. g.]

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    Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/luke-10.html. 1897.

    Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

    LUKE CHAPTER 10

    Luke 10:1-12 Christ sendeth out the seventy disciples to work

    miracles and to preach.

    Luke 10:13-16 He pronounces a woe against Chorazin, Bethsaida, and

    Capernaum.

    Luke 10:17-20 The seventy return with joy; Christ showeth them

    wherein to rejoice.

    Luke 10:21,22 He thanks his Father for having revealed his gospel

    to the simple only.

    Luke 10:23,24 He showeth the blessedness of those that were called

    into his church.

    Luke 10:25-37 He teacheth a lawyer how to attain eternal life; and

    by the parable of the good Samaritan showeth whom we

    are to consider as our neighbour.

    Luke 10:38-42 He commendeth Mary’s attention to his doctrine in

    preference to Martha’s busy care to entertain him.

    We heard before of Christ’s first electing, then sending out, twelve, Luke 6:13-16 9:1-6; and we heard of their return, and giving an account of their trust to their Lord, Luke 10:10. What their particular account was we no where read, but it was such as our Saviour judged the harvest too great for the hands of the labourers. He therefore now resolves to send out seventy more. The names of these we have not in the evangelist, only that Christ sent them out, and that he sent them

    two and two, which might be for their better mutual assistance of each other, and also for their mutual testimony one for another. When God sent out the first conductors, and governors of his people, he sent two, Moses and Aaron. John Baptist sent two of his disciples to Christ. Christ sent two of his disciples to prepare the passover, Luke 22:8. There seemeth to be nothing mysterious in this. Man is a sociable creature, and it is not good for him to be alone. We cannot determine that our Saviour had any regard to the numbers of twelve and seventy; though it is certain that both those numbers amongst the Jews seem to have had a more than ordinary character, twelve being the number of the tribes of Israel, according to the promise, Genesis 17:20 49:28; at Elim they found twelve wells of water, Exodus 15:27; according to the number of the tribes were the twelve pillars, Exodus 24:4, and the twelve stones in the breastplate of judgment, Exodus 28:21; and the number of the cakes for the shew bread was to be twelve, Leviticus 24:5. The princes of Israel were twelve, Numbers 1:44; and twelve men were sent to spy out the land of Canaan, Deuteronomy 1:23. So we shall observe that in a multitude of things they kept to the number of twelve: John in his description of the new Jerusalem, which he saw in his vision, says, it had twelve gates, and at the gates twelve angels, and on the gates were the names of the twelve tribes, Revelation 21:12. And the wall had twelve foundations, &c., Luke 10:14. And for the number of seventy: Jacob’s family, when they went down into Egypt, were seventy souls, Genesis 46:27; they mourned for Jacob seventy days, Genesis 50:3; at Elim they met with seventy palm trees, Numbers 33:9; the posterity of Jacob was in Babylon seventy years. The Jewish sanhedrim, or great court chosen upon the advice of Jethro, is said to have consisted first of seventy, then of seventy-two persons. So as the numbers of twelve and seventy seem to have been numbers to which the Jews had some respect. Whether our Saviour, in the choice of those whom he first sent to preach the gospel, had any respect or not to the Jewish value for those numbers, or designed by it to show them, that he was about to set up a new kingdom and government, which, though differing from what they had exercised formerly, yet in some little things should have some conformity to them, we cannot determine. We shall find the same powers and authority given to these seventy as to the twelve, and the same instructions: how some come to imagine a difference of order betwixt them I cannot tell; no such thing appeareth from the instructions given the one or the other upon their first sending out.

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    Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Luke 10:1". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/luke-10.html. 1685.

    Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

    других семьдесят Отправление семидесяти с поручением записано только в Евангелии от Луки. Моисей также назначил 70 старейшин его представителями (Чис. 11:16, 24-26). 12 учеников посылались в Галилею (9:1-6); 70 были посланы в каждый город и место, куда Он собирался идти, – т.е. в Иудею и, возможно, в Перею (см. пояснение к Мф. 19:1).

    по два Как посылались и 12 (Мк. 6:7; ср. Еккл. 4:9, 11; Деян. 13:2; 15:27, 39, 40; 19:22; Отк. 11:3).

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    MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/luke-10.html.

    Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

    Other seventy; in addition to the twelve whom he had before appointed. Chap Luke 9:1-2.

    Into every city and place; in order to prepare the people for his coming. When Christ is about to visit a place in mercy, he, in his providence, often prepares the way for it; and the manner in which the manifestations of his will are treated, shows the character of his inhabitants, and the way in which they will receive him.

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    Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/luke-10.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

    Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

    1.After these things—The preparatory doings of the last chapter.

    Appointed—In the Greek set forth, or publicly exhibited. The proper word to indicate the exhibition of a significant symbol. But inasmuch as ministers were so set forth or publicly inducted into their dignities, the word becomes synonymous with ordain, or to publicly appoint to office.

    Two and two—So that there were thirty-five different couples to go thirty-five different ways. Two were suited for mutual support and counsel; and, also, that by the mouth of two witnesses every thing might be established. Compare the two witnesses of Revelation 11:3; upon which Bishop Newton remarks, that reformers in different ages seem to come in pairs; as Moses and Aaron, Elijah and Elisha, Huss and Jerome, Luther and Melancthon; and, we may add, in a later reformation, Wesley and Fletcher.

    Whither he himself would come—In Greek whither he was about to come; that is, provided the proper conditions should exist. It is not likely that our Lord would, or did, in fact, expect to visit the thirty-five different localities. But these Seventy are a miniature of the progress of the gospel in the Gentile world. They are the representatives of the preachers of the gospel, to herald the goings of Jesus in all the earth.

     

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    Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/luke-10.html. 1874-1909.

    Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

    ‘Now after these things the Lord appointed seventy two (seventy) others, and sent them two and two before his face into every city and place, to which he himself was about to come.’

    As He had previously sent messengers to the Samaritans so He now ‘sent forth before His face’ messengers to all the places which He intended to visit to prepare the way before Him. They were sent two by two and amounted to seventy/seventy two in all. They may have included the Apostles, although most see ‘appointed seventy others’ as excluding them. But the exclusion is not necessary. The Apostles had not previously been ‘appointed’ they had been ‘chosen’, and ‘others’ may be in comparison with the three described in Luke 9:57-62, or the messengers of Luke 9:52. Thus there is no reason why they should not now be appointed for the mission along with sixty (fifty eight) others. It is clear from what follows that these seventy two/seventy were to have a preaching ministry.

    ‘Seventy two.’ The manuscripts differ between seventy (Aleph A C L W Theta f1 f13) and seventy two (p75 B D 73 - a strong combination). Both have strong support. There are also reasons both ways why an alteration might have been tempting to a copyist. But seventy two is a multiple of twelve and Luke tends to see the disciples in multiples of twelve (compare Acts 1:15). It may well be that a group of five men was allocated to each Apostle. They could still be sent two by two and some would cover the area surrounding each town as well as the town itself. While it is always possible that thirty six towns and villages to which ‘Jesus would come’ were to be visited, it is unlikely, simply because of the burden that it would place on Him, but six cities, each approached by an evangelistic party of twelve, led by two Apostles and reaching out into the area round about, is quite feasible.

    The number seventy two (seventy) might have in mind the elders appointed by Moses, seeing them as seventy plus the two in the camp (see Numbers 11:16-29), demonstrating that these disciples are seen as founding the new Israel. Or seventy could parallel the seventy ‘sons of Jacob’ who went down into Egypt (Exodus 1:5), again signifying a new Israel (as twelve had also done). The fact that they are sent in twos (thus making 36 or 35 pairs) is against any idea of them representing the world of seventy/seventy two nations.

    ‘Two by two.’ This would be for mutual support and strength, but also because the testimony of two witnesses confirmed the truth of their message.

    One more thought is worthy of consideration here, and that is the similarity of this aspect of things in Luke with that in Acts. In Luke Jesus has sent out His Apostles to the Jews, then He has sent messengers to the Samaritans, now He sends out the seventy anonymous disciples. In Acts the same pattern emerges, first the Apostles go to the Jews, then there is a ministry to the Samaritans, then the message spreads wider through anonymous evangelists, reaching out to Jews around the world (resulting in the end in outreach to the Gentiles). The pattern is therefore repeated.

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    Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/luke-10.html. 2013.

    Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

    "After this" shows Luke"s basic chronological progression, but he deviated from it often, as did the other Gospel writers. Luke"s use of "Lord" here stresses His authority, an important emphasis in a section dealing with Jesus" directions to His followers.

    The number of the messengers is a problem. Both70 (NASB, AV, RSV) and72 (NIV, NEB, JB) have good textual support. Commentators usually favor one or the other because of why they believe Jesus may have selected70 or72since the textual evidence is so equal. Those who favor70 usually do so because they believe Jesus was following an Old Testament precedent. There were70 descendants of Jacob who went to Egypt with him ( Exodus 1:1-5). There were also70 elders in Israel ( Exodus 24:1; Numbers 11:16-17; Numbers 11:24-25) and in the Sanhedrin, and people in Jesus" day viewed the world as having70 nations in it ( Genesis 10). [Note: Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, s.v. "hepta," by K. H. Rengstorf, 2:634-35.] Some scholars believe that one or more of these factors influenced Jesus. Others who favor72think that the table of nations in the Septuagint version of Genesis 10 that lists72nations influenced Jesus. [Note: E.g, Marshall, The Gospel . . ., p415; and Morris, p181.] Another view is that the72translators of the Septuagint influenced Him. [Note: S. Jellicoe, "St Luke and the Seventy-two," New Testament Studies6 (1960):319-21; Tannehill, 1:233.] 1prefer70 mainly because I think it likely that Jesus was prefiguring a mission to the whole world here. However this problem has no significant bearing on the meaning of the rest of the story.

    The scope of this mission was broader than the mission of the Twelve. The Seventy were to go to all the towns Jesus planned to visit, apparently not just Jewish towns but also those in the Samaritan and Gentile areas of Palestine. Evidently these disciples were to do what John the Baptist had done through his verbal witness, namely, prepare the people for the coming and preaching of Messiah (cf. Luke 7:27). Their task was not just to arrange accommodations for Jesus, as had been the task of the messengers in the preceding pericope (cf. Luke 9:52). Sending messengers two by two was a common practice (cf. Luke 7:18-19; Mark 6:7; Acts 13:2; Acts 15:27; Acts 15:39-40; Acts 17:14; Acts 19:22). It assured companionship, protection, and the double witness that the Jews required ( Deuteronomy 17:6; Deuteronomy 19:15). [Note: J. Jeremias, New Testament Theology, p235.]

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    Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/luke-10.html. 2012.

    Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

    Luke 10:1. These things. The events related in the last chapter. This opposes the view that the mission of the Seventy preceded the rejection in the Samaritan village.

    Other seventy, or, ‘seventy others,’ either in addition to the Twelve, or to the messengers spoken of in chap. Luke 9:52. The former is more probable from the similarity of the instruction given to both. The number seventy may have had reference to the elders of Israel (Exodus 24:1; Numbers 11:16), as the number twelve to the tribes. Some ancient authorities read ‘seventy-two’ both here and in Luke 10:17. Probably from a desire to conform the number to that of the Jewish Sanhedrin.

    Two and two before his face, etc. The chief purpose was not to train them, as in the case of the Twelve, but actually to prepare the people in these places for His coming. The whole was a final appeal, and also a preparation for the final entry into Jerusalem. That our Lord should follow and actually visit thirty-five places is not remarkable, in view of His great and constant activity.

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    Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/luke-10.html. 1879-90.

    The Expositor's Greek Testament

    Luke 10:1. , after what has been narrated in Luke 9:51-62, but not necessarily implying close sequence.— ( ). The verb means (1) to lift up so as to show, cf. the noun in Luke 1:80; (2) to proclaim as elected, cf.Acts 1:24; (3) to elect, appoint, as here = designavit, Vulgate.— , the Lord, Jesus, here, as often in Lk. applied to Him in narrative.— , others, the reference being not to , Luke 9:52 (Meyer), but to , Luke 9:1 = others besides the Twelve.— , seventy (seventy-two in [97]), representing the nations of the earth, the number consciously fixed by the evangelist to symbolise Christian universalism—according to Dr. Baur and the Tübingen School; representing in the mind of Jesus the seventy Sanhedrists, as the Twelve were meant to represent the tribes of Israel, the seventy disciples having for their vocation to do what the Sanhedrists had failed to do—prepare the people for the appearance of the Christ—according to Hahn.

    [97] Codex Vaticanus (sæc. iv.), published in photographic facsimile in 1889 under the care of the Abbate Cozza-Luzi.

     

     

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    Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/luke-10.html. 1897-1910.

    Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

    Luke 10:1. The Lord appointed other seventy also — Or rather, seventy others, as ετερους εβδομηκοντα, should certainly be translated; for the expression, other seventy, implies that seventy had been sent before, which certainly was not the fact, (those sent before being no more than twelve,) nor is it implied in the Greek. So inconsiderable a difference in the words makes a great alteration in the sense. “The scene of Christ’s ministry being, from this time forth, to lie in Judea, and the country beyond Jordan, it was expedient that his way should be prepared in every city and village of those countries whither he was to come. He therefore sent out seventy of his disciples on this work, mentioning the particular places which he intended to visit, and in which they were to preach; whereas, the twelve had been allowed to go where they pleased, provided they confined their ministry to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.” Luke is the only evangelist who has given us this account of Christ’s sending out the seventy; and it is the less to be wondered at, that he should do it so particularly, if the ancient tradition be true, which Origen and Epiphanius have mentioned, that he was himself one of the number. It is remarkable that our Lord assigns the same reason for the mission of the seventy which he had assigned for the mission of the twelve disciples. The harvest was plenteous in Judea and Perea, as well as in Galilee, and the labourers there also were few. Hence his exhortation, Pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest that he would send forth (Greek, εκβαλλη, thrust out) labourers. For God alone can do this: he alone can qualify and commission men for this work, and incline them to undertake it.

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    Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/luke-10.html. 1857.

    George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

    Other seventy-two. Most Greek copies, and the Syriac version, have seventy, as in the Protestant translation. Yet there seems no doubt but the true number was seventy-two. For seventy-two may be called seventy; but had they been only seventy, they could never have been called seventy-two. This was also the exact number of the judges chosen to assist Moses; (Exodus xxiv. 1.) though called seventy, (Numbers xi. 16.) as it is evident, because there were six chosen out of every one of the twelve tribes. In like manner the exact number of the interpreters called the Septuagint must have been seventy-two; and also the just number of the Sanhedrim. --- Two and two, that one might be a help and comfort to the other; as also a witness of the carriage and behaviour of his companion. (Witham)

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    Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/luke-10.html. 1859.

    E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

    Luke 10:1-16 are peculiar to Luke.

    After. Greek. meta. App-104.

    Lord. App-98.

    appointed. Greek anadeiknumi. Occurs only here,

    and, Acts 1:24 (shew).

    other = others, as in Luke 9:56, Luke 9:59, Luke 9:61.

    seventy also: i.e. as well as the Twelve.

    before. Greek. pro. App-104.

    into. Greek. eis. App-104.

    would come = was about to come.

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    Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/luke-10.html. 1909-1922.

    Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

    After these things the Lord appointed other seventy also, and sent them two and two before his face into every city and place, whither he himself would come.

    As our Lord's end approaches, the preparations for the establishment of the coming Kingdom are quickened and extended.

    After these things - but how long after does not appear. See introductory remarks on the large portion of this Gospel commencing with Luke 9:51.

    The Lord. This august appellation is here in the highest degree suitable, the appointment about to be mentioned being, as Bengel remarks, truly lordly.

    Appointed other seventy also, [ kai (Greek #2532) heterous (Greek #2087) hebdomeekonta (Greek #1440)] - an unhappy rendering. It should be, as we have pointed the Greek, 'appointed others also, seventy [in number]'-that is, others in addition to the Twelve, to the number of seventy. In all likelihood as the number Twelve had reference to number of the tribes of Israel, so the number Seventy had reference to the number of elders on whom Spirit rested in the wilderness (Numbers 11:24-25). This appointment, unlike that of the Twelve, was evidently quite temporary. All the instructions are in keeping with a brief and hasty pioneering mission, intended to supply what of general preparation for coming events the Lord's own visit afterward to the same "cities and places" (Luke 10:1), would not, from want of time, now suffice to accomplish; whereas, the instructions to the Twelve, besides embracing all those given to the Seventy, contemplate world-wide and permanent effects. Accordingly, after their return from this single missionary tour, we never again read of the Seventy.

    And sent them two and two before his face into every city and place, where he himself would come, [ emellen (Greek #3195) autos (Greek #846) erchesthai (Greek #2064)] - or 'was going to come.'

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    Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/luke-10.html. 1871-8.

    The Bible Study New Testament

    1. The Lord chose another seventy-two men. [A few manuscripts say seventy.] Only Luke tells this. It must have taken place after the events already given. Seventy-two may have been a symbolic number, and Grotius, et. al., connect it with the seventy-two members of the Sanhedrin. Since Jesus had already sent out the Twelve (Luke 9:1), it proves the deep influence of his teaching that he could find seventy-two more capable of being sent out. Two by two. So each could give the other “moral support.” Also, at least two witnesses were required to establish truth under the Law. To every town and place. It was perhaps six months before his death. He wants to go to every town in person, and he sends these ahead as “advance-men” to prepare the people for his message.

     

     

     

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    Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". "The Bible Study New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/luke-10.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.

    Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

    X.

    (1) After these things the Lord appointed other seventy also.—Some MSS. of importance give “seventy-two,” but the evidence preponderates in favour of the reading “seventy.” The number had a threefold significance. (1) Seventy elders had been appointed by Moses to help him in his work of teaching and judging the people (Numbers 11:16), and to these the spirit of prophecy had been given that they might bear the burden with him. In appointing the Seventy our Lord revived, as it were, the order or “school” of prophets which had been so long extinct. The existence of such men in every Church is implied in well-nigh every Epistle (e.g., Acts 13:1; Acts 15:32; 1 Corinthians 12:28; 1 Corinthians 14:29; 1 Thessalonians 5:20), and the fact that St. Paul and others join together the “Apostles and Prophets” as having been jointly the foundation on which the Church was built (Ephesians 2:20; Ephesians 3:5; Ephesians 4:11; 2 Peter 3:2), makes it probable that the latter words, no less than the former, pointed in the first instance to a known and definite body. The Seventy presented such a body. They, though not sharers in the special authority and functions of the Twelve, were yet endowed with like prophetic powers, and the mysteries of the kingdom were revealed to them (Luke 10:21). (2) As the Sanhedrin or great Council of scribes and priests and elders consisted of seventy members besides the president, the number having been fixed on the assumption that they were the successors of those whom Moses had chosen, our Lord’s choice of the number could hardly fail to suggest the thought that the seventy disciples were placed by Him in a position of direct contrast with the existing Council, as an assembly guided, not by the traditions of men, but by direct inspiration. (3) But the number seventy had come to have another symbolical significance which could not fail to have a special interest. Partly by a rough reckoning of the names of the nations in Genesis 10, partly on account of the mystical completeness of the number itself, seventy had come to be the representative number of all the nations of the world; and so, in the Feast of Tabernacles, which in any harmonistic arrangement of the Gospel narrative must have almost immediately preceded the mission of the Seventy (see Note on John 7:2), a great sacrifice of seventy oxen was offered as on behalf of all the non-Israelite members of the great family of mankind (Lightfoot, Hor. Hebr. in Joann. 7). Bearing this in mind, and remembering the words that our Lord had spoken during that feast as to the “other sheep, not of that fold” (John 10:16), which He had come to gather, we may see in what is here recorded a step full of meaning, a distinct and formal witness of the future universality of the Church of Christ. The omission, in the charge addressed to them, of the command given to the Twelve against entering into the way of the Gentiles or any city of the Samaritans (Matthew 10:5) is on this view full of interest.

    The question, of course, occurs to us how it was that such a mission should have been omitted by St. Matthew and St. Mark. To this, only partial answers can be given. (1) The mission belonged to the last period of our Lord’s ministry, where their records are comparatively scanty, and was confined to the region, apparently of Peræa and Judæa, which He was then about to visit. (2) It was one in which, from the nature of the case, the Twelve were not sharers, and which, therefore, naturally came to occupy a less prominent place in the recollections of those from whom the narratives of the first two Gospels were primarily derived.

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    Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/luke-10.html. 1905.

    Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

    After these things the Lord appointed other seventy also, and sent them two and two before his face into every city and place, whither he himself would come.
    these
    Matthew 10:1-4; Mark 6:7-13
    other seventy
    Rather, seventy others, as Dr. Campbell renders; for the expression other seventy implies that there were seventy sent before, which was not the case: it seems to refer to the twelve apostles whom our Lord had previously chosen.
    Numbers 11:16,24-26
    two and
    Acts 13:2-4; Revelation 11:3-10
    whither
    1:17,76; 3:4-6; 9:52
    Reciprocal: Exodus 24:1 - seventy;  Exodus 31:6 - I have given;  Numbers 31:47 - the Levites;  Psalm 10:8 - sitteth;  Matthew 9:38 - that;  Matthew 10:5 - sent;  Matthew 22:4 - other;  Mark 3:14 - and;  Luke 7:19 - two;  Luke 9:2 - GeneralLuke 10:17 - GeneralLuke 14:17 - his;  Acts 1:21 - these;  Acts 8:40 - he preached;  Romans 10:15 - And how;  1 Thessalonians 5:12 - labour;  1 Timothy 5:17 - labour

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    Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/luke-10.html.

    Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

    Luke 10:1.And after these things the Lord appointed That the Apostles had returned to Christ before these seventy were substituted in their room, may be inferred from many circumstances. The twelve, therefore, were sent to awaken in the Jews the hope of an approaching salvation. After their return, as it was necessary that higher expectation should be excited, others were sent in greater numbers, as secondary heralds, to spread universally in every place the report of Christ’s coming. Strictly speaking, they received no commission, but were only sent by Christ as heralds, to prepare the minds of the people for receiving his doctrine. As to the number seventy, he appears to have followed that order to which the people had already been long accustomed. We must bear in mind what has been already said about the twelve Apostles, (30) that as this was the number of the tribes when the people were in a flourishing condition, so an equal number of apostles or patriarchs was chosen, to reassemble the members of the lacerated body, that the restoration of the Church might thus be complete.

    There was a similar reason for these seventy. We know that Moses, finding himself insufficient for the burden, took seventy judges to be associated with him in governing the people, ( Exodus 18:22.) But when the Jews returned from the Babylonish captivity, they had a council or συνέδριον —which was corrupted into Sanedrin (31) —consisting of seventy-two judges. As usually happens with such numbers, when they spoke of the council, they called them only the seventy judges; and Philo assures us, that they were chosen out of the posterity of David, that there might be some remaining authority in the royal line. After various calamities, this was the finishing stroke, when Herod abolished that council, and thus deprived the people of a legitimate share in the government. Now as the return from Babylon prefigured a true and complete redemption, the reason why our Lord chooses seventy heralds of his coming appears to be, to hold out the restoration of their fallen state; and as the people were to be united under one head, he does not give them authority as judges, but only commands them to go before him, that he may possess the sole power. And sent them by two and two. H e appears to have done so on account of their weakness. There was reason to fear, that individually they would not have the boldness necessary for the vigorous discharge of their office; and therefore, that they may encourage one another, they are sent by two and two

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    Calvin, John. "Commentary on Luke 10:1". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/luke-10.html. 1840-57.