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THE verses before us relate a circumstance which is not recorded by any Gospel writer except Luke. That circumstance is our Lord’s appointment of seventy disciples to go before His face, in addition to the twelve apostles. We do not know the names of any of these disciples. Their subsequent history has not been revealed to us. But the instructions with which they are sent forth are deeply interesting, and deserve the close attention of all ministers and teachers of the Gospel.
The first point in our Lord’s charge to the seventy disciples is the importance of prayer and intercession. This is the leading thought with which our Lord opens His address. Before He tells His ambassadors what to do, He first bids them to pray. "Pray ye the Lord of the harvest that He would send forth laborers into his harvest."
Prayer is one of the best and most powerful means of helping forward the cause of Christ in the world. It is a means within the reach of all who have the Spirit of adoption. Not all believers have money to give to missions. Very few have great intellectual gifts, or extensive influence among men. But all believers can pray for the success of the Gospel,—and they ought to pray for it daily. Many and marvelous are the answers to prayer which are recorded for our learning in the Bible. "The effectual fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much." (James 5:16.)
Prayer is one of the principal weapons which the minister of the Gospel ought to use. To be a true successor of the apostles, he must give himself to prayer as well as to the ministry of the word. (Acts 6:4.) He must not only use the sword of the Spirit, but pray always, with all prayer and supplication. (Ephesians 6:17-18.) This is the way to win a blessing on his own ministry. This, above all, is the way to procure helpers to carry on Christ’s work. Colleges may educate men. Bishops may ordain them. Patrons may give them livings. But God alone can raise up and send forth "laborers" who will do work among souls. For a constant supply of such laborers let us daily pray.
The second point in our Lord’s charge to the seventy disciples, is the perilous nature of the work in which they were about to be engaged. He does not keep back from them the dangers and trials which are before them. He does not enlist them under false pretenses, or prophesy smooth things, or promise them unvarying success. He tells them plainly what they must expect. "Behold," He says, "I send you forth as lambs amongst wolves."
These words, no doubt, had a special reference to the life-time of those to whom they were spoken. We see their fulfillment in the many persecutions described in the Acts of the Apostles. But we must not conceal from ourselves that the words describe a state of things which may be seen at this very day. So long as the Church stands believers must expect to be like "lambs among wolves." They must make up their minds to be hated, and persecuted, and ill treated, by those who have no real religion. They must look for no favor from unconverted people, for they will find none. It was a strong but a true saying of Martin Luther, that "Cain will murder Abel, if he can, to the very end of the world." "Marvel not," says John, "if the world hate you." "All that will live godly in Jesus Christ," says Paul, "shall suffer persecution." (1 John 3:13; 2 Timothy 3:12.)
The third point in our Lord’s charge to the seventy disciples is, the thorough devotion to their work which He enjoins upon them. They were to abstain even from the appearance of covetousness, or love of money, or luxury: "Carry neither purse, nor scrip, nor shoes." They were to behave like men who had no time to waste on the empty compliments and conventional courtesies of the world: "Salute no man by the way."
These remarkable words must, doubtless be interpreted with some qualification. The time came when our Lord Himself, at the end of His ministry, said to the disciples, "He that hath a purse let him take it, and likewise his scrip." (Luke 22:36.) The apostle Paul was not ashamed to use salutations. The apostle Peter expressly commands us to "be courteous." (1 Peter 3:8.) But still, after every deduction and qualification, there remains a deep lesson beneath these words of our Lord, which ought not to be overlooked. They teach us that ministers and teachers of the Gospel should beware of allowing the world to eat up their time and thoughts, and to hinder them in their spiritual work. They teach us that care about money, and excessive attention to what are called "the courtesies of life," are mighty snares in the way of Christ’s laborers, and snares into which they must take heed lest they fall.
Let us consider these things. They concern ministers especially, but they concern all Christians more or less. Let us strive to show the men of the world that we have no time for their mode of living. Let us show them that we find life too precious to be spent in perpetual feasting, and visiting, and calling, and the like, as if there were no death, or judgment, or life to come. By all means let us be courteous. But let us not make the courtesies of life an idol, before which everything else must bow down. Let us declare plainly that we seek a country beyond the grave, and that we have no time for that incessant round of eating, and drinking, and dressing, and civility, and exchange of compliments, in which so many try to find their happiness, but evidently try in vain. Let our principle be that of Nehemiah, "I am doing a great work, so that I cannot come down." (Nehemiah 6:3.)
The fourth point in our Lord’s charge to the seventy disciples is the simple-minded and contented spirit which He bade them to exhibit. Wherever they tarried, in traveling about upon their Master’s business, they were to avoid the appearance of being fickle, changeable, delicate livers, or hard to please about food and lodging. They were to "eat and drink such things" as were given them. They were not to "go from house to house."
Instructions like these no doubt have a primary and special reference to the ministers of the Gospel. They are the men above all who, in their style of living, ought to be careful to avoid the spirit of the world. Simplicity in food and household arrangements, and readiness to put up with any accommodation, so long as health can be preserved uninjured, should always be the mark of the "man of God." Once let a preacher get the reputation of being fond of eating and drinking and worldly comforts, and his ministerial usefulness is at an end. The sermon about "things unseen" will produce little effect when the life preaches the importance of the "things that are seen."
But we ought not to confine our Lord’s instructions to ministers alone. They ought to speak loudly to the consciences of all believers, of all who are called by the Holy Ghost and made priests to God. They ought to remind us of the necessity of simplicity and unworldliness in our daily life. We must beware of thinking too much about our meals, and our furniture, and our houses, and all those many things which concern the life of the body. We must strive to live like men whose first thoughts are about the immortal soul. We must endeavor to pass through the world like men who are not yet at home, and are not overmuch troubled about the fare they meet with on the road and at the inn. Blessed are they who feel like pilgrims and strangers in this life, and whose best things are all to come!
v1.—[Appointed.] The Greek word so translated is only found in one other place in the New Testament, Acts 1:24, where it is rendered "show." According to Parkhurst, it signifies "to mark out, or, appoint to an office by some outward sign, and is often used in this sense by profane writers and in the apocryphal books." John the Baptist’s "shewing" to Israel, Luke 1:80, is a substantive derived from this word.
[Other seventy.] We know nothing of the names or subsequent history of these seventy disciples. They are nowhere else mentioned in the New Testament. Most commentators remark on the selection of the number seventy, and assign reasons for it: Grotius says, that they were chosen according to the number of the Jewish Sanhedrim, and so were seventy-two, six being chosen out of every tribe of Israel. Wordsworth remarks, that "the number seventy was that of the heads of the families of Israel (Genesis 46:27,) and of the elders constituted by Moses, (Numbers 11:16, Numbers 11:25) and of the palm trees at Elim. (Exodus 15:27.) And the Jews supposed that the languages of the world were seventy."
[Sent them two and two.] The mission of the disciples in pairs deserves remark, and ought to be remembered in modern missionary work. "Two are better than one." (Ecclesiastes 4:9.) Cornelius à Lapide has a long and interesting note, to show the wisdom of the arrangement.
[He would come.] The Greek expression would be more literally rendered, "was about to come."
v2.—[Send forth.] The Greek word so rendered is peculiar. It signifies literally "to cast forth," or, "send forth with a degree of force." It implies that nothing but God’s powerful and constraining call will ever move men to become ministers and laborers in the Gospel harvest.
v3.—[Go your ways.] The Greek here is simply one word, "go away,—depart."
[I send you forth.] The Greek for "I" is here emphatically inserted, as if to show the dignity of the disciple’s office.
v4.—[Nor shoes.] We find in Mark 6:9, that when the apostles went forth, our Lord commanded them to be "shod with sandals." It should be remembered therefore, that the sandal and the shoes among the Jews, essentially differed. The sandal only covered the sole of the foot, and was fastened about the foot and ankle with straps. The shoe, on the contrary, was a more luxurious thing, and covered the whole foot. In the passage before us the prohibition is only against shoes and not against sandals. This is Major’s explanation, and seems the most probable one. Shoes were not so suitable as sandals to men whose only business was to preach the kingdom of God.
[Salute no man by the way.] This expression has given rise to many explanatory remarks. One thing is perfectly clear. Our Lord did not intend His disciples to neglect common courtesy. The very next verse enjoins the use of a courteous salutation on visiting a house.
Schoettgen thinks that our Lord refers to a custom among the Jews, according to which people journeying, or praying, and meditating, were exempted from giving or returning salutations.
Others think that our Lord refers to the long and ceremonious salutations which prevail in Eastern countries, and desired His disciples not to waste time in conforming to them. Barnes says, "If two Arabs of equal rank meet each other, they extend to each other the right hand, and having clasped hands, they elevate them, as if to kiss them. Each one then draws back his hand, and kisses it instead of his friend’s, and then places it upon his forehead. The parties then continue the salutation by kissing each other’s beards. They give thanks to God that they are once more permitted to see their friend,—they pray to the Almighty in his behalf. Sometimes they repeat not less than ten times this ceremony of grasping hands and kissing."
The explanation of Euthymius seems most natural. He thinks our Lord meant that His disciples should devote themselves entirely to the work they were engaged in, and not waste precious opportunities of preaching, on things which were not of paramount necessity. He also very properly refers us to the case of Elisha and Gehazi: "He said to Gehazi, gird up thy loins, and take thy staff in thine hand, and go thy way; if thou meet any man, salute him not, and if any man salute thee answer him not again." (2 Kings 4:29.)
The plain practical lessons to ministers ought never to be forgotten. They should be careful not to waste their time in leaving cards and paying unmeaning morning calls, as others do who have nothing better to do with their time. The man of God ought to have no leisure for any work but that of his Master. The man of the world who expects clergymen to be as ready as other people to leave cards, and pay morning calls, and dine out, only displays his own ignorance of what a Christian minister ought to be.
v5.—[Peace be to this house.] It is probable that this was a common Jewish form of salutation. (See 1 Samuel 25:6; Psalms 122:7-8.)
v6.—[If the Son of peace be there, &c.] Bishop Pearce’s explanation of this verse is worth quotation. "In the Jewish style a man who has any good or bad quality, is called the son of it. So here the son of peace is mentioned; and in Matthew 11:19, and Luke 7:35, are men called children of wisdom. So likewise what a man is doomed to, he is called the son of. Wicked men are children of wrath. (Ephesians 2:3.) Judas is the son of perdition. (John 17:12.) So also a man desiring to die is called a son of death. (2 Samuel 12:5 [margin].)" The expression therefore means, "If a worthy person, or one deserving your good wishes, be there,, your peace shall rest upon it." The conclusion of the verse is like the expression in the Psalms, "My prayer returned into mine own bosom." (Psalms 35:13.)
v7.—[In the same house remain.] The meaning of this direction is made clear from the end of the verse, "go not from house to house." The disciples were to be content with such lodgings as were provided for them, and not to be hard to please either in the matter of bed or board.
[Such things as they give.] The first expression so translated would be rendered more literally, "The things from them." Major thinks it means, "That which belongs to them, and such things as they themselves eat."
[The labourer is worthy of his hire.] This expression is a proverbial one. It is remarkable as being the only expression in the Gospels which is quoted in the Epistles. Paul uses it in writing to Timothy, in connection with the expression "the Scripture saith." (1 Timothy 5:18.) This has led many to conclude with much probability that Luke’s Gospel was finished, and regarded as part of Holy Scripture, at the time when Paul wrote to Timothy.
Mr. Ford quotes some admirable remarks from Cecil and Scouga on the duties of ministers, which throw some light on the general lessons of the whole verse. Cecil says, "It is one thing to be humble and condescending: it is another to make yourself common, cheap, and contemptible. The men of the world know when a minister is out of his place."
Scougal says, "Another occasion of contempt is too much frequenting the company of laity, and a vain and trifling conversation among them. The saying of Jerome to Nepotian, is very observable, ’A clergyman soon becomes contemptible if, when often invited to dinner, he generally accepts the invitation.’ "
THESE verses comprise the second part of our Lord Jesus Christ’s charge to the seventy disciples. Its lessons, like those of the first part, have a special reference to ministers and teachers of the Gospel. But they contain truths which deserve the serious attention of all members of the Church of Christ.
The first point we should notice in these verses is the simplicity of the tidings which our Lord commanded some of His first messengers to proclaim. We read that they were commissioned to say, "The kingdom of God is come nigh unto you."
These words we should probably regard as the key-note to all that the seventy disciples said. We can hardly suppose that they said nothing else but this single sentence. The words no doubt implied far more to a Jewish hearer at the time when they were spoken, than they convey to our minds at the present day. To a well instructed Israelite, they would sound like an announcement that the times of Messiah had come,—that the long promised Savior was about to be revealed,—that the "desire of all nations" was about to appear. (Haggai 2:7.) All this is unquestionably true. Such an announcement suddenly made by seventy men, evidently convinced of the truth of what they said, traveling over a thickly peopled country, could hardly fail to draw attention and excite inquiry. But still the message is peculiarly and strikingly simple.
It may be doubted whether the modern way of teaching Christianity, as a general rule, is sufficiently simple. It is a certain fact that deep reasoning and elaborate arguments are not the weapons by which God is generally pleased to convert souls. Simple plain statements, boldly and solemnly made, and made in such a manner that they are evidently felt and believed by him who makes them, seem to have the most effect on hearts and consciences. Parents and teachers of the young, ministers and missionaries, Scripture-readers and district visitors, would all do well to remember this. We need not be so anxious as we often are about fencing, and proving, and demonstrating, and reasoning, out the doctrines of the Gospel. Not one soul in a hundred was ever brought to Christ in this fashion. We want more simple, plain, solemn, earnest, affectionate statements of simple Gospel truths. We may safely leave such statements to work and take care of themselves. They are arrows from God’s own quiver, and will often pierce hearts which have not been touched by the most eloquent sermon.
The second point we should notice in these verses is the great sinfulness of those who reject the offers of Christ’s Gospel. Our Lord declares that it shall be "more tolerable at the last day for Sodom," than for those who receive not the message of His disciples. And He proceeds to say that the guilt of Chorazin and Bethsaida, cities in Galilee, where He had often preached and worked miracles, but where the people had nevertheless not repented, was greater than the guilt of Tyre and Sidon.
Declarations like these are peculiarly awful. They throw light on some truths which men are very apt to forget. They teach us that all will be judged according to their spiritual light, and that from those who have enjoyed most religious privileges, most will be required. They teach us the exceeding hardness and unbelief of the human heart. It was possible to hear Christ preach, and to see Christ’s miracles, and yet to remain unconverted. They teach us, not least, that man is responsible for the state of his own soul. Those who reject the Gospel, and remain impenitent and unbelieving, are not merely objects of pity and compassion, but deeply guilty and blameworthy in God’s sight. God called, but they refused. God spoke to them, but they would not regard. The condemnation of the unbelieving will be strictly just. Their blood will be upon their own heads. The Judge of all the earth will do right.
Let us lay these things to heart, and beware of unbelief. It is not open sin and flagrant profligacy alone which ruin souls. We have only to sit still and do nothing, when the Gospel is pressed on our acceptance, and we shall find ourselves one day in the pit. We need not run into any excess of riot. We need not openly oppose true religion. We have only to remain cold, careless, indifferent, unmoved, and unaffected, and our end will be in hell. This was the ruin of Chorazin and Bethsaida. And this, it may be feared, will be the ruin of thousands, as long as the world stands. No sin makes less noise, but none so surely damns the soul, as unbelief.
The last point that we should notice in these verses is the honor which the Lord Jesus is pleased to put upon His faithful ministers. We see this brought out in the words with which He concludes His charge to the seventy disciples. He says to them, "He that heareth you heareth me, and he that despiseth you despiseth me, and he that despiseth me despiseth Him that sent me."
The language here used by our Lord is very remarkable, and the more so when we remember that it was addressed to the seventy disciples, and not to the twelve apostles. The lesson it is intended to convey is clear and unmistakable. It teaches us that ministers are to be regarded as Christ’s messengers and ambassadors to a sinful world. So long as they do their work faithfully, they are worthy of honor and respect for their Master’s sake. Those who despise them, are not despising them so much as their Master. Those who reject the terms of salvation which they are commissioned to proclaim, are doing an injury not so much to them as to their King. When Hanun, king of Ammon, ill-used the ambassadors of David, the insult was resented as if it had been done to David himself. (2 Samuel 10:1-19.)
Let us remember these things, in order that we may form a right estimate of the position of a minister of the Gospel. The subject is one on which error abounds. On the one side the minister’s office is regarded with idolatrous and superstitious reverence. On the other side it is often regarded with ignorant contempt. Both extremes are wrong. Both errors arise from forgetfulness of the plain teaching of Scripture. The minister who does not do Christ’s work faithfully, or deliver Christ’s message correctly, has no right to look for the respect of the people.
But the minister who declares all the counsel of God, and keeps back nothing that is profitable, is one whose words cannot be disregarded without great sin. He is on the King’s business. He is a herald. He is an ambassador. He is the bearer of a flag of truce. He brings the glad tidings of terms of peace. To such a man the words of our Lord will prove strictly applicable. The rich may trample on him. The wicked may hate him. The pleasure-lover may be annoyed at him. The covetous may be vexed by him. But he may take comfort daily in His Master’s words, "He that despiseth you despiseth me." The last day will prove that these words were not spoken in vain.
v8.—[Eat such things as are set before you.] Quesnel remarks on this verse, "An evangelical labourer, to satisfy the necessities of life, may make use of all such things as are set before him, and are not forbidden, provided it be done without eagerness or affectation. If a missionary, a pastor, or a preacher do not show a great indifferency towards everything which relates to bodily wants, he will never be able much to advance the work of God."
v11.—[Be ye sure of this.] The literal translation of the Greek expression used here, would be, "Know this."
v12.—[It shall be more tolerable, &c.] Let it be noted here that there are degrees of guilt and punishment in hell, even as there are degrees of grace and glory in heaven.
Let it also be noted, that our Lord speaks of Sodom as a real city which once existed; and of the story of the guilt of its inhabitants, as a real and true story. There is no foundation here for the theory that the historical parts of the Old Testament are only mythical inventions, intended to point a moral, or convey a spiritual lesson.
Let it also be noted, that both in the present and the three following verses, the grand truth is manifestly implied that man is accountable for his belief, and that not believing the Gospel is a sin which leads to hell as really as not keeping the ten commandments. It is doubtless true that no man can come to Christ except the Father draws him. But it is also no less true that God regards man as a responsible being, and that his not coming to Christ will be part of his guilt, and add to his condemnation at the last day.
v13.—[Chorazin, Bethsaida.] Let it be noted that these places were in the district where all our Lord’s chiefest miracles were wrought; and where at least five of the apostles are supposed to have lived, Peter, Andrew, Philip, James, and John. It is not the seeing miracles alone that is necessary to convert souls.
[Tyre and Sidon.] These two cities were great commercial ports, famous for their riches, luxury, and idolatry. Ezekiel prophesies against them. (Ezekiel 38:1-23.) They are now little better than ruins.
v15.—[Thrust down to hell.] It is worthy of remark, that Capernaum, of which this strong expression is spoken, has so completely passed away, that not even its ruins remain, and the place where it stood is matter of dispute.
It should be noted that "heaven" and "hell" are probably used here as allegorical expressions, signifying the highest exaltation and the lowest degradation. (See Isaiah 14:13.)
v16.—[He that heareth you heareth me.] There is probably no stronger language than this in the New Testament about the dignity of a faithful minister’s office, and the guilt incurred by those who refuse to hear his message. It is language, we must remember, which is not addressed to the twelve apostles, but to seventy disciples, of whose names and subsequent history we know nothing. Scott remarks, "To reject an ambassador, or to treat him with contempt, is an affront to the prince who commissioned and sent him, and whom he represents. The apostles and seventy disciples were the ambassadors and representatives of Christ; and they who rejected and despised them, in fact rejected and despised Him."
It is one thing to take a Roman Catholic view of the ministry, maintain apostolical succession, and regard ministers as mediators between God and man, by virtue of their office and orders. It is quite another thing to despise their office, and regard their warnings and exhortations as of no importance. Both extremes are grievous errors, and should be carefully avoided.
WE learn, from this passage, how ready Christians are to be puffed up with success. It is written, that the seventy returned from their first mission with joy, "saying, Lord, even the devils are subject unto us through thy name." There was much false fire in that joy. There was evidently self-satisfaction in that report of achievements. The whole tenor of the passage leads us to this conclusion. The remarkable expression which our Lord uses about Satan’s fall from heaven, was most probably meant to be a caution. He read the hearts of the young and inexperienced soldiers before Him. He saw how much they were lifted up by their first victory. He wisely checks them in their undue exultation. He warns them against pride.
The lesson is one which all who work for Christ should mark and remember. Success is what all faithful laborers in the Gospel field desire. The minister at home and the missionary abroad, the district visitor and the city missionary, the tract distributor and the Sunday-school teacher, all alike long for success. All long to see Satan’s kingdom pulled down, and souls converted to God. We cannot wonder. The desire is right and good.
Let it, however, never be forgotten, that the time of success is a time of danger to the Christian’s soul. The very hearts that are depressed when all things seem against them are often unduly exalted in the day of prosperity. Few men are like Samson, and can kill a lion without telling others of it. (Judges 14:6.) No wonder that Paul says of a bishop, that he ought not to be "a novice, lest being lifted up with pride, he fall into the condemnation of the devil." (1 Timothy 3:6.) Most of Christ’s laborers probably have as much success as their souls can bear.
Let us pray much for humility, and especially for humility in our days of peace and success. When everything around us seems to prosper, and all our plans work well,—when family trials and sicknesses are kept from us, and the course of our worldly affairs runs smooth,—when our daily crosses are light, and all within and without like a morning without clouds,—then, then is the time when our souls are in danger! Then is the time when we have need to be doubly watchful over our own hearts. Then is the time when seeds of evil are sown within us by the devil, which may one day astound us by their growth and strength.
There are few Christians who can carry a full cup with a steady hand. There are few whose souls prosper in their days of uninterrupted success. We are all inclined to sacrifice to our net, and burn incense to our own drag. (Habakkuk 1:16.) We are ready to think that our own might and our own wisdom have procured us the victory. The caution of the passage before us ought never to be forgotten. In the midst of our triumphs, let us cry earnestly, "Lord, clothe us with humility."
We learn, for another thing, from these verses, that gifts, and power of working miracles, are very inferior to grace. It is written that our Lord said to the seventy disciples, "In this rejoice not, that the spirits are subject unto you, but rather rejoice because your names are written in heaven." It was doubtless an honor and a privilege to be allowed to cast out devils. The disciples were right to be thankful. But it was a far higher privilege to be converted and pardoned men, and to have their names written in the register of saved souls.
The distinction here drawn between grace and gifts is one of deep importance, and often and sadly overlooked in the present day. Gifts, such as mental vigor, vast memory, striking eloquence, ability in argument, power in reasoning, are often unduly valued by those who possess them, and unduly admired by those who possess them not. These things ought not so to be. Men forget that gifts without grace save no one’s soul, and are the characteristic of Satan himself.
Grace, on the contrary, is an everlasting inheritance, and, lowly and despised as its possessor may be, will land him safe in glory. He that has gifts without grace is dead in sins, however splendid his gifts may be. But he that has grace without gifts is alive to God, however unlearned and ignorant he may appear to man. And "a living dog is better than a dead lion." (Ecclesiastes 9:4.)
Let the religion which we aim to possess be a religion in which grace is the main thing. Let it not content us to be able to speak eloquently, or preach powerfully, or reason ably, or argue cleverly, or profess loudly, or talk fluently. Let it not satisfy us to know the whole system of Christian doctrines, and to have texts and words at our command. These things are all well in their way. They are not to be undervalued. They have their use. But these things are not the grace of God, and they will not deliver us from hell. Let us never rest until we have the witness of the Spirit within us that we are "washed, and sanctified, and justified, in the name of the Lord Jesus and by the Spirit of God." (1 Corinthians 6:11.) Let us seek to know that "our names are written in heaven," and that we are really one with Christ and Christ in us. Let us strive to be "epistles of Christ known and read of all men," and to show by our meekness, and charity, and faith, and spiritual-mindedness, that we are the children of God. This is true religion. These are the real marks of saving Christianity. Without such marks, a man may have abundance of gifts and turn out nothing better than a follower of Judas Iscariot, the false apostle, and go at last to hell. With such marks, a man may be like Lazarus, poor and despised upon earth, and have no gifts at all. But his name is written in heaven, and Christ shall own him as one of His people at the last day.
v17.—[The seventy returned again.] How long the mission of the seventy lasted we do not know. It may be safely conjectured that it was of short duration.
v18.—[I beheld Satan as lightning fall, &c.] There are two meanings assigned by Commentators to these remarkable words.
Some think that our Lord is speaking of the effect produced on Satan’s kingdom by the preaching of the seventy disciples:—"I saw in spirit, or with my mind’s eye, Satan’s power declining, and himself rapidly losing his dominion over men in consequence of your ministry." This is the view held by many modern Commentators, but it does not seem satisfactory. The strong language used by our Lord will hardly admit of being explained and fined down by such an interpretation as this.
Others think that our Lord is speaking of what He had witnessed when Satan and his angels fell from heaven, and were cast down into hell, because they kept not their first estate. "There was a time when I saw Satan, great and mighty as he was, fall suddenly from his high position, and become a lost spirit." This last interpretation appears to me far the more satisfactory of the two, and is that which is held by Cyprian, Ambrose, Chrysostom, Jerome, Gregory, Bede, Theophylact, Bernard, Erasmus, Pellican, Doddridge, Gill, and Alford.
The application of our Lord’s words, assuming that He refers to Satan’s original fall, is differently explained.
Theophylact, Heinsius, and Gill, consider that our Lord’s meaning was: "Marvel not that the devils are subject unto you, for I beheld their prince fall, and it is no wonder that his servants now fall before you."
Cyprian, Jerome, Gregory, Bede, Erasmus, and Pellican, consider that our Lord’s intention was to warn the disciples against vain glory; "Be not puffed up because the devils are subject to you. Remember that Satan fell through pride, as I myself saw."
I believe this last view to be the true one, and I think it is confirmed by Paul’s warning to Timothy, when he bids him not make a novice a Bishop, lest, "being lifted up with pride, he fall into the condemnation of the devil." (1 Timothy 3:6.)
v19.—[Power to tread on serpents, &c.] It may be doubted, whether these words are to be interpreted figuratively or literally. In favour of the literal view, may be placed our Lord’s promise in Mark 16:18, and the fact that Paul took up a viper and was unhurt. (Acts 28:5.) In favour of the figurative view, may be placed the fact, that Satan is called the "old serpent,"that his agents partake of his nature, and that there is a promise in Genesis 3:15, that "the seed of the woman shall bruise the serpent’s head," in which all Christ’s members are interested. (See also Psalms 41:11.)
[Scorpion.] A scorpion is a poisonous insect about four inches long, with a sting in its tail, found in tropical climates. Its sting is very dangerous. When coiled up it has some resemblance to an egg. (See Luke 11:12.)
[The Enemy.] This means Satan, the great enemy of God and man.
v20.—[Your names are written in heaven.] This means that "you are registered in heaven as citizens of God’s kingdom, and persons who are chosen to salvation through Christ, pardoned, accepted, and saved." It is the same as Paul’s saying "whose names are in the book of life." (Philippians 4:3.) See also Daniel 12:1; and Revelation 13:8; Revelation 20:12. We find the contrary expression, "written in the earth," in Jeremiah 17:13.
THERE are five remarkable points in these verses which deserve the attention of all who wish to be well-instructed Christians. Let us take each of the five in order.
We should observe, in the first place, the one instance on record of our Lord Jesus Christ rejoicing. We read, that in "that hour Jesus rejoiced in spirit." Three times we are told in the Gospels that our Lord Jesus Christ wept. Once only we are told that He rejoiced.
And what was the cause of our Lord’s joy? It was the conversion of souls. It was the reception of the Gospel by the weak and lowly among the Jews, when the "wise and prudent" on every side were rejecting it. Our blessed Lord no doubt saw much in this world to grieve Him. He saw the obstinate blindness and unbelief of the vast majority of those among whom He ministered. But when He saw a few poor men and women receiving the glad tiding of salvation, even His heart was refreshed. He saw it and was glad.
Let all Christians mark our Lord’s conduct in this matter, and follow His example. They find little in the world to cheer them. They see around them a vast multitude walking in the broad way that leadeth to destruction, careless, hardened, and unbelieving. They see a few here and there, and only a few, who believe to the saving of their souls. But let this sight make them thankful. Let them bless God that any at all are converted, and that any at all believe. We do not realize the sinfulness of man sufficiently. We do not reflect that the conversion of any soul is a miracle,—a miracle as great as the raising of Lazarus from the dead. Let us learn from our blessed Lord to be more thankful. There is always some blue sky as well as black clouds, if we will only look for it. Though only a few are saved, we should find reason for rejoicing. It is only through free grace and undeserved mercy that any are saved at all.
We should observe, secondly, the sovereignty of God in saving sinners. We read that our Lord says to His Father, "Thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and revealed them unto babes." The meaning of these words is clear and plain. There are some from whom salvation is "hidden." There are others to whom salvation is "revealed."
The truth here laid down is deep and mysterious. "It is high as heaven: what can we do? It is deep as hell: what do we know?" Why some around us are converted and others remain dead in sins, we cannot possibly explain. Why England is a Christian country and China buried in idolatry, is a problem we cannot solve. We only know that it is so. We can only acknowledge that the words of our Lord Jesus Christ supply the only answer that mortal man ought to give: "Even so, Father, for so it seemed good in thy sight."
Let us, however, never forget that God’s sovereignty does not destroy man’s responsibility. That same God who does all things according to the counsel of His own will, always addresses us as accountable creatures,—as beings whose blood will be on their own heads if they are lost. We cannot understand all His dealings. We see in part and know in part. Let us rest in the conviction that the judgment day will clear up all, and that the Judge of all will not fail to do right. In the mean time, let us remember that God’s offers of salvation are free, wide, broad, and unlimited, and that "in our doings that will of God is to be followed which we have expressly declared unto us in the Word of God." (17th Article of Church of England.) If truth is hidden from some and revealed to others, we may be sure that there is a cause.
We should observe, thirdly, the character of those from whom truth is hidden, and of those to whom truth is revealed. We read that our Lord says, "Thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent and hast revealed them unto babes."
We must not gather from these words a wrong lesson. We must not infer that any persons on earth are naturally more deserving of God’s grace and salvation than others. All are alike sinners, and merit nothing but wrath and condemnation. We must simply regard the words as stating a fact. The wisdom of this world often makes people proud, and increases their natural enmity to Christ’s Gospel. The man who has no pride of knowledge, or fancied morality, to fall back on, has often fewest difficulties to get over in coming to the knowledge of the truth. The publicans and sinners are often the first to enter the kingdom of God, while the Scribes and Pharisees stand outside.
Let us learn from these words to beware of self-righteousness. Nothing so blinds the eyes of our souls to the beauty of the Gospel as the vain, delusive idea, that we are not so ignorant and wicked as some, and that we have got a character which will bear inspection. Happy is that man who has learned to feel that he is "wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked." (Revelation 3:17.) To see that we are bad, is the first step towards being really good. To feel that we are ignorant is the first beginning of all saving knowledge.
We should observe, in the fourth place, the majesty and dignity of our Lord Jesus Christ. We read that He said, "All things are delivered to me of my Father: and no man knoweth who the Son is but the Father; and who the Father is but the Son, and he to whom the Son will reveal Him." These are the words of one who was very God of very God, and no mere man. We read of no patriarch, or prophet, or apostle, or saint, of any age, who ever used words like these. They reveal to our wondering eyes a little of the mighty majesty of our Lord’s nature and person. They show Him to us, as the Head over all things, and King of kings: "all things are delivered to me of my Father."—They show Him as one distinct from the Father, and yet entirely one with Him, and knowing Him in an unspeakable manner. "No man knoweth who the Son is but the Father: and who the Father is but the Son."—They show Him, not least, as the Mighty Revealer of the Father to the sons of men, as the God who pardons iniquity, and loves sinners for His Son’s sake: "No man knoweth who the Father is but he to whom the Son will reveal Him."
Let us repose our souls confidently on our Lord Jesus Christ. He is one who is "mighty to save." Many and weighty as our sins are, Christ can bear them all. Difficult as is the work of our salvation, Christ is able to accomplish it. If Christ was not God as well as man we might indeed despair. But with such a Savior as this we may begin boldly, and press on hopefully, and await death and judgment without fear. Our help is laid on one that is mighty. (Psalms 89:19.) Christ over all, God blessed forever, will not fail any one that trusts in Him.
Let us observe, finally, the peculiar privileges of those who hear the Gospel of Christ. We read that our Lord said to His disciples, "Blessed are the eyes which see the things that ye see. For I tell you that many prophets and kings have desired to see those things which ye see, and have not seen them, and to hear those things which ye hear, and have not heard them."
The full significance of these words will probably never be understood by Christians until the last day. We have probably a most faint idea of the enormous advantages enjoyed by believers who have lived since Christ came into the world, compared to those of believers who died before Christ was born. The difference between the knowledge of an Old Testament saint and a saint in the apostles’ days is far greater than we conceive. It is the difference of twilight and noon-day, of winter and summer, of the mind of a child and the mind of a full-grown man. No doubt the Old Testament saints looked to a coming Savior by faith, and believed in a resurrection and a life to come. But the coming and death of Christ unlocked a hundred Scriptures which before were closed, and cleared up scores of doubtful points which before had never been solved. In short, "the way into the holiest was not made manifest, while the first tabernacle was standing." (Hebrews 9:8.) The humblest Christian believer understands things which David and Isaiah could never explain.
Let us leave the passage with a deep sense of our own debt to God and of our great responsibility for the full light of the Gospel. Let us see that we make a good use of our many privileges. Having a full Gospel, let us beware that we do not neglect it. It is a weighty saying, "To whomsoever much is given, of them will much be required." (Luke 12:48.)
v21.—[I thank thee, O Father, &c.] The meaning of this remarkable expression appears to be, "I thank thee, that, having hid these things from the wise and prudent, thou hast revealed them unto babes." The same kind of expression is found in Romans 6:17. "God be thanked, that ye were the servants of sin, but ye have obeyed from the heart that form of doctrine." The thanks are not given because they were the servants of sin, but because they had obeyed the Gospel. Campbell remarks, that the same kind of expression may be found in Isaiah 12:1, which literally rendered would be. "Lord, I will praise thee, because thou wast angry with me; thine anger is turned away."
[Wise and prudent.] These were the Scribes, and Pharisees, and Priests, and Elders of the Jews, who were "wise in their own eyes, and prudent in their own sight," and refused to receive the Gospel of Christ.
[Babes.] These were the fishermen, the publicans, and other poor and unlearned Jews, who became our Lord’s disciples, and followed Him, when the majority of the nation would not believe.
Let it be noted, that this remarkable expression, and that in the verse following, appear to have been used by our Lord more than once. The words in Matthew 11:25 seem to have been spoken on an entirely different occasion.
v22.—[All things are delivered unto me, &c.] Let the words of Whitby on this verse be noted. "All things, that is all power both in heaven and earth, (Matthew 28:18,) all judgment, (John 5:22,) and power over all flesh to give eternal life. (John 17:2.) Now this includes power to raise the dead, and to pass judgment on them according to their works, and secret thoughts, and so a power and wisdom which is plainly divine, and consequently the divine nature from which these attributes are inseparable. This is an argument for the divinity of Christ!"
[Kings.] By these "kings" we must suppose such men are meant as David, Solomon, Hezekiah, Jehoshaphat, and Josiah.
WE should notice in this passage, the solemn question which was addressed to our Lord Jesus Christ. We are told that a certain lawyer asked Him, "What shall I do to inherit eternal life?" The motive of this man was evidently not right. He only asked this question to "tempt" our Lord, and to provoke Him to say something on which His enemies might lay hold. Yet the question he propounded was undoubtedly one of the deepest importance.
It is a question which deserves the principal attention of every man, woman, and child on earth. We are all sinners—dying sinners, and sinners going to be judged after death. "How shall our sins be pardoned? Wherewith shall we come before God? How shall we escape the damnation of hell? Whither shall we flee from the wrath to come? What must we do to be saved?"—These are inquiries which people of every rank ought to put to themselves, and never rest till they find an answer.
It is a question which unhappily few care to consider. Thousands are constantly inquiring, "What shall we eat? What shall we drink? Wherewithal shall we be clothed? How can we get money? How can we enjoy ourselves? How can we prosper in the world?" Few, very few, will ever give a moment’s thought to the salvation of their souls. They hate the subject. It makes them uncomfortable. They turn from it and put it away. Faithful and true is that saying of our Lord’s, "Wide is the gate and broad is the way that leadeth unto destruction, and many there be that go in thereat." (Matthew 7:13.)
Let us not be ashamed of putting the lawyer’s question to our own souls. Let us rather ponder it, think about it, and never be content till it fills the first place in our minds. Let us seek to have the witness of the Spirit within us, that we repent us truly of sin, that we have a lively faith in God’s mercy through Christ, and that we are really walking with God. This is the character of the heirs of eternal life. These are they who shall one day receive the kingdom prepared for the children of God.
We should notice, secondly, in this passage, the high honor which our Lord Jesus Christ places on the Bible. He refers the lawyer at once to the Scriptures, as the only rule of faith and practice. He does not say in reply to his question,—"What does the Jewish Church say about eternal life? What do the Scribes, and Pharisees, and priests think? What is taught on the subject in the traditions of the elders?"—He takes a far simpler and more direct course. He sends his questioner at once to the writings of the Old Testament: "What is written in the law? How readest thou?"
Let the principle contained in these words, be one of the foundation principles of our Christianity. Let the Bible, the whole Bible, and nothing but the Bible, be the rule of our faith and practice. Holding this principle we travel upon the king’s highway. The road may sometimes seem narrow, and our faith may be sorely tried, but we shall not be allowed greatly to err. Departing from this principle we enter on a pathless wilderness. There is no telling what we may be led to believe or do. Forever let us bear this in mind. Here let us cast anchor. Here let us abide.
It matters nothing who says a thing in religion, whether an ancient father, or a modern Bishop, or a learned divine. Is it in the Bible? Can it be proved by the Bible? If not, it is not to be believed. It matters nothing how beautiful and clever sermons or religious books may appear. Are they in the smallest degree contrary to Scripture? If they are, they are rubbish and poison, and guides of no value. What saith the Scripture? This is the only rule, and measure, and gauge of religious truth. "To the law and to the testimony," says Isaiah, "if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them." (Isaiah 8:20.)
We should notice, lastly, in this passage, the clear knowledge of duty to God and man, which the Jews in our Lord’s time possessed. We read that the lawyer said, in reply to our Lord’s question, "Thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind; and thy neighbor as thyself." That was well spoken. A clearer description of daily practical duty could not be given by the most thoroughly instructed Christian in the present day. Let not this be forgotten.
The words of the lawyer are very instructive in two points of view. They throw a strong light on two subjects, about which many mistakes abound. For one thing, they show us how great were the privileges of religious knowledge which the Jews enjoyed under the Old Testament, compared to the heathen world. A nation which possessed such principles of duty as those now before us, was immeasurably in advance of Greece and Rome. For another thing, the lawyer’s words show us how much clear head-knowledge a person may possess, while his heart is full of wickedness. Here is a man who talks of loving God with all his soul, and loving his neighbor as himself, while he is actually "tempting" Christ, and trying to do Him harm, and anxious to justify himself and make himself out a charitable man! Let us ever beware of this kind of religion. Clear knowledge of the head, when accompanied by determined impenitence of heart, is a most dangerous state of soul. "If ye know these things," says Jesus, "happy are ye if ye do them." (John 13:17.)
Let us not forget, in leaving this passage, to apply the high standard of duty which it contains, to our own hearts, and to prove our own selves. Do we love God with all our heart, and soul, and strength, and mind? Do we love our neighbor as ourselves? Where is the person that could say with perfect truth, "I do"? Where is the man that ought not to lay his hand on his mouth, when he hears these questions? Verily we are all guilty in this matter! The best of us, however holy we may be, come far short of perfection. Passages like this, should teach us our need of Christ’s blood and righteousness. To Him we must go, if we would ever stand with boldness at the bar of God. From Him we must seek grace, that the love of God and man may become ruling principles of our lives. In Him we must abide, that we may not forget our principles, and that we may show the world that by them we desire to live.
v25.—[A certain Lawyer stood up.] An English reader must re member that the "Lawyers" spoken of in the Gospels were men who devoted themselves to the study of the law of God.
[What shall I do, &c.] The literal rendering of the Greek would be, "What having done shall I inherit eternal life?" Let us note that this kind of question was asked of our Lord three times. Once it was asked by the rich young ruler, whose case is mentioned in all the three first Gospels. Once it was at the end of our Lord’s ministry, by one who said, "Which is the great commandment?" The third case is the one before us now, which is related only by Luke.
It is probable that questions like these were much discussed and disputed among the Jews.
v26.—[How readest thou?] Let the following quotation from Quesnel, the Roman Catholic writer, be observed. "Jesus Christ himself refers us to the law of God, though he was truth itself, and could give souls holy instruction. In vain do we seek after other lights and ways besides those which we find there. It is the Spirit of God which dictated the law and made it the rule of our life. It is injurious to him for us either not to study it, or to prefer the thoughts of man before it. The first question which will be put to a Christian at the tribunal of God will be to this effect. ’What is written in the law? What have you read in the Gospel? What use have you made thereof?’ What answer can that person return who has not so much as read it, though he has sufficient ability and opportunity to do it?"
v27.—[Thou shalt love the Lord, &c.] This seems to have been a formulary or confession of faith with which Jews were well acquainted.
Vitringa observes, "What the lawyer replies, Thou shalt love the Lord, &c., was daily read in their synagogues."
Doddridge says, "This passage of Scripture is still read by the whole assembly of a Jewish synagogue, both in their morning and evening prayers, and is called, from the first word of it, the Shemah. Only it is observable that they leave out the clause, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself."
v28.—[This do, and thou shalt live.] These words must needs mean that if a man really and truly lived up to the standard described in the formulary quoted by the lawyer, he would be justified by his life. But that no man ever did or could so live, and that consequently all need the righteousness of another, even Christ, is clear from the whole tenor of the Gospel. To this our Lord would gradually lead the lawyer’s conscience.
THESE words contain the well-known parable of the good Samaritan. In order to understand the drift of this parable, we must carefully remember the occasion on which it was spoken. It was spoken in reply to the question of a certain lawyer, who asked, "who is my neighbor?" Our Lord Jesus Christ answers that question by telling the story we have just read, and winds up the narrative by an appeal to the lawyer’s conscience. Let these things not be forgotten. The object of the parable is to show the nature of true charity and brotherly love. To lose sight of this object, and discover deep allegories in the parable, is to trifle with Scripture, and deprive our souls of most valuable lessons.
We are taught, first, in this parable, how rare and uncommon is true brotherly love. This is a lesson which stands out prominently on the face of the narrative before our eyes. Our Lord tells us of a traveler who fell among thieves, and was left naked, wounded, and half dead on the road. He then tells us of a priest and a Levite, who, one after the other, came traveling that way, and saw the poor wounded man, but gave him no help. Both were men, who from their religious office and profession, ought to have been ready and willing to do good to one in distress. But both, in succession, were too selfish, or too unfeeling to offer the slightest assistance. They doubtless reasoned with themselves, that they knew nothing of the wounded traveler,—that he had perhaps got into trouble by his own misconduct,—that they had no time to stop to help him,—and that they had enough to do to mind their own business, without troubling themselves with strangers. And the result was, that one after the other, they both "passed by on the other side."
We have in this striking description, an exact picture of what is continually going on in the world. Selfishness is the leading characteristic of the great majority of mankind. That cheap charity which costs nothing more than a trifling subscription or contribution, is common enough. But that self-sacrificing kindness of heart, which cares not what trouble is entailed, so long as good can be done, is a grace which is rarely met with. There are still thousands in trouble who can find no friend or helper. And there are still hundreds of "priests and Levites" who see them, but "pass by on the other side."
Let us beware of expecting much from the kindness of man. If we do, we shall certainly be disappointed. The longer we live the more clearly we shall see that few people care for others except from interested motives, and that unselfish, disinterested, pure brotherly love, is as scarce as diamonds and rubies. How thankful we ought to be that the Lord Jesus Christ is not like man! His kindness and love are unfailing. He never disappoints any of His friends. Happy are they who have learned to say, "My soul, wait thou only upon God; my expectation is from Him." (Psalms 62:5.)
We are taught, secondly, in this parable, who they are to whom we should show kindness, and whom we are to love as neighbors. We are told that the only person who helped the wounded traveler, of whom we are reading, was a certain Samaritan. This man was one of a nation who had "no dealings" with the Jews. (John 4:9.) He might have excused himself by saying that the road from Jerusalem to Jericho was through the Jewish territory, and that cases of distress ought to be cared for by the Jews. But he does nothing of the sort. He sees a man stripped of his raiment, and lying half dead. He asks no questions, but at once has compassion on him. He makes no difficulties, but at once gives aid. And our Lord says to us, "Go and do thou likewise."
Now, if these words mean anything, a Christian ought to be ready to show kindness and brotherly love to every one that is in need. Our kindness must not merely extend to our families, and friends, and relations. We must love all men, and be kind to all, whenever occasion requires. We must beware of an excessive strictness in scrutinizing the past lives of those who need our aid. Are they in real trouble? Are they in real distress? Do they really want help? Then, according to the teaching of this parable, we ought to be ready to assist them.
We should regard the whole world as our parish, and the whole race of mankind as our neighbors. We should seek to be the friend of every one who is oppressed, or neglected, or afflicted, or sick, or in prison, or poor, or an orphan, or a heathen, or a slave, or an idiot, or starving, or dying. We should exhibit such world-wide friendship, no doubt, wisely, discreetly, and with good sense, but of such friendship we never need be ashamed. The ungodly may sneer at it as extravagance and fanaticism. But we need not mind that. To be friendly to all men in this way, is to show something of the mind that was in Christ.
We are taught, lastly, in this parable, after what manner, and to what extent we are to show kindness and love to others. We are told that the Samaritan’s compassion towards the wounded traveler was not confined to feelings and passive impressions. He took much trouble to give him help. He acted as well as felt. He spared no pains or expense in befriending him. Stranger as the man was, he went to him, bound up his wounds, set him on his own beast, brought him to an inn, and took care of him. Nor was this all. On the morrow he gave the host of the inn money, saying, "Take care of him, and whatsoever thou spendest more, when I come again I will repay thee." And our Lord says to each of us, "Go and do thou likewise."
The lesson of this part of the parable is plain and unmistakable. The kindness of a Christian towards others should not be in word and in tongue only, but in deed and in truth. His love should be a practical love, a love which entails on him self-sacrifice and self-denial, both in money, and time, and trouble. His charity should be seen not merely in his talking, but his acting,—not merely in his profession, but in his practice. He should think it no misspent time to work as hard in doing good to those who need help, as others work in trying to get money. He should not be ashamed to toil as much to make the misery of this world rather smaller, as those toil who hunt or shoot all day long. He should have a ready ear for every tale of sorrow, and a ready hand to help every one in affliction, so long as he has the power. Such brotherly love the world may not understand. The returns of gratitude which such love meets with may be few and small. But to show such brotherly love, is to walk in the steps of Christ, and to reduce to practice the parable of the good Samaritan.
And now let us leave the parable with grave thoughts and deep searchings of heart.—How few Christians seem to remember that such a parable was ever written! What an enormous amount of stinginess, and meanness, and ill-nature, and suspicion there is to be seen in the Church, and that even among people who repeat the creed and go to the Lord’s table!—How seldom we see a man who is really kind, and feeling, and generous, and liberal and good-natured, except to himself and his children! Yet the Lord Jesus Christ spoke the parable of the good Samaritan, and meant it to be remembered.
What are we ourselves? Let us not forget to put that question to our hearts. What are we doing, each in our own station, to prove that this mighty parable is one of the rules of our daily life? What are we doing for the heathen, at home and abroad? What are we doing to help those who are troubled in mind, body, or estate? There are many such in this world. There are always some near our own doors. What are we doing for them? Anything, or nothing at all? May God help us to answer these questions! The world would be a happier world if there was more practical Christianity.
v29.—[He willing to justify himself.] It may be doubted whether the word translated "willing," would not have been better rendered "desiring." It is so translated in the following passages in Luke, (Luke 5:39; Luke 8:20; Luke 10:24; Luke 20:46; Luke 23:8,) as well as in other places in the New Testament.
The expression makes clear the true character of the lawyer. He was a self-righteous man, and flattered himself that he could deserve the eternal life he had inquired about by his own doings.
[Who is my neighbour?] The lawyer, no doubt, expected that our Lord would answer according to the narrow-minded prejudices of the Jewish nation at that time, that Jews alone were his neighbours, Major quotes two remarkable passages from Tacitus and Juvenal. proving that even among the heathen Romans the Jews were notorious for bitterness and ill-feeling towards all who were not of their own nation.
The feeling of the Jews towards other nations is a remarkable instance of man’s readiness to pervert and misapply God’s laws. The law of Moses about intercourse and intermarriage with foreigners, was undoubtedly meant for the good of the Jews, to keep them a separate people among the nations of the earth. But it was never meant to sanction unkindness and want of charity.
v30.—[From Jerusalem to Jericho.] The road between these two Places passed through a wild and rocky country, and was notorious for being infested by robbers. On this account, Jerome says, it was called "the bloody way." It is a curious fact, that Dr. Bonar, one of the latest travellers in Palestine, mentions, that even now it is a dangerous road for people to travel alone, and that a lady in his company well nigh "fell among thieves."
v31.—[By chance.] The Greek word so rendered is only found here in the New Testament. It means literally, "by coincidence,—as it happened."
[A certain Priest.] There is a propriety in the mention of a Priest and a Levite on this road. Jericho was a city specially appointed for the residence of Priests and Levites. No less than 12,000 of them, according to Lightfoot, lived there. At Jerusalem was the temple, which Priests and Levites had to attend in monthly courses. These circumstances make it quite natural for a Priest and a Levite to be on the road.
[Passed by on the other side.] Parkhurst suggests that the Priest was afraid of being legally polluted by touching a dead carcase, and thinks that his conduct is an example of hypocritical pretence to excessive ceremonial purity, like that recorded in Matthew 27:6; John 18:28.
v32.—[Came and looked on him.] The conduct of the Levite, be it remarked, was worse than that of the Priest. Both "saw" the wounded man, but the Levite seems to have "come" to him, and then passed by.
v33.—[Came where he was.] It may be doubted whether the Greek words here would not have been more literally rendered, "came unto him."
v34.—[Pouring in oil.] A note in Schoettgen throws light on this expression. He says, "Some one might naturally ask whence this traveller got his oil and wine on a journey? It has occurred to me that travellers in hot eastern countries made a point of carrying oil with them, that they might anoint and strengthen their limbs wearied with continued heat. We have an example in the case of Jacob, who, even when he slept on the bare ground in Bethel. and journeyed alone with only a staff, nevertheless had oil with him, with which he anointed the stone, and oil which he poured out to the glory of God." (Genesis 28:18.)
v35.—[Two pence.] Let it be noted, that this sum was in reality much larger than it appears at first sight to an English reader. The value of money was very different then from what it is now. A "penny a day," according to Matthew 20:2, was a fair day’s wages.
v36.—[Thinkest thou, was.] The Greek here is literally, "seems to thee to have been."
Before leaving this parable., a question of some importance demands consideration:—"Is the parable of the good Samaritan an allegory or not? Is it meant to teach the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ to man? Was the conduct of the good Samaritan intended to be interpreted by us as a type and figure of our Lord Jesus Christ’s great work of redemption?" Let the question be rightly understood. The question is not whether the passage may be accommodated and fitted by man, so as to illustrate the work of Christ on behalf of sinners. The question is simply this:—"Did our Lord Jesus Christ speak the parable with this double meaning, and intend us to interpret it in this way?"
The question is one which the great majority of Commentators at once answer in the affirmative. According to them, the traveller represents human nature, the falling among thieves Adam’s fall,—the lying naked, wounded, and half dead, the condition of mankind,—and the failure of the Priest and Levite to help, the inability of ceremonies and forms to raise man from his low estate. The good Samaritan is Jesus Christ. The oil and wine are the blood of Christ and the Holy Spirit. The inn is the Church. The host is the ministry. The two pence are the two sacraments. The promised coming again to repay what is spent more, the Lord’s second advent.
This, with some minor variations, is the sense which many Commentators, both ancient and modern, extract from the parable. Mr. Alford even speaks of those who cannot receive it, as "the superficial school of critics." There is no denying the praise of ingenuity to the interpretation. To many it is sure to appear very clever, just because it is not natural. But the serious question remains still to be answered: "Did our Lord Jesus Christ really intend this meaning to be placed upon the parable?" My own conviction decidedly is, that He did not; and that the allegorical sense which has been placed on the parable, is a gratuitous invention of man.
My reasons for not holding the allegorical interpretation of the parable are three-fold.
1. I see nothing either in the passage, or in the context, to lead me to suppose that our Lord meant to convey more than one plain lesson by it. That lesson is the true nature of love to our neighbours.
2. I see much in the circumstances of the parable itself which appears to me to overthrow entirely the idea that it is an allegory of man’s redemption. Without twisting and straining it in the most violent and unwarrantable manner, the parable, upon the allegorical interpretation, involves manifest absurdities. Grant that the traveller represents human nature. At best, it is an awkward figure. The traveller was an object of pity, and only half dead. Man is more than pitiable; he deserves blame, and is dead in sins. But who then can the Priest and Levite be who fail to give aid? They are part of human nature themselves! Grant, in order to avoid this awkwardness, that the traveller means the Gentile, and the failure of priest and Levite to help him, the weakness of the Mosaic law. Again, the question arises, what are we to make of the inn and the host, if they mean the Church and the ministry? At this rate, the Gentiles are handed over to the care of the Gentiles, since there was no Gentile Church till Christ called and formed it! All this may seem to some minds to admit of explanation. To my own it appears to involve inextricable confusion.
3. My third and last reason is this. I hold it to be a most dangerous mode of interpreting Scripture, to regard everything which its words may be tortured into meaning, as a lawful interpretation of the words. I hold undoubtedly that there is a mighty depth in all Scripture, and that in this respect it stands alone. But I also hold that the words of Scripture were intended to have one definite sense, and that our first object should be to discover that sense, and adhere rigidly to it. I believe that, as a general rule, the words of Scripture are intended to have, like all other language, one plain definite meaning, and that to say that words do mean a thing, merely because they can be tortured into meaning it, is a most dishonourable and dangerous way of handling Scripture. If any one wants to see to what absurdities such a mode of interpreting Scripture leads, he has only to read the commentaries of the Fathers. Hardly any, except perhaps, Chrysostom, seem satisfactory and sound on this point.
I am quite aware that in holding the views which I have endeavored to defend, about the parable of the good Samaritan, I hold the views of a small minority of commentators. But that those with whom I agree are not all "superficial," I think the following five names prove,—Gualter, Baxter, Scott, Poole, and Adam Clarke. Even Stella, the Roman Catholic Spanish commentator, denounces the allegorical interpretation, and Maldonatus is evidently unwilling to endorse it.
The question will probably never be settled as long as the world stands, but I have thought it right to bear my testimony fully and frankly to what I believe to be the truth.
THE little history which these verses contain, is only recorded in the Gospel of Luke. So long as the world stands, the story of Mary and Martha will furnish the Church with lessons of wisdom which ought never to be forgotten. Taken together with the eleventh chapter of John’s Gospel, it throws a most instructive light on the inner life of the family which Jesus loved.
Let us observe, for one thing, how different the characters and temperaments of true Christians may be. The two sisters of whom we read in this passage were faithful disciples. Both had believed. Both had been converted. Both had honored Christ when few gave Him honor. Both loved Jesus, and Jesus loved both of them.—Yet they were evidently women of very different turn of mind. Martha was active, stirring, and impulsive, feeling strongly, and speaking out all she felt. Mary was quiet, still, and contemplative, feeling deeply, but saying less than she felt. Martha, when Jesus came to her house, rejoiced to see Him, and busied herself with preparing a suitable entertainment. Mary, also, rejoiced to see Him, but her first thought was to sit at His feet and hear His word. Grace reigned in both hearts, but each showed the effect of grace at different times, and in different ways.
We shall find it very useful to ourselves to remember this lesson. We must not expect all believers in Christ to be exactly like one another. We must not set down others as having no grace, because their experience does not entirely tally with our own. The sheep in the Lord’s flock have each their own peculiarities. The trees in the Lord’s garden are not all precisely alike. All true servants of God agree in the principal things of religion. All are led by one Spirit. All feel their sins, and all trust in Christ. All repent, all believe, and all are holy. But in minor matters they often differ widely. Let not one despise another on this account. There will be Marthas and there will be Marys in the Church until the Lord comes again.
Let us observe, for another thing, what a snare to our souls the cares of this world may be, if allowed to take up too much attention. It is plain from the tone of the passage before us, that Martha allowed her anxiety to provide a suitable entertainment for the Lord to carry her away. Her excessive zeal for temporal provisions, made her forget, for a time, the things of her soul. "She was cumbered about much serving."—By and bye her conscience pricked her when she found herself alone serving tables, and saw her sister sitting at Jesus’ feet and hearing His word. Under the pressure of a conscience ill at ease, her temper became ruffled, and the old Adam within broke out into open complaint. "Lord," she said, "dost thou not care that my sister hath left me to serve alone? Bid her therefore that she help me." In so saying, this holy woman sadly forgot what she was, and to whom she was speaking. She brought down on herself a solemn rebuke, and had to learn a lesson which probably made a lasting impression. Alas! "how great a matter a little fire kindleth." The beginning of all this was a little over-anxiety about the innocent household affairs of this world!
The fault of Martha should be a perpetual warning to all Christians. If we desire to grow in grace, and to enjoy soul-prosperity, we must beware of the cares of this world. Except we watch and pray, they will insensibly eat up our spirituality, and bring leanness on our souls. It is not open sin, or flagrant breaches of God’s commandments alone, which lead men to eternal ruin. It is far more frequently an excessive attention to things in themselves lawful, and the being "cumbered about much serving." It seems so right to provide for our own! It seems so proper to attend to the duties of our station! It is just here that our danger lies. Our families, our business, our daily callings, our household affairs, our intercourse with society, all, all may become snares to our hearts, and may draw us away from God. We may go down to the pit of hell from the very midst of lawful things.
Let us take heed to ourselves in this matter. Let us watch our habits of mind jealously, lest we fall into sin unawares. If we love life, we must hold the things of this world with a very loose hand, and beware of allowing anything to have the first place in our hearts, excepting God. Let us mentally write "poison" on all temporal good things. Used in moderation they are blessings, for which we ought to be thankful. Permitted to fill our minds, and trample upon holy things, they become a positive curse. Profits and pleasures are dearly purchased, if in order to obtain them we thrust aside eternity from our thoughts, abridge our Bible-reading, become careless hearers of the Gospel, and shorten our prayers. A little earth upon the fire within us will soon make that fire burn low.
Let us observe, for another thing, what a solemn rebuke our Lord Jesus Christ gave to His servant Martha. Like a wise physician He saw the disease which was preying upon her, and at once applied the remedy. Like a tender parent, He exposed the fault into which His erring child had fallen, and did not spare the chastening which was required. "Martha, Martha," He said, "thou art careful and troubled about many things: but one thing is needful." Faithful are the wounds of a friend! That little sentence was a precious balm indeed! It contained a volume of practical divinity in a few words.
"One thing is needful." How true that saying! The longer we live in the world, the more true it will appear. The nearer we come to the grave, the more thoroughly we shall assent to it. Health, and money, and lands, and rank, and honors, and prosperity, are all well in their way. But they cannot be called needful. Without them thousands are happy in this world, and reach glory in the world to come. The "many things" which men and women are continually struggling for, are not really necessaries. The grace of God which bringeth salvation is the one thing needful.
Let this little sentence be continually before the eyes of our minds. Let it check us when we are ready to murmur at earthly trials. Let it strengthen us when we are tempted to deny our Master on account of persecution. Let it caution us when we begin to think too much of the things of this world. Let it quicken us when we are disposed to look back, like Lot’s wife. In all such seasons, let the words of our Lord ring in our ears like a trumpet, and bring us to a right mind. "One thing is needful." If Christ is ours, we have all and abound.
We should observe, lastly, what high commendation our Lord Jesus Christ pronounced on Mary’s choice. We read that He said, "Mary hath chosen that good part, which shall not be taken from her." There was a deep meaning in these words. They were spoken not for Mary’s sake only, but for the sake of all Christ’s believing people in every part of the world. They were meant to encourage all true Christians to be single-eyed and whole-hearted,—to follow the Lord fully, and to walk closely with God,—to make soul-business immeasurably their first business, and to think comparatively little of the things of this world.
The true Christian’s portion is the grace of God. This is the "good part" which he has chosen, and it is the only portion which really deserves the name of "good." It is the only good thing which is substantial, satisfying, real, and lasting. It is good in sickness and good in health—good in youth and good in age,—good in adversity and good in prosperity,—good in life and good in death,—good in time and good in eternity. No circumstance and no position can be imagined in which it is not good for man to have the grace of God.
The true Christian’s possession shall never be taken from him. He alone, of all mankind, shall never be stripped of his inheritance. Kings must one day leave their palaces. Rich men must one day leave their money and lands. They only hold them till they die.—But the poorest saint on earth has a treasure of which he will never be deprived. The grace of God, and the favor of Christ, are riches which no man can take from him. They will go with him to the grave when he dies. They will rise with him in the resurrection morning, and be his to all eternity.
What do we know of this "good part" which Mary chose? Have we chosen it for ourselves? Can we say with truth that it is ours? Let us never rest till we can. Let us "choose life," while Christ offers it to us without money and without price. Let us seek treasure in heaven, lest we awake to find that we are paupers for evermore.
v38.—[As they went.] It is not quite clear at what period of our Lord’s earthly ministry the history here recorded comes in, nor what is the connexion between it and the preceding passage. Stier conjectures that one object is to supply a serviceable caution against the idea that active working charity, like that of the good Samaritan, was the only way to serve Christ, and to show that sitting still and hearing is just as useful in its season as relieving distressed people. He says, "Is not the inmost fundamental thought of the words directed to busy Martha, a warning against the tendency to an unquiet, bustling character?" ’Do’ was the word of the Lord in the parable of the good Samaritan; but now He says, ’rest.’ ’Do not forget the hearing in thy much doing.’ "
In any point of view one thing is certain. The Martha and Mary here spoken of, are the same sisters of whom we read in the eleventh chapter of John.
v40.—[Was cumbered.] The Greek word so translated, means literally, "was drawn about, distracted."
[Came to him.] The word translated "came" implies a sudden coming. See Luke 21:34, and Luke 24:4.
v41.—[Troubled.] The word so rendered is only used here in the New Testament. It means literally "to be in a tumult; to be disturbed."
Our Lord, we must remember, does not mean to say that Martha’s occupation was wrong, but that, for the time, Mary’s occupation was better than Martha’s.
v42.—[One thing is needful.] Not a few commentators consider this to mean, "one dish of meat is needful," and think that our Lord was only referring to the many dishes which Martha was preparing in order to entertain Him.
I cannot entertain this notion for a moment. There is no proof that Martha was preparing a banquet at all, though she was undoubtedly busy about household affairs. Our Lord’s words have a far deeper signification. "Of one thing, even of salvation, there is necessity." That this is His meaning His subsequent words about Mary appear abundantly to prove. If "one thing is needful" means only "one dish," we might just as well say, that the "good part" which Mary chose, was the good portion of the feast which she had selected for herself!
Doddridge remarks, "This is one of the greatest and most important apophthegms that was ever uttered, and one can scarce pardon the frigid impertinence of Theophylact and Basil, who explain it as if our Lord had only meant one dish of meat."
The whole verse is a deep elliptical sentence, and can only be rendered by a large paraphrase.
[That good part.] This is a general expression, and meant to be interpreted with a reference to the conduct of Mary at the time when her sister interposed. She was choosing soul-benefit. She was seeking more grace. She was striving after nearer and closer communion with God and His Christ. This was the portion which she preferred to everything else, and to which she was willing for a time to postpone all earthly care. Those who seek such a portion shall never be disappointed. Their treasure shall never be taken from them.
In leaving this passage, we should be careful not to fall into the error of thinking slightly of Martha’s grace, or speaking, as some do occasionally, as if the good woman had no grace at all. This is a grave error. In the day of affliction Martha’s grace shone clearly and brightly. There is hardly any confession in all the four Gospels, of our Lord’s office, which will compare with that which she made in the eleventh chapter of John.
The Roman Catholic writers are fond of quoting the whole passage, in favour of a monastic or conventual life; and insinuate that monks and nuns are like Mary, and people in secular occupations like Martha. Unhappily, their comparison fails completely. If all monks and nuns had been people who "sat at Christ’s feet and heard His words," there might have been something in what they say. Unfortunately, convents and monasteries have been proved to be the very last places where successors of Mary are likely to be found. Bucer, in his commentary on the Gospels, dwells ably on this point.
END OF VOL. I.
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Ryle, J. C. "Commentary on Luke 10". "Ryle's Expository Thoughts on the Gospels". https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 9 / Ordinary 14