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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Proverbs 31:31

Give her the product of her hands, And let her works praise her in the gates.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Nave's Topical Bible - Economics;   Poetry;   Wife;   Women;   Thompson Chain Reference - Woman;   The Topic Concordance - Virtue;   Women;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Fruits;   Gates;   Industry;  
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Burden;   Lemuel;   Letters;   Proverb, the Book of;   Woman;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Praise;   Wife;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Beauty;   Woman;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Poetry;   Wife;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Education;   Lemuel;   Marriage;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Acrostic;   Proverbs, Book of;   Wisdom and Wise Men;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Acrostic;   Ethics;   Marriage;   Massa;   Proverbs, Book of;   Song of Songs;   Trade and Commerce;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Home (2);   Parents (2);   Sirach;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Poetry;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Writing;  
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Gate;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Acrostics;   Aguilar, Grace;   Gate;   Monogamy;   Poetry;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Verse Proverbs 31:31. Give her of the fruit of her hands — This may be a prayer. May she long enjoy the fruit of her labours! May she see her children's children, and peace upon Israel!

And let her own works praise her in the gates. — Let what she has done be spoken of for a memorial of her; let her bright example be held forth in the most public places. Let it be set before the eyes of every female, particularly of every wife, and especially of every mother; and let them learn from this exemplar, what men have a right to expect in their wives, the mistresses of their families, and the mothers of their children. Amen.

Number of verses in the book of Proverbs, 915.

Middle verse, Proverbs 16:18.

Sections, 8.

The Syriac reckons 1863 verses.

The Arabic concludes thus: - "The discipline of Solomon written out by the friends of Hezekiah, king of Judah, the interpretation or translation of which is extremely difficult, (but) is now completed by the assistance and influence of the Son of God."

IN the introduction to the book of Proverbs, among the several collections of a similar nature which are mentioned there, I have referred to M. Galand's Maximes des Orientaux. From this work, as contained in the supplement to the Bibliotheque Orientale, I have translated the following selection. They will serve to show the curious reader how many sayings similar to those of Solomon still abound in the East.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Proverbs 31:31". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". 1832.

Bridgeway Bible Commentary

The ideal wife (31:10-31)

In the original language this section is an acrostic poem. That is, each of the poem’s twenty-two verses begins with a different letter of the Hebrew alphabet in order.
A good wife makes the perfect partner. Her husband, knowing this, trusts in her and depends upon her (10-12). She is kind, clever at buying and selling, diligent, conscientious, and a good manager of the household (13-16). She is energetic and tireless, both in helping the family income and in carrying out household tasks (17-19). Though a good business-woman, she is not hard-hearted. Though careful in handling money, she is not miserly. She gives generous help to the poor and needy (20).
In like manner this ideal wife is generous towards her family. When making clothes she uses good cloth, so that all in her household look well dressed and, through her foresight, enjoy good protection when bad weather comes. The respect that people have for her husband is due in large measure to her (21-25). Through her wise words, kindness, consideration, diligence and reverence for God, the family is uplifted. Her children and her husband delight in her and the community at large honours her (26-31).

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Flemming, Donald C. "Commentary on Proverbs 31:31". "Brideway Bible Commentary". 2005.

Chuck Smith Bible Commentary

Chapter 31

Now the thirty-first proverb are,

The words of king Lemuel, the prophecy that his mother taught him ( Proverbs 31:1 ).

So these are really the words of King Lemuel's mother unto him. The advice of a godly mother to her prince son who one day is to reign over the people. There are those who think that Lemuel is indeed Solomon, and that these are the words of Bathsheba unto Solomon. Whether or not that is so is a matter of argument among the theologians, of which I have no desire to enter into. "The words of king Lemuel, the prophecy that his mother taught him."

What, my son? and what, the son of my womb? and what, the son of my vows? Give not thy strength unto women, nor thy ways to that which destroys kings. For it is not for kings, O Lemuel, it is not for kings to drink wine; or for princes strong drink ( Proverbs 31:2-4 ):

Now in the scriptures, in the New Testament we find that wine was forbidden for a man who was an overseer in the church. "If any man desires the office of the bishop or an overseer, he desires a good thing. But he's not to be given to wine, no striker. Taking care of his own family," and so foRuth ( 1 Timothy 3:1 , 1 Timothy 3:4 ). So wine was prohibited for any person who has a position of leadership in overseeing in the church. Here we are told that wine is not for kings. Anyone in the ruling capacity. Why? Because God doesn't want your mind to be colored by any kind of a false stimulant. He doesn't want anything to cloud your judgment. He wants your mind to be perfectly clear.

God doesn't really want to communicate with a foggy mind. It's hard to communicate with people who come to you and who are on drugs or who are, say, drunk. You know that they don't know what they're really saying. You know that they don't really mean. You don't really know who you're talking to. You're not dealing with the real person. And to try to counsel them is futility, because you're not really dealing with the true issues and with the real person until their mind is totally clear.

I love having a clear mind. I love having a mind that is not under the influence of any outside kind of a stimulant or force or whatever. I love being able to think clearly. I can't understand why a person would want to fog up their mind or alter their conscious state. I love so much the clear ability to reason, to think, to see things clearly. I don't want to fog up my mind and perhaps destroy my ability of judgment. So as the king, wine wasn't for the king because it has the possible altered conscious state. The same was for the bishop, the overseer in the church. The same was true for the priest in the Old Testament when he offered sacrifices before the Lord. He wasn't to drink wine lest he be serving God under some kind of a false fire, a false stimulant. Aaron's sons were destroyed because of the false fire that they offered unto God, strange fire that they offered. And God doesn't want strange fire.

So these things are spoken, the mother was speaking to Lemuel and said, "Hey, wine isn't for kings or strong drink for princes."

Lest they drink, and forget the law, and pervert the judgment of any of the afflicted ( Proverbs 31:5 ).

Lest through your drinking your state of consciousness is altered and you are not clear in the judgment that you make.

Give strong drink to him who is ready to die, and wine unto those who are of heavy hearts. Let him drink, and forget his poverty, and remember his misery no more. But open thy mouth for the dumb in the cause of all such as are appointed to destruction. Open thy mouth, judge righteously, and plead the cause of the poor and the needy ( Proverbs 31:6-9 ).

So the exhortation of Lemuel's mother to him as he is to be a king over his judgment and in the responsibility that will be his in offering and in giving judgment.

Now who can find a virtuous woman? for her price is far above rubies ( Proverbs 31:10 ).

So it is possible that at this point, if indeed this is Solomon, and Bathsheba's talking to him, it would with all of his wives, it would be interesting if he had found a virtuous woman among them. "Her price is far above rubies." Her description.

The heart of her husband does safely trust in her, so that he shall have no need of spoil ( Proverbs 31:11 ).

You just can trust your wife completely. It's so glorious to have a wife that you can have total trust in. You don't have to be suspicious. You don't have to be questioning. But you can just have that total confidence that they are true, that they are pure, that they are honest. Virtuous woman. Price is above far above rubies.

She will do him good and not evil all of his days. She seeks wool, and flax, works willingly with her hands. She is like the merchants' ships; in that she brings her food from afar ( Proverbs 31:12-14 ).

She shops the ads, gets the best buys from the various markets.

She rises up also while it is yet night, and gives meat to her household, and a portion to her maidens ( Proverbs 31:15 ).


She considers a field, and buys it: with the fruit of her hands she plants a vineyard. She girds her loins with strength, and strengthens her arms. She perceives that her merchandise is good: her candle goeth not out by night ( Proverbs 31:16-18 ).

I mean, she is just a very industrious woman indeed.

She lays her hands to the spindle, and her hands hold the distaff. She stretches out her hand to the poor; yea, she reaches out her hands to the needy. She is not afraid of the snow for her household: all of her household are clothed with scarlet. She makes herself coverings of tapestry; her clothing is silk and purple. Her husband is known in the gates, when he sitteth among the elders of the land ( Proverbs 31:19-23 ).

Now the gates were an important place of a city, for the gates were the place of judgment. When persons had any kind of business to transact, legal business and all, they would always come into the gates of the city, and the men who sat in the gates of the city were the renowned men of the city and they would come to them for judgments. Her husband is known in the gates. He sits along the elders of the land.

She makes fine linen, and sells it; and delivers girdles to the merchant. Strength and honor are her clothing; and she shall rejoice in time to come. She openeth her mouth with wisdom; and in her tongue is the law of kindness. She looketh well to the ways of her household, and eats not the bread of idleness. Her children arise up, and call her blessed; her husband also, and he praises her. Many daughters have done virtuously, but thou excellest them all. Favor is deceitful, beauty is vain: but a woman that reverences the LORD, she shall be praised. Give her of the fruit of her hands; and let her own works praise her in the gates ( Proverbs 31:24-31 ).

What a beautiful, beautiful tribute to the woman. To the truly beautiful woman. The one that God honors because she honors God. Her children rise up and call her blessed. Her husband praises her. Guys, aren't we lucky that all of us have found these beautiful women? How thankful we are to God for our wives. What a blessing they are to us. What a value. What a joy. What an asset. You couldn't buy her with rubies. Her value is far above them. What an asset they are to the husband, to the family and to God. Thank God for a virtuous wife. Over and over I thank God for Kay and what she means to me and what she means to our family. How privileged. And each one of you men, as you think of that wife that God has given to you, a precious jewel indeed.

We are told in the scriptures, cherish her, nourish her, love her, even as Christ loved the church and gave Himself for it. Thank God. What a beautiful picture we have here.

But this verse, for you young ladies, "Favor is deceitful, beauty is vain." Some of you are bemoaning the fact, "Oh, I'm not beautiful." It seems like there are very, very, very few women who are satisfied with their looks. Most women think of themselves as rather ugly. Most women have a low self-esteem. Very, very few women. There are some but they are rare who really think that they are beautiful, and those that think they are beautiful are usually odious. They're hard to be around. They're intolerable. A woman who really thinks she's beautiful. You don't want her. You'll never be able to keep her up. But the true beauty.

So don't worry if God hasn't put the perfect face on you, because beauty is deceitful, favor is deceitful, beauty is vain. It's empty. And it's so true. You listen to some of these Hollywood beauties and what's more empty than the head of a Hollywood beauty queen? Some of those that primp and think they're so beautiful and are posing constantly. But you listen to their words and they just express the empty head. They never had to think. You see, everybody is always flattering them and all. And they've never had to really develop character. And they're about as shallow as you can be. You just listen to them talk and you find out how empty and shallow they are. They've never seen any need for developing character. Beauty is vain.

But a woman who really reverences the Lord, a woman who lives a godly life. A woman who loves the Lord. There's nothing more beautiful in all of the world than a woman who is righteous and loves God. Oh, how beautiful. That's true beauty. You see that woman who is relating to God, the beautiful life is the one that is in the right relationship with the Lord. "The woman who fears the Lord, she shall be praised."

You guys that are looking for a gal, don't look for the pretty face. You're liable to find an empty head. Look for the one who knows how to pray. Look for the one who is interested in the things of the Lord. Look for that one who is seeking God and seeking her life to be conformed into the image of Jesus Christ. You'll have a wife that will be true and faithful and loving and glorious all of your life. You'll be happy. She is the one that you're really wanting. She shall be praised. But you know, God is so good that God makes them to look more beautiful to us than anybody else anyhow. That's just God's little plus benefit.

Father, we thank You for the wisdom, the instruction, the knowledge that You have given to us even in these little pithy sayings and in the proverbs. We thank You, Lord, that we can learn how to live through Thy Word. What to seek and what to shun. And help us, Lord, to seek Thee. Thy kingdom, Thy righteousness above everything else. Now Lord, hide away in our heart these truths. And may they become the guiding principles of our lives. In Jesus' name. Amen. "

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Copyright © 2014, Calvary Chapel of Costa Mesa, Ca.
Bibliographical Information
Smith, Charles Ward. "Commentary on Proverbs 31:31". "Chuck Smith Bible Commentary". 2014.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable


Some commentators have regarded only the first nine verses of this chapter as Lemuel’s writing. One reason for this is that the Septuagint translators separated Proverbs 31:1-9 from Proverbs 31:10-31 by five chapters (chs. 25-29). However, the Hebrew text implies that Lemuel wrote the whole chapter since it connects these two sections.

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Proverbs 31:31". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". 2012.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

C. The wise woman 31:10-31

There is much in Proverbs about unwise women. Solomon personified both wisdom and folly as women earlier (chs. 8-9). Perhaps God wanted us to finish reading this book-assured that women are not essentially evil or foolish-but that they can be very good, wise, and admirable. Jewish husbands and children traditionally recited this poem at the Sabbath table on Friday evenings. [Note: Y. Levin, "’The Woman of Valor’ in Jewish Ritual [Proverbs 31:10-31]," Beth Mikra 31 (1985-86):339-47.]

The form of this discourse is an acrostic poem. Each of the 22 verses in the Hebrew Bible begins with the succeeding consonant of the Hebrew alphabet. Such a device not only made for more interesting and beautiful reading, but also aided the Hebrew reader in memorizing this passage. The genre of this section is perhaps a heroic poem. [Note: A. Wolters, "Proverbs XXI 10-31 as Heroic Hymn: A Form-Critical Analysis," Vetus Testamentum 38 (1988):446-57.]

The woman in view in this passage is probably no single historic individual. This seems clear from the fact that the writer described her impersonally in Proverbs 31:10 as "an excellent wife," rather than as Lemuel’s mother or some other specific lady. Furthermore, throughout Proverbs the writers described people generally. They did not use particular individuals as examples, positively or negatively.

Some scholars believe this chapter does not describe women at all but deals with wisdom personified as a woman. [Note: E.g., Ross, pp. 1128-30; and Aitken, p. 158.] It is interesting, however, that even those who hold this symbolic view occasionally speak of the woman in this poem as a real woman. I believe this view is too extreme. Wherever a writer personified wisdom elsewhere in the book it is always clear to the reader that he was using personification as a literary device (cf. Proverbs 8:1; Proverbs 9:1; Proverbs 9:13). That is not the case here. Lemuel’s mother seems to have been describing the eminently wise woman, not just Wisdom as a woman. The woman in view seems to be a role model who epitomizes wisdom. [Note: Tom R. Hawkins, "The Wife of Noble Character in Proverbs 31:10-31," Bibliotheca Sacra 153:609 (January-March 1996):12-23.]

In this chapter, the wife in view does the things that the wife of a prince or courtier in the ancient Near East would do.

"The woman here presented is a wealthy aristocrat who runs a household estate with servants and conducts business affairs-real estate, vineyards, and merchandise-domestic affairs, and charity. It would be quite a task for any woman to emulate this pattern." [Note: Ross, p. 1128.]

Lemuel said nothing of her intellectual interests or pursuits because those things were not significant for his purpose, which was to stress her wisdom. He did not mention her relationship to God or to her husband. The absence of her husband’s involvement in domestic matters fits her station in life as an aristocrat. He would have been busy with public affairs in the ancient Near East.

Probably Lemuel’s mother intended the qualities and characteristics that follow to be a guide to him as he considered marrying. They provide a standard of godly wisdom for women. However, this standard is not within every woman’s reach, since it assumes certain personal abilities and resources that are not available to all. It is idealistic.

The poem presents the height of female effectiveness. Within the sphere of the household we see that the wife has opportunity for great influence and achievement, not only succeeding herself but enabling her husband to succeed as well.

I do not believe we should interpret this poem as denigrating a woman’s work outside the home. It simply addresses a certain kind of woman in a particular social and historical context whose arena of activity was domestic, in the largest sense, almost exclusively. It also advocates characteristics that women can demonstrate in many different contexts in life. Women can manifest them in any period of history and in any culture.

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Proverbs 31:31". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". 2012.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

Here is the key to her greatness (Proverbs 31:30). Charm can be misleading because it promises a lifetime of happiness but cannot deliver, and physical beauty is only temporary. But the fear of Yahweh is the indispensable core of a woman like this. Though she does not fear the natural elements (Proverbs 31:21), she does fear the Lord. Such a woman deserves to share in the fruits of her labors and to receive public recognition for her greatness (Proverbs 31:31).

A wise woman will enjoy many benefits. Her husband, assuming he is of normal intelligence, will value, bless, and praise her (Proverbs 31:10; Proverbs 31:28 b, Proverbs 31:31). She will be secure (Proverbs 31:25). Moreover, her husband will also cherish and honor her (Ephesians 5:28-29; 1 Peter 3:7 b), unless he is a fool.

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Proverbs 31:31". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". 2012.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Give her of the fruit of her hands,.... According to Aben Ezra, these are the words of her husband to her children; exhorting them to give her the praise and glory that is due unto her. Jarchi interprets it of the world to come; at which time, it is certain, the graces of the church, and of all believers, which are the fruits of the Spirit in them, and of their hands, as exercised by them, such as faith, hope, love, humility, patience, and others, will be found to honour and praise; and every such person shall have praise of God, 1 Peter 1:7; and also of men and angels; to whom these words may be an exhortation to give it to them;

and let her own words praise her in the gates; where her husband is known, in public assemblies; before angels and men, in the great day; when her works will follow her, and speak for her, and she will be publicly praised by Christ, as all the faithful and righteous will,

Revelation 14:13. The Septuagint and Arabic versions render it, "let her husband be praised in the gate"; see Proverbs 31:23; so Ambrose, who interprets it of the happiness of the saints in heaven.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Proverbs 31:31". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". 1999.

Matthew Henry's Complete Commentary on the Bible

The Virtuous Woman.

      10 Who can find a virtuous woman? for her price is far above rubies.   11 The heart of her husband doth safely trust in her, so that he shall have no need of spoil.   12 She will do him good and not evil all the days of her life.   13 She seeketh wool, and flax, and worketh willingly with her hands.   14 She is like the merchants' ships; she bringeth her food from afar.   15 She riseth also while it is yet night, and giveth meat to her household, and a portion to her maidens.   16 She considereth a field, and buyeth it: with the fruit of her hands she planteth a vineyard.   17 She girdeth her loins with strength, and strengtheneth her arms.   18 She perceiveth that her merchandise is good: her candle goeth not out by night.   19 She layeth her hands to the spindle, and her hands hold the distaff.   20 She stretcheth out her hand to the poor; yea, she reacheth forth her hands to the needy.   21 She is not afraid of the snow for her household: for all her household are clothed with scarlet.   22 She maketh herself coverings of tapestry; her clothing is silk and purple.   23 Her husband is known in the gates, when he sitteth among the elders of the land.   24 She maketh fine linen, and selleth it; and delivereth girdles unto the merchant.   25 Strength and honour are her clothing; and she shall rejoice in time to come.   26 She openeth her mouth with wisdom; and in her tongue is the law of kindness.   27 She looketh well to the ways of her household, and eateth not the bread of idleness.   28 Her children arise up, and call her blessed; her husband also, and he praiseth her.   29 Many daughters have done virtuously, but thou excellest them all.   30 Favour is deceitful, and beauty is vain: but a woman that feareth the LORD, she shall be praised.   31 Give her of the fruit of her hands; and let her own works praise her in the gates.

      This description of the virtuous woman is designed to show what wives the women should make and what wives the men should choose; it consists of twenty-two verses, each beginning with a letter of the Hebrew alphabet in order, as some of the Psalms, which makes some think it was no part of the lesson which Lemuel's mother taught him, but a poem by itself, written by some other hand, and perhaps had been commonly repeated among the pious Jews, for the ease of which it was made alphabetical. We have the abridgment of it in the New Testament (1 Timothy 2:9; 1 Timothy 2:10; 1 Peter 3:1-6), where the duty prescribed to wives agrees with this description of a good wife; and with good reason is so much stress laid upon it, since it contributes as much as any one thing to the keeping up of religion in families, and the entail of it upon posterity, that the mothers be wise and good; and of what consequence it is to the wealth and outward prosperity of a house every one is sensible. He that will thrive must ask his wife leave. Here is,

      I. A general enquiry after such a one (Proverbs 31:10; Proverbs 31:10), where observe, 1. The person enquired after, and that is a virtuous woman--a woman of strength (so the word is), though the weaker vessel, yet made strong by wisdom and grace, and the fear of God: it is the same word that is used in the character of good judges (Exodus 18:21), that they are able men, men qualified for the business to which they are called, men of truth, fearing God. So it follows, A virtuous woman is a woman of spirit, who has the command of her own spirit and knows how to manage other people's, one that is pious and industrious, and a help meet for a man. In opposition to this strength, we read of the weakness of the heart of an imperious whorish woman,Ezekiel 16:30. A virtuous woman is a woman of resolution, who, having espoused good principles, is firm and steady to them, and will not be frightened with winds and clouds from any part of her duty. 2. The difficulty of meeting with such a one: Who can find her? This intimates that good women are very scarce, and many that seem to be so do not prove so; he that thought he had found a virtuous woman was deceived; Behold, it was Leah, and not the Rachel he expected. But he that designs to marry ought to seek diligently for such a one, to have this principally in his eye, in all his enquiries, and to take heed that he be not biassed by beauty or gaiety, wealth or parentage, dressing well or dancing well; for all these may be and yet the woman not be virtuous, and there is many a woman truly virtuous who yet is not recommended by these advantages. 3. The unspeakable worth of such a one, and the value which he that has such a wife ought to put upon her, showing it by his thankfulness to God and his kindness and respect to her, whom he must never think he can do too much for. Her price is far above rubies, and all the rich ornaments with which vain women adorn themselves. The more rare such good wives are the more they are to be valued.

      II. A particular description of her and of her excellent qualifications.

      1. She is very industrious to recommend herself to her husband's esteem and affection. Those that are good really will be good relatively. A good woman, if she be brought into the marriage state, will be a good wife, and make it her business to please her husband,1 Corinthians 7:34. Though she is a woman of spirit herself, yet her desire is to her husband, to know his mind, that she may accommodate herself to it, and she is willing that he should rule over her. (1.) She conducts herself so that he may repose an entire confidence in her. He trusts in her chastity, which she never gave him the least occasion to suspect or to entertain any jealousy of; she is not morose and reserved, but modest and grave, and has all the marks of virtue in her countenance and behaviour; her husband knows it, and therefore his heart doth safely trust in her; he is easy, and makes her so. He trusts in her conduct, that she will speak in all companies, and act in all affairs, with prudence and discretion, so as not to occasion him either damage or reproach. He trusts in her fidelity to his interests, and that she will never betray his counsels nor have any interest separate from that of his family. When he goes abroad, to attend the concerns of the public, he can confide in her to order all his affairs at home, as well as if he himself were there. She is a good wife that is fit to be trusted, and he is a good husband that will leave it to such a wife to manage for him. (2.) She contributes so much to his content and satisfaction that he shall have no need of spoil; he needs not be griping and scraping abroad, as those must be whose wives are proud and wasteful at home. She manages his affairs so that he is always before-hand, has such plenty of his own that he is in no temptation to prey upon his neighbours. He thinks himself so happy in her that he envies not those who have most of the wealth of this world; he needs it not, he has enough, having such a wife. Happy the couple that have such a satisfaction as this in each other! (3.) She makes it her constant business to do him good, and is afraid of doing any thing, even through inadvertency, that may turn to his prejudice, Proverbs 31:12; Proverbs 31:12. She shows her love to him, not by a foolish fondness, but by prudent endearments, accommodating herself to his temper, and not crossing him, giving him good words, and not bad ones, no, not when he is out of humour, studying to make him easy, to provide what is fit for him both in health and sickness, and attending him with diligence and tenderness when any thing ails him; nor would she, no, not for the world, wilfully do any thing that might be a damage to his person, family, estate, or reputation. And this is her care all the days of her life; not at first only, or now and then, when she is in a good humour, but perpetually; and she is not weary of the good offices she does him: She does him good, not only all the days of his life, but of her own too; if she survive him, still she is doing him good in her care of his children, his estate, and good name, and all the concerns he left behind him. We read of kindness shown, not only to the living, but to the dead,Ruth 2:20. (4.) She adds to his reputation in the world (Proverbs 31:23; Proverbs 31:23): Her husband is known in the gates, known to have a good wife. By his wise counsels, and prudent management of affairs, it appears that he has a discreet companion in his bosom, by conversation with whom he improves himself. By his cheerful countenance and pleasant humour it appears that he has an agreeable wife at home; for many that have not have their tempers strangely soured by it. Nay, by his appearing clean and neat in his dress, every thing about him decent and handsome, yet not gaudy, one may know he has a good wife at home, that takes care of his clothes.

      2. She is one that takes pains in the duty of her place and takes pleasure in it. This part of her character is much enlarged upon here. (1.) She hates to sit still and do nothing: She eats not the bread of idleness,Proverbs 31:27; Proverbs 31:27. Though she needs not work for her bread (she has an estate to live upon), yet she will not eat it in idleness, because she knows that we were none of us sent into this world to be idle, that when we have nothing to do the devil will soon find us something to do, and that it is not fit that those who will not labour should eat. Some eat and drink because they can find themselves nothing else to do, and needless visits must be received with fashionable entertainments; these are eating the bread of idleness, which she has no relish for, for she neither gives nor receives idle visits nor idle talk. (2.) She is careful to fill up time, that none of that be lost. When day-light is done, she does not then think it time to lay by her work, as those are forced to do whose business lies abroad in the fields (Psalms 104:23), but her business lying within-doors, and her work worth candle-light, with that she lengthens out the day; and her candle goes not out by night,Proverbs 31:18; Proverbs 31:18. It is a mercy to have candle-light to supply the want of day-light, and a duty, having that advantage, to improve it. We say of an elaborate piece, It smells of the lamp. (3.) She rises early, while it is yet night (Proverbs 31:15; Proverbs 31:15), to give her servants their breakfast, that they may be ready to go cheerfully about their work as soon as the day breaks. She is none of those who sit up playing at cards, or dancing, till midnight, till morning, and then lie in bed till noon. No; the virtuous woman loves her business better than her ease or her pleasure, is in care to be found in the way of her duty every hour of the day, and has more true satisfaction in having given meat to her household betimes in the morning than those can have in the money they have won, much more in what they have lost, who sat up all night at play. Those that have a family to take care of should not love their bed too well in a morning. (4.) She applies herself to the business that is proper for her. It is not in a scholar's business, or statesman's business, or husbandman's business, that she employs herself, but in women's business: She seeks wool and flax, where she may have the best of each at the best hand, and cheapest; she has a stock of both by her, and every thing that is necessary to the carrying on both of the woollen and the linen manufacture (Proverbs 31:13; Proverbs 31:13), and with this she does not only set the poor on work, which is a very good office, but does herself work, and work willingly, with her hands; she works with the counsel or delight of her hands (so the word is); she goes about it cheerfully and dexterously, lays not only her hand, but her mind to it, and goes on in it without weariness in well-doing. She lays her own hands to the spindle, or spinning-wheel, and her hands hold the distaff (Proverbs 31:19; Proverbs 31:19), and she does not reckon it either an abridgment of her liberty or a disparagement to her dignity, or at all inconsistent with her repose. The spindle and the distaff are here mentioned as her honour, while the ornaments of the daughters of Zion are reckoned up to their reproach, Isaiah 2:18, c. (5.) She does what she does with all her might, and does not trifle in it (Proverbs 31:17; Proverbs 31:17); She girds her loins with strength and strengthens her arms; she does not employ herself in sitting work only, or in that which is only the nice performance of the fingers (there are works that are scarcely one remove from doing nothing); but, if there be occasion, she will go through with work that requires all the strength she has, which she will use as one that knows it is the way to have more.

      3. She is one that makes what she does to turn to a good account, by her prudent management of it. She does not toil all night and catch nothing; no, she herself perceives that her merchandise is good (Proverbs 31:18; Proverbs 31:18); she is sensible that in all her labour there is profit, and that encourages her to go on in it. She perceives that she can make things herself better and cheaper than she can buy them; she finds by observation what branch of her employment brings in the best returns, and to that she applies herself most closely. (1.) She brings in provisions of all things necessary and convenient for her family, Proverbs 31:14; Proverbs 31:14. No merchants' ships, no, not Solomon's navy, ever made a more advantageous return than her employments do. Do they bring in foreign commodities with the effects they export? So does she with the fruit of her labours. What her own ground does not produce she can furnish herself with, if she have occasion for it, by exchanging her own goods for it; and so she brings her food from afar. Not that she values things the more for their being far-fetched, but, if they be ever so far off, if she must have them she knows how to come by them. (2.) She purchases lands, and enlarges the demesne of the family (Proverbs 31:16; Proverbs 31:16): She considers a field, and buys it. She considers what an advantage it will be to the family and what a good account it will turn to, and therefore she buys it; or, rather, though she have ever so much mind to it she will not buy it till she has first considered it, whether it be worth her money, whether she can afford to take so much money out of her stock as must go to purchase it, whether the title be good, whether the ground will answer the character given of it, and whether she has money at command to pay for it. Many have undone themselves by buying without considering; but those who would make advantageous purchases must consider, and then buy. She also plants a vineyard, but it is with the fruit of her hands; she does not take up money, or run into debt, to do it, but she does it with what she can spare out of the gains of her own housewifery. Men should not lay out any thing upon superfluities, till, by the blessing of God upon their industry, they have got before-hand, and can afford it; and then the fruit of the vineyard is likely to be doubly sweet, when it is the fruit of honest industry. (3.) She furnishes her house well and has good clothing for herself and her family (Proverbs 31:22; Proverbs 31:22): She makes herself coverings of tapestry to hang her rooms, and she may be allowed to use them when they are of her own making. Her own clothing is rich and fine: it is silk and purple, according to her place and rank. Though she is not so vain as to spend much time in dressing herself, nor makes the putting on of apparel her adorning, nor values herself upon it, yet she has rich clothes and puts them on well. The senator's robes which her husband wears are of her own spinning, and they look better and wear better than any that are bought. She also gets good warm clothing for her children, and her servants' liveries. She needs not fear the cold of the most pinching winter, for she and her family are well provided with clothes, sufficient to keep out cold, which is the end chiefly to be aimed at in clothing: All her household are clothed in scarlet, strong cloth and fit for winter, and yet rich and making a good appearance. They are all double clothed (so some read it), have change of raiment, a winter suit and a summer suit. (4.) She trades abroad. She makes more than she and her household have occasion for; and therefore, when she has sufficiently stocked her family, she sells fine linen and girdles to the merchants (Proverbs 31:24; Proverbs 31:24), who carry them to Tyre, the mart of the nations, or some other trading city. Those families are likely to thrive that sell more than they buy; as it is well with the kingdom when abundance of its home manufactures are exported. It is no disgrace to those of the best quality to sell what they can spare, nor to deal in trade and send ventures by sea. (5.) She lays up for hereafter: She shall rejoice in time to come, having laid in a good stock for her family, and having good portions for her children. Those that take pains when they are in their prime will have the pleasure and joy of it when they are old, both in reflecting upon it and in reaping the benefit of it.

      4. She takes care of her family and all the affairs of it, gives meat to her household (Proverbs 31:15; Proverbs 31:15), to every one his portion of meat in due season, so that none of her servants have reason to complain of being kept short or faring hard. She gives also a portion (an allotment of work, as well as meat) to her maidens; they shall all of them know their business and have their task. She looks well to the ways of her household (Proverbs 31:27; Proverbs 31:27); she inspects the manners of all her servants, that she may check what is amiss among them, and oblige them all to behave properly and do their duty to God and one another, as well as to her; as Job, who put away iniquity far from his tabernacle, and David, who would suffer no wicked thing in his house. She does not intermeddle in the concerns of other people's houses; she thinks it enough for her to look well to her own.

      5. She is charitable to the poor,Proverbs 31:20; Proverbs 31:20. She is as intent upon giving as she is upon getting; she often serves the poor with her own hand, and she does if freely, cheerfully, and very liberally, with an out-stretched hand. Nor does she relieve her poor neighbours only, and those that are nigh at hand, but she reaches forth her hands to the needy that are at a distance, seeking opportunities to do good and to communicate, which is as good housewifery as any thing she does.

      6. She is discreet and obliging in all her discourse, not talkative, censorious, nor peevish, as some are, that know how to take pains; no, she opens her mouth with wisdom; when she does speak, it is with a great deal of prudence and very much to the purpose; you may perceive by every word she says how much she governs herself by the rules of wisdom. She not only takes prudent measures herself, but gives prudent advice to others; and this not as assuming the authority of a dictator, but with the affection of a friend and an obliging air: In her tongue is the law of kindness; all she says is under the government of that law. The law of love and kindness is written in the heart, but it shows itself in the tongue; if we are kindly affectioned one to another, it will appear by affectionate expression. It is called a law of kindness, because it gives law to others, to all she converses with. Her wisdom and kindness together put a commanding power into all she says; they command respect, they command compliance. How forcible are right words! In her tongue is the law of grace, or mercy (so some read it), understanding it of the word and law of God, which she delights to talk of among her children and servants. She is full of pious religious discourse, and manages it prudently, which shows how full her heart is of another world even when her hands are most busy about this world.

      7. That which completes and crowns her character is that she fears the Lord,Proverbs 31:30; Proverbs 31:30. With all those good qualities she lacks not that one thing needful; she is truly pious, and, in all she does, is guided and governed by principles of conscience and a regard to God; this is that which is here preferred far before beauty; that is vain and deceitful; all that are wise and good account it so, and value neither themselves nor others on it. Beauty recommends none to God, nor is it any certain indication of wisdom and goodness, but it has deceived many a man who has made his choice of a wife by it. There may be an impure deformed soul lodged in a comely and beautiful body; nay, many have been exposed by their beauty to such temptations as have been the ruin of their virtue, their honour, and their precious souls. It is a fading thing at the best, and therefore vain and deceitful. A fit of sickness will stain and sully it in a little time; a thousand accidents may blast this flower in its prime; old age will certainly wither it and death and the grave consume it. But the fear of God reigning in the heart is the beauty of the soul; it recommends those that have it to the favour of God, and is, in his sight, of great price; it will last for ever, and bid defiance to death itself, which consumes the beauty of the body, but consummates the beauty of the soul.

      III. The happiness of this virtuous woman.

      1. She has the comfort and satisfaction of her virtue in her own mind (Proverbs 31:25; Proverbs 31:25): Strength and honour are her clothing, in which she wraps herself, that is, enjoys herself, and in which she appears to the world, and so recommends herself. She enjoys a firmness and constancy of mind, has spirit to bear up under the many crosses and disappointments which even the wise and virtuous must expect to meet with in this world; and this is her clothing, for defence as well as decency. She deals honourably with all, and she has the pleasure of doing so, and shall rejoice in time to come; she shall reflect upon it with comfort, when she comes to be old, that she was not idle or useless when she was young. In the day of death it will be a pleasure to her to think that she has lived to some good purpose. Nay, she shall rejoice in an eternity to come; she shall be recompensed for her goodness with fulness of joy and pleasures for evermore.

      2. She is a great blessing to her relations, Proverbs 31:28; Proverbs 31:28. (1.) Her children grow up in her place, and they call her blessed. They give her their good word, they are themselves a commendation to her, and they are ready to give great commendations of her; they pray for her, and bless God that they had such a good mother. It is a debt which they owe her, a part of that honour which the fifth commandment requires to be paid to father and mother; and it is a double honour that is due to a good father and a good mother. (2.) Her husband thinks himself so happy in her that he takes all occasions to speak well of her, as one of the best of women. It is no indecency at all, but a laudable instance of conjugal love, for husbands and wives to give one another their due praises.

      3. She gets the good word of all her neighbours, as Ruth did, whom all the city of her people knew to be a virtuous woman,Ruth 3:11. Virtue will have its praise, Philippians 4:8. A woman that fears the Lord, shall have praise of God (Romans 2:29) and of men too. It is here shown, (1.) That she shall be highly praised (Proverbs 31:29; Proverbs 31:29): Many have done virtuously. Virtuous women, it seems, are precious jewels, but not such rare jewels as was represented Proverbs 31:10; Proverbs 31:10. There have been many, but such a one as this cannot be paralleled. Who can find her equal? She excels them all. Note, Those that are good should aim and covet to excel in virtue. Many daughters, in their father's house, and in the single state, have done virtuously, but a good wife, if she be virtuous, excels them all, and does more good in her place than they can do in theirs. Or, as some explain it, A man cannot have his house so well kept by good daughters, as by a good wife. (2.) That she shall be incontestably praised, without contradiction, Proverbs 31:31; Proverbs 31:31. Some are praised above what is their due, but those that praise her do but give her of the fruit of her hands; they give her that which she has dearly earned and which is justly due to her; she is wronged if she have it not. Note, Those ought to be praised the fruit of whose hands is praise-worthy. The tree is known by its fruits, and therefore, if the fruit be good, the tree must have our good word. If her children be dutiful and respectful to her, and conduct themselves as they ought, they then give her the fruit of her hands; she reaps the benefit of all the care she has taken of them, and thinks herself well paid. Children must thus study to requite their parents, and this is showing piety at home,1 Timothy 5:4. But, if men be unjust, the thing will speak itself, her own works will praise her in the gates, openly before all the people. [1.] She leaves it to her own works to praise her, and does not court the applause of men. Those are none of the truly virtuous women that love to hear themselves commended. [2.] Her own works will praise her; if her relations and neighbours altogether hold their peace, her good works will proclaim her praise. The widows gave the best encomium of Dorcas when they showed the coats and garments she had made for the poor,Acts 9:39. [3.] The least that can be expected from her neighbours is that they should let her own works praise her, and do nothing to hinder them. Those that do that which is good, let them have praise of the same ( Romans 13:3) and let us not enviously say, or do, any thing to the diminishing of it, but be provoked by it to a holy emulation. Let none have an ill report from us, that have a good report even of the truth itself. Thus is shut up this looking-glass for ladies, which they are desired to open and dress themselves by; and, if they do so, their adorning will be found to praise, and honour, and glory, at the appearing of Jesus Christ.

      Twenty chapters of the book of Proverbs (beginning with ch. x. and ending with ch. xxix.), consisting mostly of entire sentences in each verse, could not well be reduced to proper heads, and the contents of them gathered; I have therefore here put the contents of all these chapters together, which perhaps may be of some use to those who desire to see at once all that is said of any one head in these chapters. Some of the verses, perhaps, I have not put under the same heads that another would have put them under, but the most of them fall (I hope) naturally enough to the places I have assigned them.

1. Of the comfort, or grief, parents have in their children, according as they are wise or foolish, godly or ungodly, Proverbs 10:1; Proverbs 15:20; Proverbs 17:21; Proverbs 17:25; Proverbs 19:13; Proverbs 19:26; Proverbs 23:15; Proverbs 23:16; Proverbs 23:24; Proverbs 23:25; Proverbs 27:11; Proverbs 27:3.
2. Of the world's insufficiency, and religion's sufficiency, to make us happy (Proverbs 10:2; Proverbs 10:3; Proverbs 11:4) and the preference to be therefore given to the gains of virtue above those of this world, Proverbs 15:16; Proverbs 15:17; Proverbs 16:8; Proverbs 16:16; Proverbs 17:1; Proverbs 19:1; Proverbs 28:6; Proverbs 28:11.
3. Of slothfulness and diligence, Proverbs 10:4; Proverbs 10:26; Proverbs 12:11; Proverbs 12:24; Proverbs 12:27; Proverbs 13:4; Proverbs 13:23; Proverbs 15:19; Proverbs 16:26; Proverbs 18:9; Proverbs 19:15; Proverbs 19:24; Proverbs 20:4; Proverbs 20:13; Proverbs 21:5; Proverbs 21:25; Proverbs 21:26; Proverbs 22:13; Proverbs 22:29; Proverbs 24:30-34; Proverbs 26:13-16; Proverbs 27:18; Proverbs 27:23; Proverbs 27:27; Proverbs 28:19. Particularly the improving or neglecting opportunities, Proverbs 6:6; Proverbs 10:5.
4. The happiness of the righteous, and the misery of the wicked, Proverbs 10:6; Proverbs 10:9; Proverbs 10:16; Proverbs 10:24; Proverbs 10:25; Proverbs 10:27-30; Proverbs 11:3; Proverbs 11:5-8; Proverbs 11:18-21; Proverbs 11:31; Proverbs 12:2; Proverbs 12:3; Proverbs 12:7; Proverbs 12:13; Proverbs 12:14; Proverbs 12:21; Proverbs 12:26; Proverbs 12:28; Proverbs 13:6; Proverbs 13:9; Proverbs 13:14; Proverbs 13:15; Proverbs 13:21; Proverbs 13:22; Proverbs 13:25; Proverbs 14:11; Proverbs 14:14; Proverbs 14:19; Proverbs 14:32; Proverbs 15:6; Proverbs 15:8; Proverbs 15:9; Proverbs 15:24; Proverbs 15:26; Proverbs 15:29; Proverbs 20:7; Proverbs 21:12; Proverbs 21:15; Proverbs 21:16; Proverbs 21:18; Proverbs 21:21; Proverbs 22:12; Proverbs 28:10; Proverbs 28:18; Proverbs 29:6.
5. Of honour and dishonour, Proverbs 10:7; Proverbs 12:8; Proverbs 12:9; Proverbs 18:3; Proverbs 26:1; Proverbs 27:21. And of vain-glory, Proverbs 25:14; Proverbs 25:27; Proverbs 27:2.
6. The wisdom of obedience, and folly of disobedience, Proverbs 10:8; Proverbs 10:17; Proverbs 12:1; Proverbs 12:15; Proverbs 13:1; Proverbs 13:13; Proverbs 13:18; Proverbs 15:5; Proverbs 15:10; Proverbs 15:12; Proverbs 15:31; Proverbs 15:32; Proverbs 19:16; Proverbs 28:4; Proverbs 28:7; Proverbs 28:9.
7. Of mischievousness and usefulness, Proverbs 10:10; Proverbs 10:23; Proverbs 11:9-11; Proverbs 11:23; Proverbs 11:27; Proverbs 12:5; Proverbs 12:6; Proverbs 12:12; Proverbs 12:18; Proverbs 12:20; Proverbs 13:2; Proverbs 14:22; Proverbs 16:29; Proverbs 16:30; Proverbs 17:11; Proverbs 21:10; Proverbs 24:8; Proverbs 26:23; Proverbs 26:27.
8. The praise of wise and good discourse, and the hurt and shame of an ungoverned tongue, Proverbs 10:11; Proverbs 10:13; Proverbs 10:14; Proverbs 10:20; Proverbs 10:21; Proverbs 10:31; Proverbs 10:32; Proverbs 11:30; Proverbs 14:3; Proverbs 15:2; Proverbs 15:4; Proverbs 15:7; Proverbs 15:23; Proverbs 15:28; Proverbs 16:20; Proverbs 16:23; Proverbs 16:24; Proverbs 17:7; Proverbs 18:4; Proverbs 18:7; Proverbs 18:20; Proverbs 18:21; Proverbs 20:15; Proverbs 21:23; Proverbs 23:9; Proverbs 24:26; Proverbs 25:11.
9. Of love and hatred, peaceableness and contention, Proverbs 10:12; Proverbs 15:17; Proverbs 17:1; Proverbs 17:9; Proverbs 17:14; Proverbs 17:19; Proverbs 18:6; Proverbs 18:17-19; Proverbs 20:3; Proverbs 25:8; Proverbs 26:17; Proverbs 26:21; Proverbs 29:9.
10. Of the rich and poor, Proverbs 10:5; Proverbs 10:22; Proverbs 11:28; Proverbs 13:7; Proverbs 13:8; Proverbs 14:20; Proverbs 14:24; Proverbs 18:11; Proverbs 18:23; Proverbs 19:1; Proverbs 19:4; Proverbs 19:7; Proverbs 19:22; Proverbs 22:2; Proverbs 22:7; Proverbs 28:6; Proverbs 28:11; Proverbs 29:13.
11. Of lying, fraud, and dissimulation, and of truth and sincerity, Proverbs 10:18; Proverbs 12:17; Proverbs 12:19; Proverbs 12:22; Proverbs 13:5; Proverbs 17:4; Proverbs 20:14; Proverbs 20:17; Proverbs 26:18; Proverbs 26:19; Proverbs 26:24-26; Proverbs 26:28.
12. Of slandering, Proverbs 10:18; Proverbs 16:27; Proverbs 25:23.
13. Of talkativeness and silence, Proverbs 10:19; Proverbs 11:12; Proverbs 12:23; Proverbs 13:3; Proverbs 17:27; Proverbs 17:28; Proverbs 29:11; Proverbs 29:20.
14. Of justice and injustice, Proverbs 11:1; Proverbs 13:16; Proverbs 16:8; Proverbs 16:11; Proverbs 17:15; Proverbs 17:26; Proverbs 18:5; Proverbs 20:10; Proverbs 20:23; Proverbs 22:28; Proverbs 23:10; Proverbs 23:11; Proverbs 29:24.
15. Of pride and humility, Proverbs 11:2; Proverbs 13:10; Proverbs 15:25; Proverbs 15:33; Proverbs 16:5; Proverbs 16:18; Proverbs 16:19; Proverbs 18:12; Proverbs 21:4; Proverbs 25:6; Proverbs 25:7; Proverbs 28:25; Proverbs 29:23.
16. Of despising and respecting others, Proverbs 11:12; Proverbs 14:21.
17. Of tale-bearing, Proverbs 11:13; Proverbs 16:28; Proverbs 18:8; Proverbs 20:19; Proverbs 26:20; Proverbs 26:22.
18. Of rashness and deliberation, Proverbs 11:14; Proverbs 15:22; Proverbs 18:13; Proverbs 19:2; Proverbs 20:5; Proverbs 20:18; Proverbs 21:29; Proverbs 22:3; Proverbs 25:8-10.
19. Of suretiship, Proverbs 11:15; Proverbs 17:18; Proverbs 20:16; Proverbs 22:26; Proverbs 22:27; Proverbs 27:13.
20. Of good and bad women, or wives, Proverbs 11:16; Proverbs 11:22; Proverbs 12:4; Proverbs 14:1; Proverbs 18:22; Proverbs 19:13; Proverbs 19:14; Proverbs 21:9; Proverbs 21:19; Proverbs 25:24; Proverbs 27:15; Proverbs 27:16.
21. Of mercifulness and unmercifulness, Proverbs 11:17; Proverbs 11:10; Proverbs 14:21; Proverbs 19:17; Proverbs 21:13.
22. Of charity to the poor, and uncharitableness, Proverbs 11:24-26; Proverbs 14:31; Proverbs 17:5; Proverbs 22:9; Proverbs 22:16; Proverbs 22:22; Proverbs 22:23; Proverbs 28:27; Proverbs 29:7.
23. Of covetousness and contentment, Proverbs 11:29; Proverbs 15:16; Proverbs 15:17; Proverbs 15:27; Proverbs 23:4; Proverbs 23:5.
24. Of anger and meekness, Proverbs 12:16; Proverbs 14:17; Proverbs 14:29; Proverbs 15:1; Proverbs 15:18; Proverbs 16:32; Proverbs 17:12; Proverbs 17:26; Proverbs 19:11; Proverbs 19:19; Proverbs 22:24; Proverbs 22:25; Proverbs 25:15; Proverbs 25:28; Proverbs 26:21; Proverbs 29:22.
25. Of melancholy and cheerfulness, Proverbs 12:25; Proverbs 14:10; Proverbs 14:13; Proverbs 15:13; Proverbs 15:15; Proverbs 17:22; Proverbs 18:14; Proverbs 25:20; Proverbs 25:25.
26. Of hope and expectation, Proverbs 13:12; Proverbs 13:19.
27. Of prudence and foolishness, Proverbs 13:16; Proverbs 14:8; Proverbs 14:18; Proverbs 14:33; Proverbs 15:14; Proverbs 15:21; Proverbs 16:21; Proverbs 16:22; Proverbs 17:24; Proverbs 18:2; Proverbs 18:15; Proverbs 24:3-7; Proverbs 7:27; Proverbs 26:6-11; Proverbs 28:5.
28. Of treachery and fidelity, Proverbs 13:17; Proverbs 25:13; Proverbs 25:19.
29. Of good and bad company, Proverbs 13:20; Proverbs 14:7; Proverbs 28:7; Proverbs 29:3.
30. Of the education of children, Proverbs 13:24; Proverbs 19:18; Proverbs 20:11; Proverbs 22:6; Proverbs 22:15; Proverbs 23:12; Proverbs 14:14; Proverbs 29:15; Proverbs 29:17.
31. Of the fear of the Lord, Proverbs 14:2; Proverbs 14:26; Proverbs 14:27; Proverbs 15:16; Proverbs 15:33; Proverbs 16:6; Proverbs 19:23; Proverbs 22:4; Proverbs 23:17; Proverbs 23:18.
32. Of true and false witness-bearing, Proverbs 14:5; Proverbs 14:25; Proverbs 19:5; Proverbs 19:9; Proverbs 19:28; Proverbs 21:28; Proverbs 24:28; Proverbs 25:18.
33. Of scorners, Proverbs 14:6; Proverbs 14:9; Proverbs 21:24; Proverbs 22:10; Proverbs 24:9; Proverbs 29:9.
34. Of credulity and caution, Proverbs 14:15; Proverbs 14:16; Proverbs 27:12.
35. Of kings and their subjects, Proverbs 14:28; Proverbs 14:34; Proverbs 14:35; Proverbs 16:10; Proverbs 16:12-15; Proverbs 19:6; Proverbs 19:12; Proverbs 20:2; Proverbs 20:8; Proverbs 20:26; Proverbs 20:28; Proverbs 22:11; Proverbs 24:23-25; Proverbs 30:2-5; Proverbs 28:2; Proverbs 28:3; Proverbs 28:15; Proverbs 28:16; Proverbs 29:5; Proverbs 29:12; Proverbs 29:14; Proverbs 29:26.
36. Of envy, especially envying sinners, Proverbs 14:30; Proverbs 23:17; Proverbs 23:18; Proverbs 24:1; Proverbs 24:2; Proverbs 24:19; Proverbs 24:20; Proverbs 27:4.
37. Of God's omniscience, and his universal providence, Proverbs 15:3; Proverbs 15:11; Proverbs 16:1; Proverbs 16:4; Proverbs 16:9; Proverbs 16:33; Proverbs 17:3; Proverbs 19:21; Proverbs 20:12; Proverbs 20:24; Proverbs 21:1; Proverbs 21:30; Proverbs 21:31; Proverbs 29:26.
38. Of a good and ill name, Proverbs 15:30; Proverbs 22:1.
39. Of men's good opinion of themselves, Proverbs 14:12; Proverbs 16:2; Proverbs 16:25; Proverbs 20:6; Proverbs 21:2; Proverbs 26:12; Proverbs 28:26.
40. Of devotion towards God, and dependence on him, Proverbs 16:3; Proverbs 18:10; Proverbs 23:26; Proverbs 27:1; Proverbs 28:25; Proverbs 29:25.
41. Of the happiness of God's favour, Proverbs 16:7; Proverbs 29:26.
42. Excitements to get wisdom, Proverbs 16:16; Proverbs 18:1; Proverbs 19:8; Proverbs 19:20; Proverbs 22:17-21; Proverbs 23:15; Proverbs 23:16; Proverbs 23:22-25; Proverbs 24:13; Proverbs 24:14; Proverbs 27:11.
43. Cautions against temptations, Proverbs 16:17; Proverbs 29:27.
44. Of old age and youth, Proverbs 16:31; Proverbs 17:6; Proverbs 20:29.
45. Of servants, Proverbs 17:2; Proverbs 19:10; Proverbs 29:19; Proverbs 29:21.
46. Of bribery, Proverbs 17:8; Proverbs 17:23; Proverbs 18:16; Proverbs 21:14; Proverbs 28:21.
47. Of reproof and correction, Proverbs 17:10; Proverbs 19:25; Proverbs 19:29; Proverbs 20:30; Proverbs 21:11; Proverbs 25:12; Proverbs 26:3; Proverbs 27:5; Proverbs 27:6; Proverbs 27:22; Proverbs 28:23; Proverbs 29:1.
48. Of ingratitude, Proverbs 17:13; Proverbs 17:13.
49. Of friendship, Proverbs 17:17; Proverbs 18:24; Proverbs 27:9; Proverbs 27:10; Proverbs 27:14; Proverbs 27:17.
50. Of sensual pleasures, Proverbs 21:17; Proverbs 23:1-3; Proverbs 23:6-8; Proverbs 23:19-21; Proverbs 27:7.
51. Of drunkenness, Proverbs 20:1; Proverbs 23:23; Proverbs 23:29-35.
52. Of the universal corruption of nature, Proverbs 20:9; Proverbs 20:9.
53. Of flattery, Proverbs 20:19; Proverbs 26:28; Proverbs 28:23; Proverbs 29:5.
54. Of undutiful children, Proverbs 20:20; Proverbs 28:24.
55. Of the short continuance of what is ill-gotten, Proverbs 20:21; Proverbs 21:6; Proverbs 21:7; Proverbs 22:8; Proverbs 28:8.
56. Of revenge, Proverbs 20:22; Proverbs 24:17; Proverbs 24:18; Proverbs 24:29.
57. Of sacrilege, Proverbs 20:25; Proverbs 20:25.
58. Of conscience, Proverbs 20:27; Proverbs 27:19.
59. Of the preference of moral duties before ceremonial, Proverbs 15:8; Proverbs 21:3; Proverbs 21:27.
60. Of prodigality and wastefulness, Proverbs 21:20; Proverbs 21:20.
61. The triumphs of wisdom and godliness, Proverbs 21:22; Proverbs 24:15; Proverbs 24:16.
62. Of frowardness and tractableness, Proverbs 22:5; Proverbs 22:5.
63. Of uncleanness, Proverbs 22:14; Proverbs 23:27; Proverbs 23:28.
64. Of fainting in affliction, Proverbs 24:10; Proverbs 24:10.
65. Of helping the distressed, Proverbs 14:11; Proverbs 14:12.
66. Of loyalty to the government, Proverbs 24:21; Proverbs 24:22.
67. Of forgiving enemies, Proverbs 25:21; Proverbs 25:22.
68. Of causeless curse, Proverbs 26:2; Proverbs 26:2.
69. Of answering fools, Proverbs 26:4; Proverbs 26:5.
70. Of unsettledness and unsatisfiedness, Proverbs 27:8; Proverbs 27:20.
71. Of cowardliness and courage, Proverbs 28:1; Proverbs 28:1.
72. The people's interest in the character of their rulers, Proverbs 28:12; Proverbs 28:28; Proverbs 29:2; Proverbs 29:16; Proverbs 11:10; Proverbs 11:11.
73. The benefit of repentance and holy fear, Proverbs 28:13; Proverbs 28:14.
74. The punishment of murder, Proverbs 28:17; Proverbs 28:17.
75. Of hastening to be rich, Proverbs 28:20; Proverbs 28:22.
76. The enmity of the wicked against the godly, Proverbs 29:10; Proverbs 29:27.
77. The necessity of the means of grace, Proverbs 29:18; Proverbs 29:18.
Copyright Statement
These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Bibliographical Information
Henry, Matthew. "Complete Commentary on Proverbs 31:31". "Matthew Henry Complete Commentary on the Whole Bible". 1706.