Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 13:11

Then I saw another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two horns like a lamb and he spoke as a dragon.
New American Standard

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Horn;   Jesus Continued;   Vision;   Scofield Reference Index - Antichrist;   The Topic Concordance - Empires/world Powers;  
Dictionaries:
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Apocalyptic literature;   Signs;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Antichrist;   Order;   CARM Theological Dictionary - False prophet, (the);   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Antichrist;   Miracles;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Beast;   Miracles, Signs, Wonders;   Revelation, the Book of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Antichrist;   Revelation, Book of;   Thessalonians, Second Epistle to the;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Antichrist ;   Apocalypse;   Authority;   Beast;   Devil ;   Divination;   Dragon ;   Eschatology;   False Christs;   Horn ;   Inspiration and Revelation;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Antichrist;   Babylon the Great ;   Dragon,;   Prophets, the;   Revelation, the;   Roman Empire;   Sea, the;   Thessalonians, Epistles to the;   Trinity;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Antichrist;   Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Horn;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Antichrist;   Horn;   Old Prophet, the;   Revelation of John:;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth - As a beast has already been shown to be the symbol of a kingdom or empire, the rising up of this second beast must consequently represent the rising up of another empire. This beast comes up out of the earth; therefore it is totally different from the preceding, which rose up out of the sea. Earth here means the Latin world, for this word has been shown to import this already in several instances; the rising up of the beast out of this earth must, consequently, represent the springing up of some power out of a state of subjection to the Latin empire: therefore the beast, here called another beast, is another Latin empire. This beast is the spiritual Latin empire, or, in other words, the Romish hierarchy; for with no other power can the prophetic description yet to be examined be shown to accord. In the time of Charlemagne the ecclesiastical power was in subjection to the civil, and it continued to be so for a long time after his death; therefore the beast, whose deadly wound was healed, ruled over the whole Latin world, both clergy and laity; these, consequently, constituted but one beast or empire. But the Latin clergy kept continually gaining more and more influence in the civil affairs of the empire, and in the tenth century their authority was greatly increased. In the subsequent centuries the power of the Romish hierarchy ascended even above that of the emperors, and led into captivity the kings of the whole Latin world, as there will be occasion to show in commenting upon the following verses. Thus the Romish hierarchy was at length entirely exempted from the civil power, and constituted another beast, as it became entirely independent of the secular Latin empire. And this beast came up out of the earth; that is, the Latin clergy, which composed a part of the earth or Latin world, raised their authority against that of the secular powers, and in process of time wrested the superintendence of ecclesiastical affairs from the secular princes.

And he had two horns - As the seven-headed beast is represented as having ten horns, which signify so many kingdoms leagued together to support the Latin Church, so the beast which rises out of the earth has also two horns, which must consequently represent two kingdoms; for if horns of a beast mean kingdoms in one part of the Apocalypse, kingdoms must be intended by this symbol whenever it is used in a similar way in any other part of this book. As the second beast is the spiritual Latin empire, the two horns of this beast denote that the empire thus represented is composed of two distinct spiritual powers. These, therefore, can be no other, as Bishop Newton and Faber properly observe, than the two grand independent branches of the Romish hierarchy, viz., the Latin clergy, Regular and Secular. "The first of these comprehends all the various monastic orders, the second comprehends the whole body of parochial clergy." These two grand branches of the hierarchy originally constituted but one dominion, as the monks as well as the other clergy were in subjection to the bishops: but the subjection of the monks to their diocesans became by degrees less apparent; and in process of time, through the influence and authority of the Roman pontiffs, they were entirely exempted from all episcopal jurisdiction, and thus became a spiritual power, entirely independent of that of the secular clergy.

Like a lamb - As lamb, in other parts of the Apocalypse, evidently means Christ, who is the Lamb of God which taketh away the sin of the world, it must have a similar import in this passage; therefore the meaning here is evidently that the two horns of the beast, or the regular and secular clergy, profess to be the ministers of Christ, to be like him in meekness and humility, and to teach nothing that is contrary to godliness. The two-horned beast, or spiritual Latin empire, has in reality the name, and in the eyes of the Latin world the appearance, of a Christian power. But he is only so in appearance, and that alone among his deluded votaries; for when he spake: -

He spake as a dragon - The doctrines of the Romish hierarchy are very similar to those contained in the old heathen worship; for he has introduced "a new species of idolatry, nominally different, but essentially the same, the worship of angels and saints instead of the gods and demi-gods of antiquity."

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Bibliographical Information
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/revelation-13.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

And I beheld another beast - Compare the notes on Revelation 13:1. This was so distinct from the first that its characteristics could be described, though, as shown in the Analysis of the Chapter, there was in many points a strong resemblance between them. The relations between the two will be more fully indicated in the notes.

Coming up out of the earth - Prof. Stuart renders this, “ascending from the land.” The former was represented as rising up out of the sea Revelation 13:1; indicating that the power was to rise from a perturbed or unsettled state of affairs - like the ocean. This, from what was more settled and stable - as the land is more firm than the waters. It may not be necessary to carry out this image; but the natural idea, as applied to the two forths of the Roman power supposed to be here referred to, would be that the former - the secular power that sustained the papacy - rose out of the agitated state of the nations in the invasions of the northern hordes, and the convulsions and revolutions of the falling empire of Rome; and that the latter, the spiritual power itself - represented by the beast coming up from the land - grew up under the more settled and stable order of things. It was comparatively calm in its origin, and had less the appearance of a frightful monster rising up from the agitated ocean. Compare the notes on Revelation 13:1.

And he had two horns like a lamb - In some respects he resembled a lamb; that is, he seemed to be a mild, gentle, inoffensive animal. It is hardly necessary to say that this is a most striking representation of the actual manner in which the power of the papacy has always been put forth - putting on the apparent gentleness of the lamb; or laying claim to great meekness and humility, even when deposing kings, and giving away crowns, and driving thousands to the stake, or throwing them into the dungeons of the Inquisition.

And he spake as a dragon - See the notes on Revelation 12:3. The meaning here is, that he spoke in a harsh, haughty, proud, arrogant tone - as we should suppose a dragon would if he had the power of utterance. The general sense is, that while this “beast” had, in one respect in its resemblance to a lamb - the appearance of great gentleness, meekness, and kindness, it had, in another respect, a haughty, imperious, and arrogant spirit. How appropriate this is, as a symbol, to represent the papacy, considered as a spiritual power, it is unnecessary to say. It will be admitted, whatever may be thought of the design of this symbol, that if it was in fact intended to refer to the papacy, a more appropriate one could not have been chosen.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/revelation-13.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

And I saw another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two horns like unto a lamb, and he spake as a dragon.

Another beast coming up out of the earth ... This monster is the character later called the false prophet. Satan, the sea-beast, and the land-beast are the unholy trinity of evil. Eller's facetious comment is included here for its humor:

The dragon made his entrance out of the air (as it were, falling on his tail out of heaven); the sea-beast rose out of the garbage-can sea. Number three now comes out of ground (he's the dirty one); and his, obviously, is intended as a counter-description of the Holy Spirit.[72]

For more on this beast, see under "The Beast Out of the Earth" in the chapter introduction. He is identified as the institution, or organization, of false religion opposed to God's truth and persecuting God's people.

No doubt the pagan priests of the various heathen gods of John's day were a manifestation of this beast; but something far greater, more enduring, and better organized is also included. "The commune of Asia" mentioned by Caird,[73] was no doubt an evil in the character of this beast; but all such things, including the proconsul often mentioned in this context, were evil enough; but they were the slaves of the sea-beast. This land-beast was the ally of the beast! This absolutely forbids the view that the "emperor cult" was represented by this land-beast. The difference is between the sea-beast's slave and his ally. The power visible in this land-beast was a partner of the sea-beast, not his servant, as were the pagan priests, communes, and proconsuls who recognized the Caesars as their masters. It is the whole organized structure of false religion, especially as manifested in the hierarchical apparatus of the Roman Catholic church, and in many other nominally Christian churches also. It is the human control of sacred office perverted to serve secular, worldly, material; political, and other unchristian ends. He is that beast who was already working in Paul's day (2 Thessalonians 2) and has continued ever since, and who will continue until the end of time. It is a shortsighted mistake indeed that would limit this to any particular church or to some specific time in history.

And he had two horns like unto a lamb ... A literal lamb has two horns; and the big thing here is the resemblance of the land-beast to the Lamb of God. As Summers said, "The lamb was a religious symbol."[74] We might add, "A Christian religious symbol." Therefore, it cannot be the pagan priesthood symbolized by this beast, but a perverted religion of Christ.

And he spake as a dragon ... Disregard what he looked like; this beast spoke as a dragon, there being times during the Middle Ages when kings trembled at the dragon's voice. The persecuted saints of an entire millennium were tormented by this dragon voice of the false lamb. In our own times, this beast's dragon voice has been considerably modulated and toned down, only because the beast recognizes his limitations. One may only be amazed at the scholars who seem to know all about false religion in John's day, when Revelation was written, and absolutely nothing at all about it now. Are we to suppose that this religious beast died somewhere along the historical road the world has traveled? If so, it would be wonderful to hear all about it. "He that hath an ear, let him hear."

[72] Vernard Eller, The Most Revealing Book of the Bible (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1974), p. 132.

[73] G. B. Caird, op. cit., p. 171.

[74] Ray Summers, op. cit., p. 178.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
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Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/revelation-13.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And I beheld another beast,.... The same with the first, only in another form; the same for being and person, but under a different consideration; the same antichrist, but appearing in another light and view: the first beast is the pope of Rome, at the head of the ten kingdoms, of which the Roman empire consisted; this other beast is the same pope of Rome, with his clergy, cardinals, archbishops, bishops, priests, &c. before he is described as a temporal monarch, now as a spiritual lord; there he is represented in his secular character, as having the seat, power, and authority of the dragon, of Rome Pagan, engaging the attention and wonder of the whole world, and striking terror into them, and as making war with the saints, and ruling over all nations and tongues; here in his ecclesiastic character, pretending great humility and holiness, showing signs and lying wonders, obliging to idolatry, and exercising tyranny and cruelty on all that will not profess his religion: that this is the same beast with the first in substance, though not in show, appears from his exercising the same power, causing all to worship the first beast, or himself as a temporal lord, by which he is supported in his spiritual dignity; and by mention being made only of one beast, at the close of this account, and of his mark, name, and number being but one; nor is there any other but one hereafter spoken, of in this book, either as ruling, or as conquered, and as taken, and as going into perdition, and as cast into the lake: this beast is described by his original,

coming up out of the earth; either from under it, out of the bottomless pit, from hell; or out of, a low condition, a poor crawling earthworm; the extracts of many of the popes, cardinals, and religious orders, have been very mean: or this may represent the secret and private manner, and slow degrees by which this monster of iniquity rose; as things gradually rise up out of the earth unobserved; this man of sin was springing up in the apostles' time, and by degrees rose up to the power and authority he is here said to have: or rather, as this beast, in his other form, rose up out of the sea, out of the commotions raised in the empire by the barbarous nations, by whom he was lifted up to his imperial dignity; so he is described in this form, and is represented as rising up out of the earth, out of the earthly part of the church, or out of the apostasy which the visible church was sunk into, through the outward riches and honours bestowed on it by the Christian emperors, which made way for the rising of this beast; and this shows the nature of his kingdom, which is worldly and earthly, and so truly antichristian, being diametrically opposite to the kingdom of Christ, which is not of this world:

and he had two horns like a lamb; or "like to the Lamb"; the Lord Jesus Christ, the Lamb of God; though he has seven horns, denoting fulness of power, this but two; he stands on Mount Zion, with the 144,000, having his Father's name on their foreheads, this upon the earth, with his followers, having his own mark and name upon them. The Ethiopic version renders it, "and he had two horns, and he seemed as a lamb"; he affected a lamb like disposition, pretended to great humility and meekness, calling himself "servus servorum", the servant of servants, to cover his pride, ambition, and tyranny; and would be thought to be a lamb without spot and blemish, ascribing to himself infallibility, and suffering himself to be called his Holiness, when he is the man of sin, and mystery of iniquity: by his "two horns" some understand his two fold power, secular and ecclesiastic; but as these are separately represented by two beasts, rather these two horns intend the two parts of the empire, eastern and western, into which it was divided, when this beast arose, and by which the Papacy was raised to its power, had supported in it; and the two supreme pontiffs, the bishop of Rome, and the bishop of Constantinople; or else the beast's power of binding and loosing, of dispensing with the laws of God, and of imposing his own laws on the consciences of men.

And he spake as a dragon; like the devil himself, affirming as he did, Luke 4:6; that the power of disposing of the kingdoms of this world, and the glory of them, was delivered to him, and he could give it to whom he would: he spake arrogantly, as if he was above all that is called God, and as if he was God himself; and he spake like a dragon cruelly, like the great red dragon, like the devil, who was a murderer from the beginning, breathing out slaughter, and threatenings against the saints, as Rome Pagan; and he spake lies in hypocrisy, blasphemies, idolatries, and doctrines of devils.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/revelation-13.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

15 And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; 16 and he had two horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon.

(15) The second part of the vision, concerning the ecclesiastical dominion, which in Rome succeeded that which was politic, and is in the power of the corporation of false prophets and of the forgers of false doctrine. Therefore the same beast, and the body or corporation is called a false prophet by John; (Revelation 16:13), (Revelation 19:20). The form of this beast is first described in this verse, then his acts in the verses following: and the whole speech is concluded in the last verse. This beast is by his breed, a son of the earth (as they say) obscurely born, and little by little creeping up out of his abject estate.

(16) That is, in show he resembled the Lamb (for what is more mild or more humble then to be the servant of the servants of God?} but indeed he played the part of the dragon, and of the wolf; (Matthew 7:15). For even Satan changes himself into an angel of light; (2 Corinthians 11:14) and what should his honest disciples and servants do?

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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/revelation-13.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

another beast — “the false prophet.”

out of the earth — out of society civilized, consolidated, and ordered, but still, with all its culture, of earth earthy: as distinguished from “the sea,” the troubled agitations of various peoples out of which the world power and its several kingdoms have emerged. “The sacerdotal persecuting power, pagan and Christian; the pagan priesthood making an image of the emperors which they compelled Christians to worship, and working wonders by magic and omens; the Romish priesthood, the inheritors of pagan rites, images, and superstitions, lamb-like in Christian professions, dragon-like in word and act” [Alford, and so the Spanish Jesuit, Lacunza, writing under the name Ben Ezra]. As the first beast was like the Lamb in being, as it were, wounded to death, so the second is like the Lamb in having two lamb-like horns (its essential difference from the Lamb is marked by its having TWO, but the Lamb SEVEN horns, Revelation 5:6). The former paganism of the world power, seeming to be wounded to death by Christianity, revives. In its second beast-form it is Christianized heathendom ministering to the former, and having earthly culture and learning to recommend it. The second beast‘s, or false prophet‘s rise, coincides in time with the healing of the beast‘s deadly wound and its revival (Revelation 13:12-14). Its manifold character is marked by the Lord (Matthew 24:11, Matthew 24:24), “Many false prophets shall rise,” where He is speaking of the last days. As the former beast corresponds to the first four beasts of Daniel, so the second beast, or the false prophet, to the little horn starting up among the ten horns of the fourth beast. This Antichristian horn has not only the mouth of blasphemy (Revelation 13:5), but also “the eyes of man” (Daniel 7:8): the former is also in the first beast (Revelation 13:1, Revelation 13:5), but the latter not so. “The eyes of man” symbolize cunning and intellectual culture, the very characteristic of “the false prophet” (Revelation 13:13-15; Revelation 16:14). The first beast is physical and political; the second a spiritual power, the power of knowledge, ideas (the favorite term in the French school of politics), and scientific cultivation. Both alike are beasts, from below, not from above; faithful allies, worldly Antichristian wisdom standing in the service of the worldly Antichristian power: the dragon is both lion and serpent: might and cunning are his armory. The dragon gives his external power to the first beast (Revelation 13:2), his spirit to the second, so that it speaks as a dragon (Revelation 13:11). The second, arising out of the earth, is in Revelation 11:7; Revelation 17:8, said to ascend out of the bottomless pit: its very culture and world wisdom only intensify its infernal character, the pretense to superior knowledge and rationalistic philosophy (as in the primeval temptation, Genesis 3:5, Genesis 3:7, “their EYES [as here] were opened”) veiling the deification of nature, self, and man. Hence spring Idealism, Materialism, Deism, Pantheism, Atheism. Antichrist shall be the culmination. The Papacy‘s claim to the double power, secular and spiritual, is a sample and type of the twofold beast, that out of the sea, and that out of the earth, or bottomless pit. Antichrist will be the climax, and final form. Primasius of Adrumentum, in the sixth century, says, “He feigns to be a lamb that he may assail the Lamb - the body of Christ.”

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This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/revelation-13.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Another beast (αλλο τηριονallo thērion). Like the first beast (Revelation 13:1), not a ετερον τηριονheteron thērion (a different beast).

Out of the earth (εκ της γηςek tēs gēs). Not “out of the sea” as the first (Revelation 13:1), perhaps locating him in Asia Minor without world-wide scope, but plainly the agent of the first beast and so of the dragon.

He had (ειχενeichen). Imperfect active of εχωechō Only two horns (not ten like the first, Revelation 13:1).

Like unto a lamb (ομοια αρνιωιhomoia arniōi). Usual construction. Only the two horns of a young lamb and without the ferocity of the other beast, but “he spake as a dragon” (ελαλει ως δρακωνelalei hōs drakōn). Gunkel and Charles confess their inability to make anything out of this item. But Swete thinks that he had the roar of a dragon with all the looks of a lamb (weakness and innocence). Cf. the wolves in sheep‘s clothing (Matthew 7:15).

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
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Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/revelation-13.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

11 And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon.

Ver. 11. And I beheld another beast] Another in shape, but the same in substance with the former. For here Antichrist appears not as an emperor, but as an impostor. That these two are both one, see Revelation 17:11; Revelation 19:20.

Coming up out of the earth] Set up by earthly men and earthly means, of base beginning, Gigas quasi νηγενης. Ego supernas, vos infernates estis, saith our Saviour to the Jews, "I am from above, ye are from beneath;" ye are earth sprung, as so many mushrooms, John 8:23.

And he had two horns] Two horns in his mitre, two keys in his hand, two swords borne before him, a twofold pretended power, secular and sacred, as king and priest, in the Lamb’s stead, whose ape he is.

Spake as a dragon] That is, saith Diodatus, he used an absolute command over consciences, raised himself through devilish pride and execrable boasting, Revelation 18:7. Or thus; though he hath two horns like the Lamb, that is, professeth the meekness and innocence of Christ, yet he speaks like the dragon, which is to be understood partly of his blasphemies, partly of his diabolical doctrines, partly of hellish courses thundered out against true professors, and partly of his great promises to those that adore him. (Downh. of Antich.)

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/revelation-13.html. 1865-1868.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

Here St. John enters upon the description of a second beast, very different from the former, yet not succeeding the former, but appearing during his continuance; and this beast (whoever he is) we find sundry ways here described, namely,

1. By his original he ascended out of the earth,, Revelation 13:11. which denotes his rise from a small beginning to a mighty height, as those things which from small seeds grow out of the earth to be tall trees. Thus has one arisen from being Episcopus urbis, to be Episcopus orbis.

2. He is said to have two horns, whereas the former beast had ten, Revelation 13:1. which signifies ten kingdoms, into which the Roman empire, after its dissolution, should be divided. Accordingly, by the two horns here, in all reason may be understood two of those kingdoms of which this beast (whoever he be) shall be possessed.

3. He is said to look like a lamb, but to speak like a dragon; that is, to pretend to great meekness, and make a show of much lenity and mildness in his proceedings, but should really be very cruel: pretending to do all without violence, but doing indeed all by force, assisted by his armed dragons, and booted apostles, with javelins in their hands.

4. It is affirmed, Revelation 13:12 that he shall arise during the continuance of the first beast, and engage in his cause assuming to himself as great, or a greater, power than any emperors did before him, causing the earth, that is, all earthly-minded men who are subject to him, to worship the first beast, that is, to yield as great reverence nad obedience to his decrees for establishing idolatry, as ever the people did under the Pagan emperors.

5. He is remarkable for working wonders, and particularly for causing fire to come down from heaven in the sight of men; that is, he seemeth to the deluded multitude to do as great miracles as Elias did, who brought down fire from heaven to confirm the religion he professed: in like manner the beast here works wonders seemingly great, lying wonders, false miracles, such as false prophets may work, and have wrought for confirming their false doctrines: accordingly we find this beast here called the false prophet elsewhere,, Revelation 16:8-9. He requires the inhabitants of the earth to make an image to the beast, that is, he persuades them, now professing Christianity, to introduce and bring in such a kind of idolatry, that the old heathenish idolatry may seem to revive again.

Here note, That the idolatry of the Church of Rome is a living image of the old heathenish idolatry; this is but the image of that, that was performed to heathen deities, this to departed saints. Popery, says the learned Dr. More, is such a Christianity, as in all points answers the model of the old execrable heathenism, with which the Gentiles were enamoured then, as are the Papists now: thus the wounded and dead image of Pagan idolatry revived, and lives again in Papal idolatry. Good God! that any persons professing to know and worship the blessed Jesus should thus dishonour him, by intermixing the old heathenish superstitions, or something worse, with his holy institutions.

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Burkitt, William. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/revelation-13.html. 1700-1703.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Revelation 13:11. καὶ, and) The description of the two beasts most strictly coheres, as does the description of more joyful circumstances in the following chapter.— ἄλλο θηρίον, another beast) This is afterwards more frequently called the false prophet: and here his very action is described, as that of the false prophet. That bewitched power and wisdom, which independent of the Word of GOD, without a Redeemer and a Comforter, is reverenced by many individually and collectively, having no dread of Deism, Socinianism, and Pelagianism, abusing the dogma respecting the internal Word, which would without scruple reconcile Christianity with Mahometanism itself, and moreover the perverse interpretation of the Apocalypse itself, and of the whole of the Sacred Scripture, will be favourable to the beast. D. Lange, in Epicr. p. 391, etc., entertains a different opinion from me respecting this beast also. I will here also notice some points cursorily. Now I nowhere say, that from the times of Hildebrand the second beast was subservient to the former one (on account of the common advantage of both, but rather on account of his own, as is the practice of the wicked). Nor do I say, that the 42 months of the former beast are common to the two; but I imitate the expression of the text, which is explained in its proper place. The former beast has an origin much more ancient than the other; but when this also has arisen, it exists together with the former one. Gregory VII. has long ceased to live; but that his cause has not yet expired, his Legenda testify. I never thought, that his image flourished at the same time with the former beast. I had treated incidentally of the destruction of the beast and the false prophet at p. 733, but more plainly, in its place, p. 935. If the venerable man had perceived the idea of the beast, presented by the Apocalypse and held by me, he would not have blended with one another so many important points. We have replied above to the argument, which he subjoins at p. 393.— ἐκ τῆς γῆς, out of the earth) The earth [land], as opposed to the sea, comp. Revelation 13:1, is Asia; which contains Palestine, Persia, etc.

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/revelation-13.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

There are great disputes about this other beast, who is represented or signified by it. The popish writers say it is some eminent impostor, who shall appear in the world before the coming of antichrist. Others would have it to be magic practised by Apollonius Thyaneus, the vanity of which notion Dr. More hath sufficiently demonstrated. The generality of protestant writers agree it to be antichrist himself, the same beast which was before spoken of, only in another form. The design, and time, and power of both is the same; neither hath this other beast any other figure assigned to him; and in the end of this chapter we shall find mention but of one beast, the mark, name, and number of the beast, mentioned Revelation 13:16-18, is but of one beast; and we shall find the power of both to be the same; only he is called another, because appearing in another form, or under another type. The former beast typified the civil power of antichrist; this, his ecclesiastical power. He is said to have come up out of the earth; either because he was of a meaner extraction than the other, or because he stole upon the world insensibly. The pope and the clergy are judged by the best interpreters to be here meant.

And he had two horns like a lamb; he pretends to the power of Christ, as his vicar, and therefore is said to ha

ve horns like a lamb.

And he spake as a dragon; but he should speak terribly; or his doctines should be such as the apostle calls doctrines of devils; or his words and practice should be like those of the great red dragon.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/revelation-13.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

другого зверя Это последний лжепророк (названный так в 16:13; 19:20; 20:10), который поддерживает власть антихриста и убеждает мир прославлять его как Бога. Этот помощник зверя будет главным, наиболее убедительным проводником сатанинской религии (ср. 16:13; 19:20; 20:10). Антихрист будет, в основном, политическим и военным руководителем, а лжепророк будет религиозным лидером. Политика и религия объединятся во всемирной религии прославления антихриста (см. 17:1-9, 15-17).

из земли Похоже, еще одна ссылка на бездну, которая лежит под землей. Лжепророк будет послан наружу и будет управляться снизу могущественным бесом. Образ от земли в противоположность образу от зловещего загадочного моря в ст. 1 может означать, что лжепророк тоньше и обаятельнее, чем антихрист.

два рога, подобные агнчим Это говорит об относительной слабости лжепророка по сравнению с антихристом, у которого 10 рогов. У агнца только две маленькие выпуклости на голове, что несравнимо меньше, чем 10 рогов зверя.

подобные агнчим Образ может означать, что лжепророк будет также лжехристом, маскирующимся под истинного Агнца. В противоположность антихристу, лжепророк придет не как уничтожающее, разрушающее животное, а как человек, который кажется кротким и обманчиво привлекательным.

говорил как дракон Лжепророк будет глашатаем сатаны, т.е. дракона, его послание будет посланием сатаны, а сам сатана будет источником лжерелигии (ср. 2Кор. 11:14).

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/revelation-13.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

Another beast; representing an ecclesiastical power, pretended ministers of religion uniting with the civil power, described under the first beast, in persecuting the saints.

Out of the earth; in a quiet, silent way; an exact description of the rise of the spiritual power of the papacy, which grew up stealthily and by degrees. This beast may be considered as including all the other kindred forms of ecclesiastical domination, which arose side by side with the papacy, and constitute with it one vast system of spiritual tyranny.

Like a lamb; professing to be very mild, meek, and humble.

Spake as a dragon; showing himself to be the opposite of what he professed to be.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/revelation-13.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

‘And I saw another wild beast coming up out of the earth and he had two horns like a lamb and he spoke like a monster.’

In contrast with the Lamb Who came from Heaven, this wild beast with two horns like a lamb comes from the earth. Whatever his pretensions he has no heavenly connection. The two horns like a lamb contrast with the two witnesses of chapter 11, and represent false testimony in contrast with the true testimony of the two witnesses, while the likeness to the Lamb reveal him also to be anti-Christ (over against Christ) in motive and behaviour.

‘He spoke like a monster’. Although he appeared to be a lamb his words were Satanic, guileful and deceitful (compare Genesis 3:1; 2 Corinthians 11:3; 2 Corinthians 11:14). He is the Roman equivalent of ‘the False Prophet’ (Revelation 16:13; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10), but he is not given that name for the False Prophet is the Prophet of Satanism, a religion that supersedes that of Rome.

That the second wild beast represents more than one person is demonstrated by the two horns which must represent two who arise from the one. So we have here another combined figure, and in view of its ‘ministry’ it must represent those who encourage and enforce the worship of Roma and the emperor.

The two wild beasts therefore represent the false messiahs and false prophets of whom Jesus warned, (including the Emperors), who would,if it were possible, even lead the chosen of God astray (Matthew 24:5; Matthew 24:11; Matthew 24:24; Mark 13:22). Together with Satan, the monster, they represent an anti-Trinity. It is clear that the second wild beast, with its twofold spokesmen, represents in the first place the Roman priesthood and its seers, and all who officially seek to enforce the worship of the first wild beast, but intrinsically it represents the principle of false teaching.

Possibly by the two horns John originally had two known protagonists of Caligula’s claims in mind, but the fact that there is a separate wild beast, and not just a horn, shows that there is a continuity and that a continuing group is in mind (compare how wild beasts represent individual kingsandtheir empires in Daniel, and the son of man represents the Messiahandthe people of the most High). The contrast with the two godly witnesses of chapter 11 is stressed in that this wild beast with its two spokesmen also behaves like Elijah (Revelation 13:13 compare Revelation 11:6), in this case bringing fire down from heaven (see 1 Kings 18:38; 2 Kings 1:10; 2 Kings 1:12).

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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/revelation-13.html. 2013.

Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation

(4) The subordinate beast of the land--13:11-18.

1. And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon"--13:11. The environment of these visions is not in accord and cannot be forced into harmony with the labored effort to identify the second beast with religious Rome, the papacy or the Latin church. The beast symbol in the apocalypses of the Old Testament, as well as in Revelation, has stood for organized political world-power. The development of the Roman papacy was too distant--too far away--to fit into a context of such immediate character.

There was constant emphasis on nearness, immediacy and shortness of time. The attempt to make the announcement of Jesus in Mark 1:14-15 that "the time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand" refer to a yet future time could be no more inconsistent than to make "the time is at hand" in Revelation 1:3 encompass the "dark ages" and the end of time. When Peter said to the dispersed members of the church "the end of all things is at hand" (1 Peter 4:7), he referred to the destruction of Jerusalem and the end of the Jewish state as being near--it was impending. When Paul said to Timothy (2 Timothy 4:6) "the time of my departure is at hand" he meant that his decease was near. It does not aid the argument to assert that the statement of John in Revelation means the beginning of these events for John did not say these things must begin--he said, must shortly come to pass--and the time for them to come to pass was at hand.

Premillennialists in the church attempt the same evasion by admitting that the kingdom announced by John and Jesus was "at hand" and that it began on Pentecost, but claiming that its ultimate growth would be in the millennial reign of Christ on the earth. For some who are opposed to the millennial contention to fall into the same method of argumentation is but to help the cause of millennial heresy. In neither case can the expression at hand be stretched beyond immediate points of the two declarations--the immediate events.

John was no more entranced to write the history of the Latin church and the Dark Ages than he was inspired to prophesy the discovery of the North American continent, the organization of the United States, the formation of Southern Confederacy or the existence of the United Nations! The historical events of far distant future whether the papacy, the pope, Martin Luther or Alexander Campbell are all outside the scope of Revelation. And we need not go outside the provincial governments of Judea and the Palestinian representatives of the Roman emperor to identify the second beast--the beast of the land--and find the fulfillment of the visions concerning him.

Verse eleven states that this second beast came up out of earth, or the land--from whence he received the designation the beast of the land. Because the events surrounded Jerusalem and the Jewish state; and the land in this vision meant the land of Palestine--especially Judea--and beast is the symbol of the Jewish persecutors in Palestine. That this second beast of the land was a satellite of the first beast of the sea is seen in the statements that he caused the earth--the people of Palestine--to worship the sea beast, and this second beast derived the only exercise of his authority from the first beast, and worshipped him.

The first beast, of the sea, was the Roman empire, personified in the emperor; the second beast, of the land, was personified in the ruling persecutors of Palestine, who were the instruments of the Roman emperor to execute his authority and power. This is further symbolized in the fact that this second beast had horns like a lamb but spake as a dragon--deceiving them that that dwell on the earth to worship the image of the emperor.

There is nothing in these descriptions to fit the much later emergence of the papacy and its popes. The beasts represent the world-power of Rome. The beast from the sea was the emperor; and the beast of the land was the subordinate rulers of Palestine, exercising delegated power, as the emperor's representatives.

Verse 11: He was from the earth, or land, not from the sea--denoting the local persecutors of Palestine. He was a false prophet visualized as a lamb in appearance, but speaking as the dragon. The two horns of the lamb represented two notorious rulers which Josephus mentioned (in Antiquities, Book XX 11, 1; and Wars, Book II, Chapters 14-15) as being sent by Nero, the emperor, into Palestine as his representatives. This beast appeared as guileless as a lamb, but as a false prophet he possessed the infernal spirit of the sea-beast, and deceived the land--the people of Palestine--into the worship of the sea beast, the emperor.

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Wallace, Foy E. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". "Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/foy/revelation-13.html. 1966.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

Kai eidon, "and I saw," marks another new scene in the vision that John had been observing since Revelation 12:1 (cf. Revelation 13:1). John saw another beast (Gr. allo therion, one of the same kind) rise to prominence out of the earth. The Greek word translated "earth" (ges) refers to the land in contrast to the sea ( Revelation 13:1).

"In the minds of the ancients, none of the terrestrial animals could compare in magnitude with monsters from the deep, so coming out of the earth in itself indicated a degree of inferiority in power of the second beast to the first." [Note: Thomas, Revelation 8-22, p172.]

"The second beast represented native political and economic authorities [to people living in Asia Minor in John"s day]." [Note: Beale, p682.]

It is probably not valid to see a reference to Palestine in this reference to the earth.

"To argue that the earth means Palestine and that therefore this character is a Jew is reading into the passage more than it says." [Note: Walvoord, The Revelation ..., p205.]

If the sea represents the abyss ( Revelation 13:1), the earth probably represents planet earth. Clearly this second beast is a servant of the dragon, but his connections with the dragon are not as obvious as those of the first beast.

His two horns may symbolize some political power but less power than that of the first beast (cf. Revelation 13:1; Revelation 5:6). [Note: Stuart, p646.] Probably in his external conduct this second beast was peaceful, as a lamb, but his words will prove satanic (cf. Matthew 7:15). His words reveal his true loyalty. He is a false prophet ( Revelation 16:13; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10).

"Preterist interpreters admit that it is impossible to find any ancient historical figure who is the counterpart of the second beast." [Note: Ladd, p183.]

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/revelation-13.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 13:11. And I saw another beast coming up out of the earth. This is the third great enemy of the saints, the second ‘beast.’ It is characterized by the same general term as the second enemy or the first beast; and although therefore, as afterwards mentioned, it resembles a lamb, this in no degree diminishes the fierceness of its nature. It is still a ‘beast.’ It comes up not out of the ‘sea’ like the first beast, but out of the ‘earth.’ The contrast between the ‘sea’ spoken of in Revelation 13:1 and the ‘earth’ now mentioned makes it impossible to refer the latter to any one particular portion of the world, such as the Asiatic Continent, or even to the whole world itself, or to human society and its progress, or to earthly thinking and willing. The true meaning of the term must be sought in that distinction between the Jews and all other nations by which Scripture is pervaded. The ‘sea’ represents the latter: the ‘earth’ the former,—yet not the former simply as a nation. The ‘sea’ is the nations as opposed to God. The ‘earth’ is the Jews, as God’s prophetic and priestly people. That this beast comes up out of the earth is therefore a token that it springs out of a religious, not a secular, source; and this trait corresponds, as we shall see, to the whole description of it.

And he had two horns like a lamb. The lamb-like form of the horns can only be a travesty of the seven horns of ‘the Lamb’ spoken of in these visions (chap. Revelation 5:6); and the number two is not to be understood literally. Like the ‘two’ of the two witnesses in Revelation 11:3, the number is symbolical, and denotes all who are animated by the spirit of this lamb. The number two, therefore, does not ‘complete the similarity’ to the animal in its ‘natural condition,’ nor does it show that its power is ‘much less’ than that of The Lamb, because two is less than seven. It rather connects with this beast an element of persuasiveness. There may even perhaps be a reference to the two false witnesses of Matthew 26:60, who came against our Lord. The like enemies will come against His people. The religious element again appears in the lamb-like horns.

And he spake as a dragon. The first beast does not speak: the second does. It is not said that the words spoken are religious; but, when we remember how often the word ‘spake’ of the original is used of Christ in the Fourth Gospel, and that it denotes not so much an occasional remark as formal and continuous discourse, we can hardly be wrong in seeing here again a travesty of our Lord. The beast professed to teach religious truth; but his mode of teaching was fierce and murderous, the very opposite of that of Him who did not strive nor cry aloud, neither did any one hear His voice in the streets (Isaiah 42:2; Matthew 12:19).

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/revelation-13.html. 1879-90.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Vidi aliam bestiam, Greek: eidon allo therion. Another wild beast. St. Irenæus calls this second beast armigerum primæ, and takes notice that he is also called in other places of the Apocalypse (Chap. xvi. 13. and xix. 20. and xx. 10.) the false prophet, pseudopropheta of the first beast. By what is said in this chapter, this second beast must live and act at the same time with the first; for it is said, ver. 12, that he exercised all the power of the former beast in his sight, Greek: enopion autou; and again, ver. 14, that he did wonders in the sight of the first beast, Greek: enopion tou theriou. 2. It is said that this second beast made all that dwelt on the earth adore the first beast. 3. That he made all persons make an image to the first beast, that was wounded and cured, and that they should be slain who adored not that image. 4. He caused that all persons should have the character of the first beast, and the number of his name, i.e. of the name of the first beast. All those who hold that the first beast in this chapter is antichrist, who is to come a little before the end of the world, hold in like manner that the second beast is not come, but will also come at the same time; and that he is to be a famous imposter and false prophet in antichrist's time. But they who hold the first beast not to be antichrist, but to be the idolatry of heathen Rome, by the second beast understand the philosophers and magicians, who were accustomed to raise the indignation of the pagan emperors against Christians. This exposition of the bishop of Meaux, and of divers Catholic interpreters, I shall here give in Dr. Hammond's words: "By the second beast is meant magic, auguries, adn oracles of heathens, made use of to advance idol worship. This beast had two horns, two powers, with some resemblance of Christ, the Lamb; the power of doing some kind of miracles, even of making fire seem to come down from heaven, as Philostratus relates of Apollonius of Thanea, (lib. v. chap. v.) and the pretended power of prophecy by dubious and obscure oracles; by which also they engaged the emperors to promote idolatry, and to make bloody edicts against Christianity, to force every one to join in their heathen worship, and to shew that they did so by exterior marks and signs, by tickets, to shew that they had sacrificed to idols, otherwise they should be incapable of buying and selling, i.e. of enjoying any particular advantages, or the common benefits of life." Dr. Hammond did not think it worth taking notice of, that so many writers of the pretended reformation would have the second beast to be a great many popes, whom they affirm to be the most famous antichrist. Never was there a more groundless or a more malicious invention, without shadow of authority or reason, and evidently contradictory to both, which I may shew as occasion offers, and as far as these short notes will permit. Here I shall only touch upon what relates to that which is set in this chapter. 1. The late reformers, some of them, make the first beast the popish antichrist, (as we may see in the bishop of Meaux, and also in Dr. Wells) and some affirm this of the second beast. The two beasts are quite different: are they both the popish antichrist? 2. Some of them prove the popes to be the second beast, because the popes mitre has a resemblance of his two horns: does this deserve an answer? See the bishop of Meaux. 3. Is it not as ridiculous to pretend that by fire coming from heaven, is meant the pope's excommunications? Is not the power of excommunication grounded in St. Paul? Do not the Protestants themselves own, and make use of this power? 4. Those Protestants who tell us the second beast is the popish antichrist, say that the first beast was the state of paganism in the Roman empire. This, as they own, was destroyed before the popes began to be antichrist: how does this agree with what is here said of the second beast, antichrist's armiger, that he exercised all his power in the sight and in the presence of the first beast? 5. How can they pretend that the popes ever ordered all to be slain who would not adore the first beast? (that is, heathen idols, or the images of heathen gods, of Jupiter, Mars, &c.) or who did not bear on his forehead or hand the character, the mark, or the number of some of the heathen gods or heathen emperors? 6. If the second beast be the popish antichrist, all those Protestants have been guilty of a grievous oversight, who have endeavoured to prove the popes antichrist, by finding the number 666 in their names, or in the word Lateinos; for it is evident by this chapter, (ver. 17) that the number of the name belongs to the first beast, and not to the second. 7. This contradicts what the Protestants teach with St. Paul (2 Thessalonians. ii.) that antichrist is to be the man of sin, who will make himself adored above all that is called or worshipped as God; whereas, in this place of the Apocalypse, the second beast does not make himself, but the first beast, to be adored. Therefore this second beast is not the popish antichrist. Of this more in the following chapters.

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/revelation-13.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

beheld = saw, as Revelation 13:1.

another. App-124.

beast = wild beast, but distinguished from that of Revelation 13:1. See verses: Revelation 13:12, Revelation 13:14, Revelation 13:15, &c. The beast of Revelation 13:1 is political, this beast is religious.

horns. Greek. keras, horn, occurs ten times in Rev. (first in Revelation 5:6) and once Luke 1:69. Nowhere else in N.T.

spake = was speaking. App-121.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/revelation-13.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon.

Another beast - "the false prophet" (Revelation 16:13; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10).

Out of the earth - society civilized and consolidated, still, with all its culture, of earth earthy: as distinguished from 'the sea,' the agitations of peoples, out of which the world-power and its kingdoms have emerged. 'The sacerdotal persecuting power, Pagan and Christian: the pagan priesthood making an image of the emperors, which they compelled Christians to worship, and working wonders by magic; the Romish priesthood, inheritor of pagan rites, images, and superstitions, lamb-like in Christian professions, dragon-like in word and act' (Alford, from the Spanish Jesuit Lacunza, or Ben Ezra). As the first beast was like the Lamb in being, as it were, wounded to death, so the second is like the Lamb in having two lamb-like horns (its essential difference is marked by its having TWO, the Lamb SEVEN, Revelation 5:6). The paganism of the world-power, seeming wounded to death by Christianity, revives.

The harlot-apostasy of the Church answers to the healing of the wound. When she has been eaten by the beast and burned with fire (Revelation 17:16), the second beast (Antichrist) brings back the first beast's paganism, recommending it by a spiritual form and earthly culture. Matthew 24:11; Matthew 24:24, "Many false prophets shall rise:" ushering in "the false prophet." This Antichrist has both the mouth of blasphemy (Revelation 13:5) of the little horn of the third kingdom (Daniel 8:11-12; Daniel 8:23-25; Daniel 11:36), and also "the eyes of man" of the little horn of the fourth kingdom (Daniel 7:8). "The eyes of man" symbolize intellectual culture and spiritual pretensions, characteristic of "the false prophet" (Revelation 13:13-15; Revelation 16:14). The first beast is political; the second spiritual, the power of ideas (the favourite term in the French school): humanity substituted for the Son of man, Antichrist for Christ. Lawless democracy [ anomia (Greek #458)] (2 Thessalonians 2:7-8), ever since the 1789 revolution, has been preparing the way for the lawless one.

Both alike are beasts, from below, not from above; faithful allies, worldly anti-Christian wisdom serving worldly God-opposing power: both "lion" and "dragon" ( Revelation 13:2; Revelation 13:11): might and cunning. The dragon gives his power to the first beast, his spirit to the second, so that it speaks as a dragon. The second, arising out of the earth, is in Revelation 11:7; Revelation 17:8, said to ascend out of the bottomless pit: its earthy culture only intensifies its infernal character, the pretence to rationalistic philosophy (as in the primeval temptation, Genesis 3:5; Genesis 3:7, "their EYES were opened") veiling the deification of nature, self, and man. Hence, spring Idealism, Materialism, Pantheism, Atheism. The fourth kingdom little horn, the papacy's claim to the double power, secular and spiritual, is the immediate forerunner of the twofold beast in its final state, that out of the sea, ministered to by that out of the earth, or bottomless pit. Primasius of Adrumetum (sixth century), 'He feigns to be a lamb, that he may assail the Lamb-the body of Christ.'

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/revelation-13.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

THE APPEARANCE OF THE SECOND WILD BEAST.

For the understanding of this portion of the vision we must notice the contrasts and resemblances between this and the former wild beast. They are both wild beasts: they both have horns: they both have a dragon-like inspiration (Revelation 13:11): they both tyrannise over men; but, on the other hand, the second beast is less monstrous in appearance: we read only of two horns, and we hear nothing of seven heads. He somewhat resembles a lamb; he rises from the earth, and not from the sea; his power lies in deception (Revelation 13:13-14) as well as violence; e seems to possess more supernatural power: yet the whole of his work is directed to magnifying the first beast (Revelation 13:12). Do not these features lead to the conclusion that the principles which the second wild beast supports are the same as those on which the former wild beast acted, but that he supports them with more subtlety, intelligence, and culture? But for all the deception he employs, his work, when stripped of its specious drapery and seen in its naked ugliness, is to promote the honour of the first wild beast. Because of this seductiveness, and of his efforts to support his mission with higher sanctions (Revelation 13:13), he is called in later chapters (Revelation 16:13; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10) the False Prophet; the force and appropriateness of this designation becomes more apparent when we notice that the features which are assumed bear a deceptive resemblance to those of a lamb. The advancing intelligence of the world, its increase in knowledge and wisdom, the wider diffusion of culture and thought, produce a change in the general fashion of life, but the spirit which animates. society is unchanged. The second wild beast is that change which is a change of mode, but not of spirit—a change of manners, but not of heart; there is more refinement, more civilisation, more mind, but it is still the world-power which is worshipped; it is the self-seeking adoration of pleasures, honours, occupations, influences which spring from earth and end in earth—the pursuit of powers which are worldly. Some see in this second wild beast the Pagan priesthood aiding the imperial power, the embodiment of the first wild beast; others-see in it the Papal sacerdotal power, the heir of Pagan rites; others, again, would combine the two, and view this second wild beast as the sacerdotal persecuting power, Pagan and Christian. I believe that, though there is truth in these views, they are too narrow. It is true that priesthoods—Pagan and Christian—have often devoted their influence to the upholding of the great world-power; it is true that men called to be Christian teachers forgot their function, and used their knowledge and power to bolster up the power of the beast and to make men worship the world, as though there were nothing higher for men to worship than this world could afford; it is true that they used, in later days, their powers to aggrandize the Church rather than to reform the world and regenerate men: in so far as they did this they acted like the second wild beast; but the stretch of the vision embraces more than these. All who use their knowledge, their culture, their wisdom, to teach men that there is nothing worthy of worship save what they can see, and touch, and taste, are acting the part of the second wild beast; and be they apostles of science, or apostles of culture, or apostles of logical immorality, or apostles of what is called materialism, if their teaching leads men to limit their worship to the visible and the tangible, they are making men worship the beast who is the adversary of the servants of the Lamb.

(11) And I beheld . . . Better, And I saw another wild beast rising out of the earth. Both wild beasts rise from beneath. The sea, out of which the first rises, represents the tumultuous impulses and passions of mankind; the earth, the more fixed element of human, thought and wisdom, or society consolidated and disciplined by intelligence and culture: the wisdom, however, which guides this wild beast is not divine wisdom, but that wisdom which a sacred writer described as earthly, sensual, devilish (James 3:17).

He had two horns like (those of) a lamb.—There is an appearance of gentleness about him, but he spake as a dragon; the voice betrayeth him. He that is of the earth is earthly, and speaketh of the earth. The spirit of the adversary is in him (John 3:31; John 8:44).

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/revelation-13.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon.
coming
1; 11:7; 17:8
and he had
Matthew 7:15; Romans 16:18; 2 Corinthians 11:13-15
and he spake
17; 12:3,4,17; 17:6; Daniel 7:8,24,25; 2 Thessalonians 2:4
Reciprocal: Exodus 7:11 - they also;  Job 34:30 - GeneralPsalm 44:19 - in the;  Isaiah 27:1 - the dragon;  Ezekiel 13:4 - like;  Ezekiel 22:25 - like;  Ezekiel 29:3 - the great;  Daniel 7:17 - out;  Daniel 8:12 - and it practiced;  Daniel 8:23 - and understanding;  Daniel 11:34 - cleave;  Habakkuk 2:18 - a teacher;  Matthew 20:26 - it;  Ephesians 4:14 - by the;  Ephesians 6:11 - the wiles;  2 Thessalonians 2:3 - man;  2 Thessalonians 2:9 - and signs;  2 Peter 2:18 - they speak;  Revelation 13:14 - they;  Revelation 14:9 - If;  Revelation 16:13 - come out of;  Revelation 19:20 - the false

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/revelation-13.html.

Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation

THE SECOND BEAST

(Revelation 13:11-18).

THE TWO BEASTS CONTRASTED.

The two beasts of our chapter present a series of strikingly marked contrasts. The first came out of an unsettled state of things — the sea; the second arises out of a settled and established condition of civil and political government the earth. The former is a secular power; the latter a religious one. The first Beast had ten horns; the second has two. In subtle soul-destroying influence the second is the more dangerous of the two executive ministers of Satan, but the first is paramount in civil and military authority. The second Beast is clearly subordinate to the first, and, in fact, uses the military and other forces of the empire to accomplish his purpose — the deification of the first Beast. The second is the lieutenant of the first. The first is a Gentile; the second a Jew. Chronologically, too, the second Beast succeeds the rise of the first. There is considerable confusion in the minds of many as to the respective spheres of action of these two beasts. The first is a vast political and military system, and as such perishes at the Coming of the Lord. While the territorial extent of the empire is more limited than it was in its past imperial character, its authority and influence extend throughout the civilised and christianised parts of the earth, embracing numerous nations and peoples. To it Satan gives his throne and authority, that which Christ refused from Satan (Luke 4:6-7). He receives it from His Father (Psalms 2:8). No power can withstand the Beast. It is the dominant power on earth.

The second Beast rules in Palestine, but his political power soon wanes, as the first Beast, in the person of its prince, meddles in Jewish political and religious matters, and is for the time the virtual master of Palestine. The Antichrist is viewed as a Beast at the beginning of his history, but at the end perishes as the false prophet, having lost his temporal sovereignty. Princely and kingly authority on earth are merged in the first Beast, who remains sovereign all along and perishes as such. The second becomes the minister of the first. But it is the second Beast who deceives the world, who labours to put Judaism and Christendom into the arms of Satan. The most abject slavery of all to the first Beast is another awful feature of these times. Liberty and freedom there shall be none. Both beasts share the same doom at the same time, in or near Jerusalem, at the Coming in power (Revelation 19:20).

A VILE IMITATION OF CHRIST.

11. — "And I saw another Beast rising out of the earth; and he had two horns like to a lamb; and spake as a dragon." Who is the Beast here referred to as "another?" His lamb-like appearance points him out at once as the false Messiah. He has "two horns." The Lamb has "seven horns." The horn is an emblem of power, physical, moral, or kingly. We gather that the two horns on the Beast are a travesty of the seven horns on the Lamb (Revelation 5:6). Fulness of power is with the Lamb; limited power is with this Beast. The two horns of power signify the dual office of king and prophet assumed by the Antichrist. As king he reigns in Jerusalem, but in subordination to his great chief, "the Beast" (Daniel 11:36). Under this apocalyptic title, "the false prophet" (Revelation 16:13; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10), he exercises great spiritual authority amongst the Jews and the peoples of Christendom generally.

He "spake as a dragon." In spite of a certain outward resemblance to the Lamb in the assumption of official power to which he has no right he is at once exposed when he speaks. His draconic voice and speech betray him, and mark him off as Satan's minister. He is the instrument by which Satan works in ruining Judaism and Christendom, spiritually and morally, as his great coadjutor, the first Beast, is instrumental in the prophetic spheres of political and civil government. Ruin, physical and moral, is the great aim of the dragon, and in seeking to accomplish his purpose he is ably supported by His two chief lieutenants, the beasts of our chapter.

We may remark that Rome and Jerusalem are the respective centres of influence from which Satan acts in Europe and Judea and all over the earth.

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Scott, Walter. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". "Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/sor/revelation-13.html.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

The word earth like sea in verse1is used figuratively, referring to the people of the world because all governments on earth must be composed of human beings. Another beast is Papal Rome or the apostate church in connection with the state A few words of explanation of the term "pope" which means "universal father" according to the members of the apostate church. They regard the pope as their father or papa. When the letter1is added we have papal, making it an adjective meaning "of the pope." After Constantine adopted the religion professed by the bishop of the church (who later assumed the title of pope), the whole institution was thereafter known as Papal Rome. The beast of this verse had two horns which refers to the two parts of the empire, namely, church and state. Spoke as one dragon. The apostate institution made the profession of Christianity but its decrees and communications to the people were prompted by the dragon (Satan). This is what Paul predicts in 2 Thessalonians 2:9 where he describes the pope as follows: "Whose coming is after the working of Satan, with all power and signs and lying wonders."

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Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/revelation-13.html. 1952.

Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation

Revelation 13:11

Revelation 13:11 And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon.

The same Roman papal kingdom, is here said to be

another beast

because he is otherwise described: that beast rose out of the sea, and this beast came

up out of the earth.

But as in { Daniel 7:16-17} Daniel in his vision, saw four beasts come up from the sea, { Daniel 7:3; Daniel 7:17} the same shall arise out of the earth. So here { Revelation 13:11} is the same beast.

And he had two horns like a Lamb.

This seemeth to be another difference, not real, but in shew; another shape, form, and representation, but yet he was the same beast, though of another head, the beast of the eighth head, with two horns; yet of the seventh head with ten horns.

And he spake as a dragon

his speech betrayeth him to be a devouring beast, and not a Lamb. For though he pretends to be for Christ, the Lamb of God, (as his vicar general,) both in respect of his political and ecclesiastical power, which is his

two horns;

yet he exerciseth both for the dragon, that old serpent called the devil and Satan. { Revelation 20:2}

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Knollys, Hanserd. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". "Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hkc/revelation-13.html.

Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms

Revelation 13:11. And I saw another beast arise out of the earth, and he had two horns like a lamb's horns, and spake like a dragon. That this other beast denotes false ungodly teaching is clear alone from the designation of the false prophet, under which he appears elsewhere—comp. Revelation 16:13, Revelation 19:20, Revelation 20:10. The more exact destination we learn from the circumstance of this second beast coming to the help of the first, when the latter undertook the war against Christ. On this ground we conclude, it can only be the antichristian heathen wisdom. We formerly adduced proof (vol. i. p. 27), to shew that even at the time the Apocalypse was written under Domitian, the claims made by the Roman empire in opposition to Christ found support in a false worldly wisdom. This enemy appears only here under the name of a beast, which is to be explained from the circumstance, that the name had become peculiarly appropriated, through the prophecies of Daniel, to the power of the world as opposed to the interest of God. It is of importance here only as indicating, that the false wisdom of the world has the same source of life as its power. The name of beast was very humbling and vexatious for such persons as thought they had almost raised themselves by their aerial speculations above the common lot of humanity. To the name of beast here corresponds, in James 3:15, the description of human wisdom as sensual ( ψυχικὴ); of the soul, the soul being common to man with the beasts. The Gnostics, who actually were the wisdom of the heathen world under a Christian dress, have the same epithet applied to them in Jude Jude 1:19, as having merely animal life, but no spirit, corresponding to the designation of "brute beasts" in Jude 1:10, We point also for elucidation to 1 Corinthians 2:12-14, where "man's wisdom" in like manner appears confined to the lower region of the soul, to which is opposed the region of God's Spirit.

The beast arises out of the earth. This origin of the second beast corresponds to its designation as a beast. The original passage is Daniel 7:17. The four beasts, which had arisen out of the sea, are there said to be four kings, who should arise out of the earth, in contrast to the kingdom, which the God of heaven should set up

Daniel 2:44. In John 8:23, the expression, "who is from above," stands in opposition to those who are from beneath; and the same contrast is presently after marked by being of this world and not being of it. In John 3:3, our Lord speaks in opposition to a purely earthly origin, of being born from above. This being born from above is afterwards explained by being "born of the Spirit" (John 3:8). The want of spirit, and, corresponding to it, the purely animal, brute nature, is the characteristic mark of that wisdom which comes, not from above, but out of the earth. The earth, out of which the prophet sees the beast ascending, stands in opposition to the heaven (comp. "the wisdom which is from above"). But what thus belongs only to the earth, has its origin also in hell, between which and the earth there exists a free communication—comp. ch. Revelation 9:1, where through the medium of the opened well-pit the evil spirit ascends from hell to the earth. In things pertaining to the spirit earth has no productions of its own. Either heaven or hell, God or the devil, are always standing in the background. According to ch. Revelation 16:13, the spirits of devils proceed out of the mouth of the false prophet. That the earthly origin, too, when more profoundly considered, is a hellish one, may be inferred from the beast ascending through the medium of the earth out of hell, or, at least, receiving thence his inspiration. The name of the false prophet itself also points in the same direction. The essential element in prophesying is, the inspiration. Revelation and prophecy are inseparably connected together. The false prophet can only be one who, instead of the Divine, has a Satanic inspiration. A prophet, who is destitute of the higher Spirit, must be full of the spirit from the abyss. Of the three predicates, therefore, which in James 3:15 are applied to the wisdom of this world—earthly, sensual, devilish—the first and third correspond to the rising out of the earth here; while the middle one corresponds to the designation of the false prophet by the name of beast.

In regard to the form of the beast, here only its horns are taken notice of. It is, therefore, of no use to throw out conjectures regarding the other parts. The figure of the wolf suggested by Vitringa would scarcely suit. The false prophets in Matthew 7:15 are only in respect to their internal disposition "ravening wolves."

Of the horns it is not said, that they were like the, but a lamb, for: the horns of a lamb—a lamb in so far as he has horns. But since they are like lamb's horns, they are also like to the horns of the lamb. Horns are a symbol of power (see on Revelation 5:6). The Lamb in the passage referred to is represented as having seven horns. The horns being seven in number indicates that power belonged to it in a very high degree. Here the horns are only two, showing that its fulness of power is far below that of the Lamb. But a resemblance exists in the shape of the horns. These are in both cases so small and imperceptible, that one would think, nothing could be accomplished by them. The wisdom of this world has so much in common with Christ, that its power is a concealed one; its manner of working is invisible, at least not palpable. The more spiritual, however, the power is, it is so much the more efficient. We must not understand the horns being like lamb's horns, of gentleness. goodness, meekness (as Bengel thinks),—for according to what follows, such qualities had no place here; but it must denote something which really belongs to the beast, not what it has merely in appearance. In the case of the Lamb also, it is not meekness that is denoted by the horns. The expression: like a dragon, is of much the same meaning with, like the dragon. For, how a dragon would speak—if it could speak—this we can only learn from what the dragon actually speaks. In the preceding verses no speech of the dragon is expressly recorded. But we can be in no doubt respecting its nature. For, the whole being of the dragon concentrates itself in hatred against Christ and his church, in panting after bloody persecutions. Ecrasez l'Infame—this is its watchword, and that also of the second beast. De Wette, when remarking "like a dragon, namely cunning, deceitful, comp. Genesis 3:1," substitutes the serpent for the dragon. Satan bears the name of dragon only as the prince of this world, who plies every effort to maintain his dominion over it, and to extirpate those who set themselves against him.

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Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/revelation-13.html.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

11.Two horns like a lamb—As the lamb is contrasted with the beast, antichrist, so is this two-horned, as a corrupt ministry, contrasted with the elders, the true ministry. And as this beast is called “false prophet,” so it is clear that he is an ecclesiastical symbol. And his two horns very well represent the double power, ecclesiastical and secular, wielded by the Roman clerical hierarchy.

Spake as a dragon—As if he were a second dragon. He mimics the lamb in appearance, but he equals the dragon in speech. That is, he pretends to be as Christ while he talks like Satan. This emblem suits nothing in history but a corrupt clergy.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/revelation-13.html. 1874-1909.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Revelation 13:11. —the mythological trait is applied geographically to Asia Minor (i.e., the East). Here again the cosmological antithesis has been transformed into a political application. The marine monster cannot exercise dominion over the land except through an intermediary . Cf. Apoc. Bar. xxix. 4, where the two beasts, leviathan and behemoth, rise from the sea and the land, as in the ancient Semitic and Babylonian mythology the dry land and the deep were the habitations of the two primeval monsters (En. lx. 7f., 4 Esd. 6:49 f.), who represented the chaos-opponent of heaven. The mild appearance of the beast ( . . does not mean that he deceived men with the name of the Lamb) is accompanied by a plausible appeal (cf. Weinel, 21 f.). The allusion (Revelation 13:12), borrowed from the older dragonmyth, is to the seductive inducements held out by the Beast to Christians, such as considerations of loyalty, patriotism, self-interest, and the like. These are backed by (Revelation 13:13) miracles, which together with magic are also connected with Nero redivivus in Asc. Isa. iv. 9–11 (cf. A. C. 175 f.). The deceptive influence of miracles was a sure sign of the end, in early Christian literature (cf. the lines of the cited by Irenæus, Revelation 1:15; Revelation 1:6). Most Oriental cults practised such tricks lavishly, and constant warnings against them were heard (cf. Weinel 9; Friedlander, iii. 458 f., 521 f.).

 

 

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Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/revelation-13.html. 1897-1910.

The Bible Study New Testament

11. Then I saw another beast. The beast from the sea is the Devil’s “hands.” This beast from the earth is the Devil’s “mind.” Like a lamb’s horns. This beast is the false prophet (Revelation 16:13; Revelation 19:20). Some have applied this specifically to the Roman church. This is a mistake. This second beast symbolizes all false religion and all false philosophy in every form during the entire Gospel Age. It is the Devil’s counterfeit of the “true Lamb of God.” It is not one individual, or one religion; but an attitude. [In the church of Christ itself, two different attitudes have struggled together since the very beginning. One “distorts” the Good News and leads away from God (see Galatians 1:6-9; 2 Thessalonians 2:7). The other points back to God’s perfection. Men such as the apostles opposed any distortion of the teachings of Christ, and pointed all to the “perfect law that sets men free” (James 1:25).]

 

 

 

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Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Revelation 13:11". "The Bible Study New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/revelation-13.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.