Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 13:12

He exercises all the authority of the first beast in his presence. And he makes the earth and those who dwell in it to worship the first beast, whose fatal wound was healed.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Vision;   Scofield Reference Index - Antichrist;   The Topic Concordance - Empires/world Powers;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Antichrist;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Apocalyptic literature;   Signs;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Antichrist;   Order;   CARM Theological Dictionary - False prophet, (the);   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Antichrist;   Miracles;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Emperor Worship;   Miracles, Signs, Wonders;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Antichrist;   Thessalonians, Second Epistle to the;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Antichrist ;   Apocalypse;   Ascension of Isaiah;   Authority;   Beast;   Eschatology;   Plague;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Antichrist;   Dwellers on Earth;   Prophets, the;   Roman Empire;   Thessalonians, Epistles to the;   13 To Worship, Serve;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Antichrist;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Authority in Religion;   Deadly;   Eschatology of the New Testament;   Exercise;   Revelation of John:;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

And he exercised all the power of the first beast before him - In the preceding verse the two-horned beast was represented as rising out of the earth, that is, obtaining gradually more and more influence in the civil affairs of the Latin world. Here he it represented as having obtained the direction and management of all the power of the first beast or secular Latin empire before him, ενωπιον αυτου, in his presence. That the Romish hierarchy has had the extensive power here spoken of, is evident from history; for the civil power was in subjection to the ecclesiastical. The parochial clergy, one of the horns of the second beast, have had great secular jurisdiction over the whole Latin world. Two-thirds of the estates of Germany were given by the three Othos, who succeeded each other, to ecclesiastics; and in the other Latin monarchies the parochial clergy possessed great temporal power. Yet extraordinary as the power of the secular clergy was in all parts of the Latin world, it was but feeble when compared with that of the monastic orders which constituted another horn of the beast. The mendicant friars, the most considerable of the regular clergy, first made their appearance in the early part of the thirteenth century. These friars were divided by Gregory X., in a general council which he assembled at Lyons in 1272, into the four following societies or denominations, viz., the Dominicans, the Franciscans, the Carmelites, and the Hermits of St. Augustine. "As the pontiffs," observes Mosheim, "allowed these four mendicant orders the liberty of travelling wherever they thought proper, of conversing with persons of all ranks, of instructing the youth and the multitude wherever they went; and as these monks exhibited, in their outward appearance and manner of life, more striking marks of gravity and holiness than were observable in the other monastic societies; they arose all at once to the very summit of fame, and were regarded with the utmost esteem and veneration throughout all the countries of Europe. The enthusiastic attachment to these sanctimonious beggars went so far that, as we learn from the most authentic records, several cities were divided, or cantoned out, into four parts, with a view to these four orders; the first part was assigned to the Dominicans, the second to the Franciscans, the third to the Carmelites, and the fourth to the Augustinians. The people were unwilling to receive the sacraments from any other hands than those of the mendicants, to whose churches they crowded to perform their devotions while living, and were extremely desirous to deposit there also their remains after death; all which occasioned grievous complaints among the ordinary priests, to whom the cure of souls was committed, and who considered themselves as the spiritual guides of the multitude. Nor did the influence and credit of the mendicants end here: for we find in the history of this (thirteenth century) and the succeeding ages, that they were employed, not only in spiritual matters, but also in temporal and political affairs of the greatest consequence; in composing the differences of princes, concluding treaties of peace, concerting alliances, presiding in cabinet councils, governing courts, levying taxes, and other occupations not only remote from, but absolutely inconsistent with, the monastic character and profession. We must not, however, imagine that all the mendicant friars attained to the same degree of reputation and authority; for the power of the Dominicans and Franciscans surpassed greatly that of the two other orders, and rendered them singularly conspicuous in the eyes of the world. During three centuries these two fraternities governed, with an almost universal and absolute sway, both state and Church, filled the most eminent posts, ecclesiastical and civil; taught in the universities and churches with an authority before which all opposition was silent; and maintained the pretended majesty and prerogatives of the Roman pontiffs against kings, princes, bishops, and heretics, with incredible ardour and equal success. The Dominicans and Franciscans were, before the Reformation, what the Jesuits have been since that happy and glorious period, the very soul of the hierarchy, the engines of state, the secret springs of all the motions of the one and the other, and the authors and directors of every great and important event in the religious and political world." Thus the Romish hierarchy has exercised all the power of the first beast in his sight, both temporal and spiritual, and therefore, with such astonishing influence as this over secular princes, it was no difficult matter for him to cause: -

The earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed - That is, he causes the whole Latin world to submit to the authority of the Latin empire, with the revived western empire at its head, persuading them that such submission is beneficial to their spiritual interests, and absolutely necessary for their salvation. Here it is observable that both beasts have dominion over the same earth; for it is expressly said that the second beast causeth The Earth and them that dwelt therein, to worship the first beast; therefore it is, as Bishop Newton and others have observed, imperium in imperio, "an empire within an empire." We have, consequently, the fullest evidence that the two beasts consist in the division of the great Latin empire, by the usurpation of the Latin clergy, into two distinct empires, the one secular, the other spiritual, and both united in one antichristian design, viz., to diffuse their most abominable system of idolatry over the whole earth, and to extend the sphere of their domination. Here we have also an illustration of that remarkable passage in Revelation 16:10, the kingdom of the beasts, i.e., the kingdom of the Latin kingdom; which is apparently a solecism, but in reality expressed with wonderful precision. The fifth vial is poured out upon the throne of the beast, and His Kingdom is darkened, i.e., the Latin kingdom in subjection to the Latin kingdom or the secular Latin empire.

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Bibliographical Information
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/revelation-13.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him - The same amount of power; the same kind of power. This shows a remarkable relationship between these two beasts; and proves that it was intended to refer to the same power substantially, though manifested in a different form. In the fulfillment of this, we should naturally look for some government whose authority extended far, and which was absolute and arrogant in its character, for this is the power attributed to the first beast. See the notes on Revelation 13:2-4, Revelation 13:7-8. This description had a remarkable fulfillment in the papacy, considered as a spiritual dominion. The relation to the secular power is the same as would be indicated by these two beasts; the dominion was as widespread; the authority was as absolute and arrogant. In fact, on these points they have been identical. The one has sustained the other; either one would long since have fallen if it had not been upheld by the other. The papacy, considered as a spiritual domination, was in fact a new power starting up in the same place as the old Roman dominion, to give life to that as it was tending to decay, and to continue its ascendency over the world. These two things, the secular and the spiritual power, constituting the papacy in the proper sense of the term, are in fact but the continuance or the prolongation of the old Roman dominion - the fourth kingdom of Daniel - united so as to constitute in reality but one kingdom, and yet so distinct in their origin, and in their manifestations, as to be capable of separate contemplation and description, and thus properly represented by the two “beasts” that were shown in vision to John.

And causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast - That is, to respect, to reverence, to honor. The word “worship” here refers to civil respect, and not to religious adoration. See the notes on Revelation 13:4. The meaning here, according to the interpretation proposed all along in this chapter, is, that the papacy, considered in its religious influence, or as a spiritual power - represented by the second beast - secured for the civil or secular power - represented by the first beast - the homage of the world. It was the means of keeping up that dominion, and of giving it its ascendency among the nations of the earth. The truth of this, as an historical fact, is well known. The Roman civil power would have long ago lost all its influence and been unknown, if it had not been for the papacy; and, in fact, all the influence which it has had since the irruption of the northern barbarians, and the changes which their invasion produced, can be traced to that new power which arose in the form of the papacy - represented in Daniel Daniel 7:8 by the “little horn.” That new power gave life and energy to the declining influence of Rome, and brought the world again to respect and honor its authority.

Whose deadly wound was healed - See the notes on Revelation 13:3. That is, was healed by the influence of this new power represented by the second beast. A state of things occurred, on the rise of that new power, as if a wound in the head, otherwise fatal, was healed. The striking applicability of this to the decaying Roman power - smitten as with a deadly wound by the blows inflicted by the northern hordes, and by internal dissensions - will occur to every one. It was as if a healing process had been imparted by some life-giving power, and, as a consequence, the Roman dominion - the prolongation of Daniel‘s fourth kingdom - has continued to the present time. Other kingdoms passed away - the Assyrian, the Babylonian, the Medo-Persian, the Macedonian; Rome alone, of all the ancient empires, has prolonged its power over men. In all changes elsewhere, an influence has gone forth from the seven-hilled city as wide and as fearful as it was in the brightest days of the republic, the triumvirate, or the empire, and a large part of the world still listens reverently to the mandates which issue from the seat which so long gave law to mankind. The fact that it is so is to be traced solely to the influence of that power represented here by the second beast that appeared in vision to John - the papacy.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/revelation-13.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

And he exerciseth all the authority of the first beast in his sight. And he maketh the earth and them that dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose death-stroke was healed.

And he exerciseth all the authority of the first beast in his sight ... "This is the head of the beast wounded and restored."[75] The wounded head was the beast in his sixth worldwide manifestation; namely, the Roman empire. Therefore, this beast is a successor to the sea-beast, being a worldwide dominion over the whole world, "every tribe and people and tongue and nation." Only thus could this beast have exercised "all" the authority of the first beast, all the authority of Rome, the sixth head, being itself the seventh head," but diverse from the others, being religious instead of solely secular. By having its operations on the same seven mountains (Rome) where the first beast was centered, and by its imposition of a religious authority over all the world, it was true in a remarkable sense that the slain beast (the sixth head) lived again in the seventh!

This can have no reference at all to some little deputy of the Roman emperor in Asia Minor 1,900 years ago, who never, in any sense, exercised the extensive worldwide authority of the Roman empire. No! A worldwide, ongoing, institutional organization is symbolized here, and one that continued to operate in the same kind of time-frame that pertained to the other six heads of the sea-beast: Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome, and appearing in the sequence as, in some spectacular manner, a reincarnation of Rome. We believe it is intellectually impossible to make this seventh head to be anything small. Nothing less than a worldwide dominion will fit.

In his sight ... This probably refers to the location of the seventh head's operations. It was in the same city of seven hills; and as the sixth head was already dead when the seventh succeeded to the worldwide authority it could hardly mean anything else, unless it is understood as the growth and development of the great religious authority during the century or so leading up to the final death of the sixth head in 476 A.D.

The current fad among commentators which interprets the land-beast's exercise of worldwide authority equal to that of the sea-beast as a reference to the "promoters" of the cult of the emperor"[76] is illogical and contradictory of the truth that the mortal wound of the sixth head took place before the seventh head succeeded to that great authority. When the mortal wound occurred (476 A.D.), the emperor cult had been out of business for generations, their temples closed, their sacrifices severely prohibited, their whole pagan religion outlawed and proscribed by the Roman Senate under the leadership of Theodosius. See Edward Gibbon's entire chapter 27(vol. 2entitled, "The Final Destruction of Paganism.[77] Neither the so-called emperor cult, nor the pagan priesthood, nor the institution of paganism itself, continued until the time of the mortal wounding of the sixth head and most certainly could not have been instrumental in the healing of the mortal wound, nor in continuing afterwards as the reincarnation of the beast in the form of the seventh head.

And he maketh the earth and them that dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose death-stroke was healed ... The big things here are: (1) The new beast, a worldwide religious empire, was very successful. All nations continued to look to Rome; the ancient adoration accorded the pagan emperors was transferred to the enthroned bishop of Rome, and even many of the blasphemous titles were applied to him. (2) The actual change in all this, however, was more apparent than real; worship was still lavished upon a man, a mere human being; and such worship was the exact equivalent of the worship of man under the pagan system. The text before us called it "the worship of the first beast." There had been a change of certain externals, but the essential ingredients were exactly the same as before. Thus the religious apostasy became the seventh head of the beast out of the sea, being, in effect, a reincarnation of the old head, ROME.

This writer would enthusiastically welcome a better understanding of this dreadful chapter which forces some very difficult conclusions, but where is it? Certainly, the ridiculous Nero redivivus myth explains nothing. No explanation at all is far preferable to the unreasonable, awkward, and contradictory postulations of that alleged interpretation! The key thing to remember in seeking the truth here is that, "It was not merely one of the heads which was wounded to death and then healed. The beast himself (Rome) received a mortal wound and then was restored to life."[78] The true answer has to be Rome reincarnated with the new incarnation exercising "all the authority of the first" (Revelation 13:12), "over every tribe and people and tongue and nation" (Revelation 13:7). If it could possibly be anything other than what we have pointed out, let someone identify it! In the meanwhile, the view presented here is the only one known to this writer which does not violate either the rules of logic or the true principles of Biblical exegesis. We absolutely refuse to make this sacred prophesy of Revelation a myth in order to avoid it!

[75] William Barclay, op. cit., p. 92.

[76] G. R. Beasley-Murray, op. cit., p. 216.

[77] Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire in Five Volumes (Philadelphia: Henry Coates and Company).

[78] George Eldon Ladd, op. cit., p. 183.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
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Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/revelation-13.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him,.... Sitting in the same seat, having the same power and authority from the dragon, making war with the saints by preaching and writing against them, by anathemas, excommunications, and bulls, and so overcame and silenced them, or delivered them over to the secular arm to be put to death, ruling over the consciences of men in a tyrannical way, in all nations, kindreds, and tongues, in the empire; and all this before, in the presence, and under the influence of the secular power, of the Papacy, signified by the first beast, and with his good liking, and for his credit and support:

and causeth the earth, and them that dwell therein; the Roman empire, and the inhabitants of it, especially the carnal and earthly part of them:

to worship the first beast; to be subject to the temporal power of the Papacy, or to submit to the pope as a temporal lord, to give homage and tribute to him, and the like, in order to support his worldly power and grandeur; and this was caused or brought about by his emissaries, his spiritual vassals, his legates, cardinals, priests, &c. by their exhortations, persuasions, and commands, delivered both in writing and preaching:

whose deadly wound was healed; which deadly wound was given the Roman empire under its sixth head, the emperors, when they ceased, and was healed by the pope, the seventh head, being set as a temporal monarch over the ten kingdoms in it.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/revelation-13.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

17 And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and causeth the earth and them which dwell therein 18 to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed.

(17) The history of the acts of this beast contains in sum three things, hypocrisy, the witness of miracles and tyranny: of which the first is noted in this verse, the second in the three verses following: the third in the sixteenth and seventeenth verses. His hypocrisy is most full of lies, by which he abuses both the former beast and the whole world: in that though he has by his cunning, as it were by line, made of the former beast a most miserable skeleton or anatomy, usurped all his authority to himself and most impudently exercises the same in the sight and view of him: yet he carries himself so as if he honoured him with most high honour, and did truly cause him to be reverenced by all men.

(18) For to this beast of Rome, which of civil Empire is made an ecclesiastical hierarchy, are given divine honours, and divine authority so far, as he is believed to be above the scriptures, which the gloss upon the Decretals declares by this devilish verse. "Articulos solvit, synodumque facit generalem" That is, "He changes the Articles of faith, and gives authority to general Councils."

Which is spoken of the papal power. So the beast is by birth, foundation, feat, and finally substance, one: only the Pope has altered the form and manner of it, being himself the head both of that tyrannical empire, and also of the false prophets: for the empire has he taken to himself, and to it added this cunning device. Now these words, "whose deadly wound was cured" are put here for distinction sake, as also sometimes afterwards: that even at that time the godly readers of this prophecy might by this sign be brought to see the thing as present: as if it were said, that they might adore this very empire that now is, whose head we have seen in our own memory to have been cut off, and to be cured again.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/revelation-13.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

powerGreek, “authority.”

before him — “in his presence”; as ministering to, and upholding him. “The non-existence of the beast embraces the whole Germanic Christian period. The healing of the wound and return of the beast is represented [in regard to its final Antichristian manifestation though including also, meanwhile, its healing and return under Popery, which is baptized heathenism] in that principle which, since 1789, has manifested itself in beast-like outbreaks” [Auberlen].

which dwell therein — the earthly-minded. The Church becomes the harlot: the world‘s political power, the Antichristian beast; the world‘s wisdom and civilization, the false prophet. Christ‘s three offices are thus perverted: the first beast is the false kingship; the harlot, the false priesthood; the second beast, the false prophet. The beast is the bodily, the false prophet the intellectual, the harlot the spiritual power of Antichristianity [Auberlen]. The Old-Testament Church stood under the power of the beast, the heathen world power: the Middle-Ages Church under that of the harlot: in modern times the false prophet predominates. But in the last days all these God-opposed powers which have succeeded each other shall co-operate, and raise each other to the most terrible and intense power of their nature: the false prophet causes men to worship the beast, and the beast carries the harlot. These three forms of apostasy are reducible to two: the apostate Church and the apostate world, pseudo-Christianity and Antichristianity, the harlot and the beast; for the false prophet is also a beast; and the two beasts, as different manifestations of the same beast-like principle, stand in contradistinction to the harlot, and are finally judged together, whereas separate judgment falls on the harlot [Auberlen].

deadly woundGreek, “wound of death.”

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This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/revelation-13.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

He exerciseth (ποιειpoiei). Present active dramatic present of ποιεωpoieō In his sight (ενωπιον αυτουenōpion autou). In the eye of the first beast who gets his authority from the dragon (Revelation 13:2). The second beast carries on the succession of authority from the dragon and the first beast. It has been a common Protestant interpretation since the Reformation of Luther to see in the first beast Pagan Rome and in the second beast Papal Rome. There is undoubted verisimilitude in this interpretation, but it is more than doubtful if any such view comes within the horizon of the imagery here. Ramsay takes the first beast to be the power of imperial Rome and the second beast to be the provincial power which imitated Rome in the persecutions.

To worship the first beast (ινα προσκυνησουσιν το τηριον το πρωτονhina proskunēsousin to thērion to prōton). Sub-final clause with ιναhina after ποιειpoiei seen in John 11:37; Colossians 4:16; Revelation 3:9, usually with the subjunctive, but here with the future indicative as in Revelation 3:9. Note the accusative after προσκυνεωproskuneō as in Revelation 13:8. Here the death-stroke of one of the heads (Revelation 13:3) is ascribed to the beast. Clearly the delegated authority of the provincial priests of the emperor-worship is rigorously enforced, if this is the correct interpretation.

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
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Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/revelation-13.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

12 And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed.

Ver. 12. And he exerciseth] The power of speaking blasphemies, of waging wars, of ruling over kindreds, tongues, and nations, &c., notwithstanding his wounded head, which is after a sort cured by the sedulity and subtilty of the Jesuits, and other the pope’s emissaries. The first beast, saith Forbes, is the kingdom of Rome under the Pontificality; the second beast is the Pontificality wonderfully quickening the wounded beast to that estate; both are one and the same, except in consideration, as I have said.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/revelation-13.html. 1865-1868.

Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 13:12. The second beast is expressly designated as standing in the relation of servitude to the first: the entire ἐξουσία given, he puts in operation, and that, too, ἐνωπίον αὐτοῦ, i. e., beneath the eyes of the first beast, as its lord.(3358)

ποιεὶ

ἱνα προσκυνήσουσι. Cf. Revelation 3:9.

οὖ ἐθεραπ., κ. τ. λ. This was indicated already (Revelation 13:4) as the cause of the astonishing adoration.

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Meyer, Heinrich. "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hmc/revelation-13.html. 1832.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Revelation 13:12. ποιεῖἐποίει) There is a mixture of tenses, as Revelation 13:15, and ch. Revelation 11:9-10, with Annot. in the Apparatus, p. 818 [Ed. ii. p. 541].— τὴν γῆν καὶ τοὺς ἐν αὐτῇ κατοικοῦντας, the earth and them which dwell therein) A remarkable expression; for in Revelation 13:14, and in other places, it is said, τοὺς κατοικοῦντας ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, those that dwell on the earth. I see no difference of meaning, except that here in Revelation 13:12, a sudden universality of worship is implied, perhaps to be promulgated by some edict.

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/revelation-13.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

The power of the first beast was to speak great words and blasphemies, and to make war with, and overcome the saints, Revelation 13:5,7. This power also should be exercised by the papacy, (according to this prophecy), and time hath witnessed the truth of it. And as, before he arrived at the height of power, he had persuaded the latter emperors to establish idolatry and superstition; so having now the power in his own hands, and being by the first beast made head of the church, he now vigorously causeth all under his power to obey the edicts, decrees, and commands of that nature, which those emperors had published; choosing rather to do this in the name of others, than from himself; that in case of the non-compliance of any, he might charge them with sedition or disobedience to the imperial laws, or dissenting from antiquity, &c. Hence he

causeth them to worship the first beast rather than himself.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/revelation-13.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

действуетсо всею властью первого зверя Лжепророк обладает такой же властью, как и антихрист, потому что получил ее из того же источника. У него будет также всемирное влияние и репутация чудотворца и оратора.

заставляетпоклоняться При упоминании о нем выражение «он заставляет» употребляется 8 раз. Он пользуется влиянием и устанавливает в мире лжерелигию, которой руководит антихрист, и соблазняет людей принять эту систему.

у которого смертельная рана исцелела См. пояснения к ст. 3; 17:8. Возможно, это относится к хитроумному лживому плану с обманной смертью и обманным вознесением с целью заслужить преданность и доверие мира.

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/revelation-13.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

Exerciseth-the power-and causeth the earth-to worship the first beast; unites his ecclesiastical power with the civil power of the first beast in laboring to accomplish the same cruel, selfish, and wicked designs.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/revelation-13.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

‘And he exercises all the authority of the first wild beast in his sight. And he makes the earth and those who dwell in it to worship the first wild beast whose death stroke was healed.’

Initially the false prophet exalts Caligula. But the second wild beast continues to exalt the Roman beast as emperor replaces emperor, and has the authority of Rome behind him. ‘He’ is the proclaimer of the Emperor’s divinity and the religious enforcer of his worship. Later Domitian will demand to be called ‘dominus et deus noster’, ‘our Lord and God’, and the second beast, the officials, priests and seers in charge of Emperor worship, will enforce it.

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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/revelation-13.html. 2013.

Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation

2. And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed--13:12. The salient points in the description of the land beast in verses eleven through eighteen, verse by verse, may be outlined in brief as follows:

Verse 11: He was from the earth, or land, not from the sea--denoting the local persecutors of Palestine. He was a false prophet visualized as a lamb in appearance, but speaking as the dragon. The two horns of the lamb represented two notorious rulers which Josephus mentioned (in Antiquities, Book XX 11, 1; and Wars, Book II, Chapters 14-15) as being sent by Nero, the emperor, into Palestine as his representatives. This beast appeared as guileless as a lamb, but as a false prophet he possessed the infernal spirit of the sea-beast, and deceived the land--the people of Palestine--into the worship of the sea beast, the emperor.

Verse 12: He was a mere satellite of the sea beast, whose wound of rebellion and civil war within the tenkingdom empire was healed by the sheer power of force. This power brought all kingdoms and provinces under submission to the Roman head. The second beast as a servile and menial instrument of the first beast, enforced his will, exercising an authority not his own, but was derived solely from the superior beast number one, the Roman emperor. In this subservience the land beast in obedience to sea beast, "causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast"--the emperor. The earth referred to the provincial governments; and them that dwell therein had reference to the people who were under their political rule. The grievous blow inflicted on the empire by civil wars was referred to as a deadly wound on the sea-beast which had been healed by his conquering power; and this brought the kings, governors, and people into submission to worship the emperor.

[Continue to comments on next verses for the rest of the descriptions]

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Wallace, Foy E. "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". "Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/foy/revelation-13.html. 1966.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

The second beast will represent the first beast by acting as his prophet ( Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10; cf. Exodus 7:1). Compare the ministries of Moses and Aaron ( Exodus 4:16; Exodus 7:9), and the Lord and Elijah ( 1 Kings 17:1). He will be his effective agent in directing the persecution of believers. He will lead the worship of the first beast evidently as the leader of a worldwide religious movement. This is a satanic counterfeit of the Holy Spirit"s ministry of pointing people to Christ. The reference to the first beast"s fatal wound being healed also highlights the comparison with Christ who rose from the dead. Believers worship Christ because He rose from the dead (cf. Acts 17:30-31), and unbelievers will worship the beast because he did a similar thing (cf. Revelation 13:14). Here some type of personal rejuvenation seems to be in view, not just the revitalization of a nation (cf. Revelation 13:3).

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/revelation-13.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 13:12. And he exerciseth all the authority of the first beast before him. The words ‘before him’ are to be connected with ‘exerciseth;’ and they are again a travesty of that ‘before God’ which we find predicated of the Son, of the Spirit, and of the saints (chaps, Revelation 3:5, Revelation 1:4, Revelation 7:15, etc.). This second beast is ‘before’ the first, in his presence, sustained by him, ministering to him, doing his pleasure (comp. chap. Revelation 8:2, where the seven angels are described as standing ‘before God’).

And he maketh the earth . . . whose death-stroke was healed. The word ‘worship’ leads us directly to the thought of religious service, and therefore to that of the religious persuasion by which it is secured.—The description of the first beast given in these words is highly important—‘whose death-stroke,’ or ‘the stroke of whose death,’ was healed. We have here an unmistakeable description of the first beast, not as he appeared in the earlier stages of his manifestation under the first five heads, but as he appeared under the sixth, after he had been slain and had risen to life. Let us allow that St. John gave credit to the rumour that Nero would return, could he have supposed that he had returned?

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/revelation-13.html. 1879-90.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

He executed all the power of the former beast in his sight, or before him, doing great wonders, as Christ foretold should be done by false prophets (Matthew xxiv. 24) making even fire by lightning come from heaven, as the devil was permitted to do in the time of Job. (Chap. i.) --- He caused men to adore the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed, and the image of the first beast, of antichrist, to be adored, and that no one should buy or sell any thing, unless he had on his forehead or on his arm, some particular mark, called the character of this false Christ, or antichrist; or his name, or the number of his name, that is, his name which was made up of numerical letters, 666; but, St. Irenæus thinks, in Greek letters or characters, as St. John wrote his Revelation in Greek. According to the application made by the bishop of Meaux, &c. by the first beast with seven horns were signified the cruel persecutors of the Church, Dioclesian and other six persecuting emperors, to wit, Maximian Herculeus, Galerius Maximian, Constantius Chlorus (father to Constantine), Maxentius, Maximinus, and Licinius. These they look upon to have been the seven heads of the first beast, and by this beast they understand the idolatry of the heathen Roman empire; and by the ten horns, a great many barbarous nations, who in their time made irruptions and pillaged the empire, and afterwards brought destruction upon the whole Roman empire, to wit, the Goths, Vandals, and the rest. The resemblances of a leopard, bear, and lion, are introduced with an allusion to what is written by the prophet Daniel, (Chap. vii.) meaning the four great empires: by the leopard, that of the Chaldeans; by the bear, that of the Persians; by the lion, that of the Grecians and of Alexander the great; lastly, that of the Romans, which is not represented by any one beast, but as a compound of others. When it is said that the beast had received a mortal wound, and was cured again, these interpreters understand the idolatry of the empire, which was in a great measure destroyed by Constantine, but which was again revived and renewed by Julian the apostate. He might well be said to have a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies; but his power lasted only for a short time, signified by forty-two months, though literally he did not reign so long. By the other beast, (ver. 11) these interpreters, as also Dr. Hammond, understand the philosophers and magicians, with their auguries and pretended oracles of the heathen gods. For these men, under Dioclesian, and particularly under Julian, were constantly exciting the emperors and the people against the Christians, telling them that the gods required that the religion of the Christians should be utterly destroyed. We find in the histories of those times, that an image or statue was erected to Julian, together with Jupiter, Mars, and Mercury, and orders given to put to death all those who refused to adore that image. See St. Gregory of Nazianzus, Orat. 3. cont. Julianum, and Sozomen, lib. v. Hist. chap. xvii. Under Dioclesian, and also under Julian, meats offered to idols, were thrown into fountains; and waters consecrated to idols, were sprinkled upon all things to be sold in the market, to the end that the Christians might be defiled by every thing that they bought or eat. As to the number of the name of the beast, 666, in these Greek letters, Greek: chxs, nothing can be produced but mere conjecture. St. Irenæus(3) (lib. v. chap. xxx. p. 371. Ed. Feuardentii) says, that according to the testimony of those who had seen St. John, the number of the beast was to be computed by Greek letters. He takes notice that this number of 666 may be found in several names. He produces some examples, and amongst others the word Lateinos; of which he says, it may seem very likely that this is the name, because the last of the four empires, which were spoken of by the prophet Daniel, was then extant, and had this name of the empire of the Latins. Take notice, that he has not a word that hints at the Latin Church, as some of the late pretended reformation would insinuate. But, says he, the word Teitan carries with it a greater probability. Yet he concludes, that such expositions are uncertain, and he will not venture to say that this will be the name. The bishop of Meaux proposes, DIoCLesAVgVstVs: but this is to look for it in Latin letters. Others have produced other names. Such fancies are conjectures seen full as well omitted. (Witham)

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

St. Irenæus, (lib. v. chap. xxx. p. 370) numerus nominis bestiæ secundum Græcorum computationem per litteras quæ in eo sunt, sexcentos habebit et sexaginta et sex. Eusebius (lib. v. History of the Church, chap. viii. Ed. Valesii) citing the words of St. Irenæus, in Greek, p. 172: Greek: oti o arithmos tou onomatos tou theriou, kata ten ton ellenon psephon dia ton en auto grammaton emphainetai. But he declares it rash and dangerous to affirm any thing: Greek: emeis oun ouk apokinduneuomen, &c. As for the name itself, he proposes first Greek: euanthas and then of Lateinos says, that valde verisimile est quoniam novissimum, regnum (to wit, of the four kingdoms, in Daniel) hoc habet vocabulum. It is evident he speaks of the empire, not of the Christian church of Rome. Latini enim sunt qui nunc regnant, sed non in hoc nos gloriabimur. Sed et Teitan....omnium nominum, quæ apud nos inveniuntur magis fide dignum est....but adds, nos tamen non periclitabimur in eo, nec asseberantes pronuntiabimus, &c. Dr. Wells in a note observes, that Mr. Mede and Mr. Whiston, without sufficient grounds, take notice of this conjecture of St. Irenæus, as favouring their notion of the pope to be antichrist.

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/revelation-13.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

before him = in his sight.

causeth. Occurs eight times in connection with this "false prophet". See App-197.

therein = in (Gr. en) it.

to worship = in order that (Greek. hina) they shall worship (App-137.) The texts read future tense.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/revelation-13.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed.

Power - `authority.'

Before him - `in his presence;' as ministering to him. The non-existence of the beast (Revelation 17:8) embraces the Germanic and Greek Christian period.

Which dwell therein - the earthly-minded. The Church becomes the harlot; the world's power, the anti-Christian beast; the world's wisdom, the false prophet. Christ's three offices are perverted: the first beast is the false kingship; the harlot, the false priesthood; the second beast, the false prophet. The beast is the bodily, the false prophet the intellectual, the harlot the spiritual power of anti-Christianity (Auberlen). The Old Testament Church stood under the beast, the pagan world-power: the Middle Ages Church under the harlot: in modern times the false prophet predominates. But in the last days all three shall cooperate; the false prophet causes men to worship the beast, and the beast carries the harlot, (Revelation 17:1-18.) These three are reducible to two: the apostate church and the apostate world, pseudo-Christianity and anti-Christianity, the harlot and the beast; for the false prophet is also a beast; and the two beasts, different manifestations of the same beastlike principle, are finally judged together, whereas separate judgment falls first on the harlot (Auberlen).

Deadly wounds - `wound of death.'

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/revelation-13.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(12) And he exerciseth . . .—Better, And he works, or exercises (literally, does), all the authority (or, power) of the first wild beast in his presence. It will be seen by this that we must not look upon the second wild beast as a successor, but rather as a supporter, of the first. The intellectual force of an earthly wisdom is practically subservient to the spirit of unmitigated worldliness.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/revelation-13.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed.
causeth
3,14-17; 17:10,11; 2 Thessalonians 2:4
Reciprocal: Jeremiah 27:15 - that I;  Daniel 11:32 - corrupt;  Daniel 11:38 - a god;  Revelation 13:4 - and they;  Revelation 14:15 - harvest;  Revelation 17:8 - the beast that was;  Revelation 20:4 - and which

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/revelation-13.html.

Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation

THE SECOND BEAST THE MINISTER OF THE FIRST.

Revelation 13:12-15. — "And he exerciseth all the authority of the first Beast before him, and causeth the earth and those that dwell therein to worship the first Beast, whose deadly wound was healed. And he doeth great signs, that he should cause even fire to come down from Heaven to the earth before men. And he deceiveth those that dwell on the earth because of the signs which it was given him to do before the Beast, saying to them that dwell on the earth that they should make an image to the Beast, who hath the wound of the sword, and lived. And it was given him to give breath to the image of the Beast, that the image of the Beast should also speak, and should cause that as many as would not worship the image of the Beast should be killed." These beasts are political organisations, whoever their respective chiefs may be. The second is a subordinate power, and its royal head the active minister of the first Beast. One might at first sight almost gather that the first Beast is a mere passive machine, and that the energy and force of character are alone found concentrated in the second Beast, as "he exerciseth all the authority of the first Beast before him," i.e., in his presence. But that is not so. The first Beast is a powerful federation of ten kingdoms, harmoniously welded into one vast colossal power (Revelation 17:13) under an imperial leader, active, bold, persecuting, and blaspheming. Now the religious Beast has no royal authority outside Palestine, hence he employs the authority of the first Beast, its force and prestige, to accomplish his truly diabolical design to get Christendom to bow down in worship before the revived Roman empire. The second Beast has no great force or military power of its own; that has been given by the dragon to the first Beast. The second influences men religiously and spiritually, and is the worst of the two. Bad as the first undoubtedly is, the second Beast surpasses him. He arrogates to himself divine worship; sits in the literal temple built by the restored nation in unbelief; sets himself above all authority, divine and human; and, in fact, takes God's place so far as he can, but all this in the land of Palestine.{*He is publicly worshipped, yet, strange to say, he himself worships a god of his own creation, one hitherto unknown in the history of Israel. This idol-god he loads with honours (Daniel 11:38). "The king," whose abrupt introduction into the history of the contests between the Syrian and Egyptian monarchs (Daniel 11:1-45), and who is of Jewish descent (v. 37), is without doubt the false Messiah: the same, too, as the man of sin and lawless one (2 Thessalonians 2:1-17), the Antichrist of John, the false prophet of the Apocalypse, and the second Beast of our chapter. He claims exclusive worship in Palestine, and associates worship with his great confederate, and with the dragon in the world outside.} There he reigns, having set up his throne in Jerusalem, and there, too, he fully occupies the temple as God. This Beast is a combination of religious and secular power, the former predominating. Unlike Christ, Who came in His Father's Name (John 5:43), this awful personage pushes his own claims as the Messiah to Israel, too, as king and prophet amongst the people then restored in unbelief. The nation (save the godly remnant), judicially blinded, own the pretension and claim of the Antichrist who will head up in himself Jewish and christian apostasy (1 John 2:22). Within the limits of the Holy Land he is impiously deified. Outside the bounds of Palestine, in the wider scene of Christendom, he forces upon the nations and peoples the worship of the first Beast, "whose deadly wound was healed," then satanically revived.

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Scott, Walter. "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". "Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/sor/revelation-13.html.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

Exerciseth all the power of the first beast is commented upon in the remarks at verse5. Causeth . . . to worship the first beast. Papal Rome was composed of church and state, and the two parts of that institution supported each other. The pope instructed his subjects that they must obey the orders of the state in all matters of conduct, even including their religious activities. Whose deadly wound was healed. (See the comments at verse3.) The pope had a grateful remembrance of that episode in the affairs of state. Had the wound not been healed and the state had gone down, he would not then have the powerful support of the government to back him up in his wicked control over the lives of his people. So it is not strange that he directed them to worship that beast. That could not mean any formal ceremonies, the beast was not in existence in reality any way. It means for them to pay homage to the memory of the beast.

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Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/revelation-13.html. 1952.

Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation

Revelation 13:12

Revelation 13:12 And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed.

The beast had his power given him by the dragon, { Revelation 13:2} here he exerciseth his power; and he spake as a dragon.

And he exercised all the power of the first beast

both political and ecclesiastical; for he made war against the emperors, deposed kings; and his holiness also exercised ecclesiastical power to excommunicate churches, synods, counsels, bishops, kings, and emperors.

And causeth the earth, and them that dwell therein, to worship the first beast.

By the dwellers of the earth, we are to understand those inhabiters of the earth, whose names are not written in the Lamb's Book of Life. See Revelation 13:8

whose deadly wound was healed.

The beast had seven heads; that Isaiah, imperial sovereign power and dominion over the earth. And his seventh head had a wound by a sword, { Revelation 13:14} that Isaiah, by the sword of the Barbarians, who waged war against the Roman Empire, did sack and burn Rome, and forced the Pope of Rome to fly to Vienna, as historians testify. This deadly wound was healed, when the Barbarian armies were driven out of Italy, and the Pope returned to Rome again; and was by the Emperor Phocas made universal bishop, and head of the Catholic Church (so called) about the year426 of Christ, and666 from the first beginning of the fourth metal kingdom.

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Knollys, Hanserd. "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". "Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hkc/revelation-13.html.

Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms

Revelation 13:12. And he makes all the power of the first beast before him; and makes, that the earth and those who dwell on it should worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed. Bengel remarks, "The other beast urges the worship of the first; and the first, whose power the other has entirely at command, has only, as it were, to look on, and allow himself to be worshipped. The earth and they who dwell on it are brought to this by the other beast." The prophet had already spoken of the power of the beast, in Revelation 13:2; Revelation 13:4-5; Revelation 13:7. Of these passages respect is here had more especially to the last; "And power was given him over all tribes and peoples, and tongues and nations." The wisdom of this world is the main support of this power. The state of heathendom would soon have sunk into utter ruin, if this had not lent its aid. Brute force is always impotent. That only which has an ally in public sentiment, can have a lasting existence. And it was to secure that, that the false wisdom put forth its energies. The lamb's horns of science are more powerful than the bullock's horns of the state. Neander in his Church History (vol. i. p. 213), remarks in unintentional coincidence with this verse: "Intellectual weapons united with external violence to attack the new principle, which had begun to manifest itself in the life of mankind." Bengel also remarks, "What the first beast has power to do, this other does in his name, since the first can no longer take the business directly in hand—although his power in itself still continues." He improperly substitutes for the power itself that, which the first beast has power to do. The expression, before him, implies that he acts as his servant, works in his interest. Following Vitringa, Züllig erroneously explains: "Before his eyes, not only as his servant, who as such should stand before him, but also as his servant of hearty good-will, who delights to be seen acting for him." In the Old Testament phraseology, to stand before any one, simply means to serve him, without the collateral idea of good-will in the service. It is enough to compare Exodus 24:13, "Joshua his servant," with Deuteronomy 1:38, "Joshua who stands before him;" then Numbers 3:6, "Bring the tribe of Levi near, and present them before Aaron the priest, that they may serve him," 1 Kings 10:8, "These thy servants who stand continually before thee," (LXX. ἐ νωπιό ν σου), Daniel 1:5. In Revelation 19:20, the before him is explained by the preceding with him. The second makes resumes the former:[Note: On this account alone the reading, καὶ ἐ ποί ει instead of ποιέ ι cannot be the correct one.] It makes, or exercises the power of the first beast, as it brings the inhabitants of the earth to the length of worshipping the first beast, and thus to recognize his power, and submit themselves to him. That the earth is named beside and before its inhabitants, was probably done with a view to the contrast with the heaven and them that dwell therein, in Revelation 13:6, and in reference to the ascending of the beast out of the earth, in Revelation 13:11. In this connection the earth and those that dwell in it would not be absolutely all who have their local habitation on the earth, but only the earthly-minded portion of its inhabitants (Philippians 3:19). The words, "whose deadly wound was healed," cannot possibly have been given as a mere note of distinction; the simple epithet of "the first beast" would have been quite sufficient for that. They are rather intended to point to what the second beast urged as the ground of his solicitation, that men should worship the first. He appeals to the new life that was manifested by the first beast, the great success of his persecutions, and the helpless and prostrate condition of the church (see on Revelation 13:3, and also on Revelation 13:14). Besides, the healing can be no perfect and thorough one, in the feeling of the beast himself, and of those who serve him. The strenuous exertions made to help his cause, bear evidence to this. The old naive confidence is gone. The efforts of a worldly philosophy to prop up and maintain the worship of idols, also come under the class of things here referred to. For this was only another form of the service which was yielded to the dominant worldly power. The Roman state was honoured in the idol gods which it had set up. At the time when Christianity appeared, faith in these gods had already been much shaken. "Pious sentiment," says Tzschirner, on the Fall of Heathenism, p. 118, "had vanished from the soul, no longer did any faith in the avenging and protecting gods dwell in the depths of the heart. Polytheism Lad become a mythology without doctrine, a bodily service without devotional feeling, a lifeless form, a mere shell." Neander also says, in reference to the letter of Pliny, "He requires, inasmuch as he looks upon religion as a matter of state, unconditional obedience even here to the laws of the empire. With the character of the religion he has nothing to do. Whatever that might be, defiance of the imperial laws must be severely punished" (History, vol. i., p. 134). And again, at p. 136, "He was of opinion, that open contempt of the ‘Roman ceremonies,' open resistance to the laws of the empire, could not be suffered in any case to go unpunished, even though no act was connected with it of a morally punishable nature." Bengel says in his closing prayer, "What the Spirit of truth has done in thy servants, the same is done in the contrary direction by the false prophet in the men of the world. Imprint the truth of thy testimony deeply upon our hearts, that we may hold it fast against all temptations."

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Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/revelation-13.html.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

12.Exerciseth all the power of the first beast—As the spiritual empire inherited all the power of the secular empire, so the clergy exerciseth all the power of the spiritual empire.

To worship—To bow before in religious reverence.

Whose deadly wound was healed—That is, the clergy require this homage to be paid, not to the empire preceding the spiritual empire, but to the spiritual empire itself; which was the restored empire after the deadly wounding.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/revelation-13.html. 1874-1909.

The Bible Study New Testament

12. It used the vast authority. A union of “church and state.” Anti-christian religion uses the power of anti-christian government. The Roman Empire and the heathen priest worked hand in hand to persecute the Christians.

 

 

 

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Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Revelation 13:12". "The Bible Study New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/revelation-13.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.