Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 14:1

Then I looked, and behold, the Lamb was standing on Mount Zion, and with Him one hundred and forty-four thousand, having His name and the name of His Father written on their foreheads.
New American Standard Version
    Jump to:
  1. Adam Clarke Commentary
  2. Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible
  3. Coffman Commentaries on the Bible
  4. John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible
  5. Geneva Study Bible
  6. Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible
  7. Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament
  8. Vincent's Word Studies
  9. Wesley's Explanatory Notes
  10. Scofield's Reference Notes
  11. John Trapp Complete Commentary
  12. Sermon Bible Commentary
  13. Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible
  14. Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament
  15. Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament
  16. Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
  17. Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible
  18. Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture
  19. Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament
  20. Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary
  21. Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible
  22. Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation
  23. Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable
  24. Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament
  25. George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary
  26. Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books
  27. E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes
  28. Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged
  29. Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers
  30. Treasury of Scripture Knowledge
  31. Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation
  32. E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament
  33. Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation
  34. Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms
  35. Whedon's Commentary on the Bible
  36. The Expositor's Greek Testament

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Celibacy;   Chastity;   Continence;   God;   God Continued...;   Heaven;   Jesus Continued;   Lamb of God;   Righteous;   Vision;   Zion;   Thompson Chain Reference - Future, the;   Glorified, Saints;   Heavenly;   Host;   Joys, Family;   Lamb of God;   Lamb, Christ the;   Many Saved;   Mountains;   Righteous, the;   Righteous-Wicked;   Saints;   Saved, the;   Saviour, Christ Our;   Sealed, Saints;   Sin-Saviour;   Sufferings of Christ;   Zion;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Zion or Sion;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Lamb;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Christians, Names of;   Jerusalem;   Mark of the Beast;   Seal;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Order;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Zion;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Birthright;   Cuttings;   Issachar;   Revelation of John, the;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Forehead;   Mountain;   Revelation, the Book of;   Sickle;   Sion;   Zion;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Name, Names;   Predestination;   Revelation, Book of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Ascension;   Atonement (2);   Election;   Lamb;   Marks Stigmata;   Mediator;   Mount Mountain ;   Name ;   Numbers;   Parousia;   Type;   Zion ;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Lamb;   Type;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Mount zion;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Zion;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Si'on;   Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Forehead;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Ascension;   Forehead;   Innocents, Massacre of the;   Revelation of John:;   Zion;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Phylacteries;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

A Lamb stood on the mount Sion - This represents Jesus Christ in his sacrificial office; mount Sion was a type of the Christian Church.

And with him a hundred forty and four thousand - Representing those who were converted to Christianity from among the Jews. See Revelation 7:4.

His Father's name written in their foreheads - They were professedly, openly, and practically, the children of God, by faith in Christ Jesus. Different sects of idolaters have the peculiar mark of their god on their foreheads. This is practised in the east to the present day, and the mark is called the sectarial mark. Between eighty and ninety different figures are found on the foreheads of different Hindoo deities and their followers.

Almost every MS. of importance, as well as most of the versions and many of the fathers, read this clause thus: Having His Name and his Father's name written upon their foreheads. This is undoubtedly the true reading, and is properly received by Griesbach into the text.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/revelation-14.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

And I looked - My attention was drawn to a new vision. The eye was turned away from the beast and his image to the heavenly world - the Mount Zion above.

And, lo, a Lamb - See the notes on Revelation 5:6.

Stood on the mount Zion - That is, in heaven. See the notes on Hebrews 12:22. Zion, literally the southern hill in the city of Jerusalem, was a name also given to the whole city; and, as that was the seat of the divine worship on earth, it became an emblem of heaven - the dwelling-place of God. The scene of the vision here is laid in heaven, for it is a vision of the ultimate triumph of the redeemed, designed to sustain the church in view of the trials that had already come upon it, and of those which were yet to come.

And with him an hundred forty and four thousand - These are evidently the same persons that were seen in the vision recorded in Revelation 7:3-8, and the representation is made for the same purpose - to sustain the church in trial, with the certainty of its future glory. See the notes on Revelation 7:4.

Having his Father‘s name written in their foreheads - Showing that they were his. See the notes on Revelation 7:3; Revelation 13:16. In Revelation 7:3, it is merely said that they were “sealed in their foreheads”; the passage here shows how they were sealed. They had the name of God so stamped or marked on their foreheads as to show that they belonged to him. Compare the notes on Revelation 7:3-8.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/revelation-14.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

REV:14

There is relatively very little difficulty in the interpretation of this chapter. First (Revelation 14:1-5), there is a consolatory vision of the redeemed rejoicing in heaven (anticipatory, of course), followed by a solemn angelic announcement of the final judgment (Revelation 14:6,7), "The hour of his judgment is come!" However, even preceding that announcement (Revelation 14:7), there was foretold the fulfillment of that great event which must come before the final judgment; namely, the preaching of the truth to all nations, as Jesus prophesied, "This gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in the whole world for a testimony unto all nations; and then shall the end come" (Matthew 24:14). The announcement of the angel in Revelation 14:7 that the hour is come very logically follows the revelation of Revelation 14:6 that preaching of the "eternal good tidings" had been effectively concluded. The rest of this chapter (Revelation 14:8-20) contains a more detailed and graphic vision of the judgment. This follows a pattern John frequently used. "As often, with this author, we have first a general fact, or statement, then a detail or part."[1]

By way of recalling what was revealed in the preceding chapter, two great enemies of God's people were presented: (1) the sea-beast and (2) the land-beast. The first of these we identified as the satanically perverted state, Satan's perennial device as seen in the great historical empires of Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome, the latter being the specific manifestation of it when John wrote. The second was understood as the false church which made an image of the beast (in the sense of becoming that image), the degenerate religion, being particularly manifested when John wrote as the pagan priesthood, but developing later into the full apostasy of the Middle Ages, and becoming an image of the first beast, itself the second, but particularly a religious beast originating in Christianity and developing out of it.

Such revelations must have been shocking indeed to the first readers of this prophecy; and their most natural reaction would have been the question, "Is evil then destined to triumph?" This great judgment scene in Revelation 14 is squarely addressed to that question. Wickedness shall not prevail; evil cannot win. The first beast shall fall (Babylon, Revelation 14:8), her doom being pronounced in the prophetic past tense as something already accomplished, and as certain as if it had already occurred. The second beast, those worshipping the first beast and his image (Revelation 14:9), shall be tormented with fire and brimstone (Revelation 14:10), forever and ever (Revelation 14:11). Thus, the great purpose of the final judgment, as stated in this chapter, is the overthrow and destruction of these two great enemies of God and his people.

In connection with that great final judgment, three angelic announcements signal the onset and execution of it (Revelation 14:6-12). Revelation 14:13, coming at the end of that triple preliminary, is, in a sense, the summary of all three, and one of the noblest passages in the whole Bible.

The actual execution of the final judgment is presented in Revelation 14:14-20, which might be entitled "The Sickle of God," for these are not two visions, but one. Some commentators get mixed up here by paying too much attention to the various angels, who with regard to the judgment (all of them) are but the instruments of Christ (Matthew 13:41,49) and are merely part of the scenery of the vision. As Lenski noted, "Those who count the angels and think that each appears in a separate vision have seen visions![2] However many angels are seen in these verses, there is only one sickle, only one judgment. An outline of this chapter is:

<LINES><MONO>

I. A consolatory vision of the whole church in heaven (Revelation 14:1-5).

II. The announcement of the final judgment and the Second Coming of Christ, "the day of the Lord" (Revelation 14:6,7).

A. The gospel is preached to all nations, as Jesus said, that the end might come (Revelation 14:6).

B. The judgment is announced (Revelation 14:7).

C. The first beast is destroyed (Revelation 14:8).

D. The second beast is destroyed (Revelation 14:9-12).

E. Another word of great consolation is given (Revelation 14:13).

III. The execution of the judgment itself (Revelation 14:14-20).

A. The "wheat" is gathered into the garner (Revelation 14:14-16).

B. The wicked earth (its inhabitants) perishes (Revelation 14:17-20).SIZE>MONO>LINES>

[1] Isbon T. Beckwith, The Apocalypse of John (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1919), p. 663.

[2] R. C. H. Lenski, The Interpretation of St. John's Revelation (Minneapolis, Minn.: Augsburg Publishing House, 1943), p. 418.

And I saw, and behold, the Lamb standing on the mount Zion, and with him a hundred and forty and four thousand, having his name, and the name of his Father, written on their foreheads. (Revelation 14:1)

The 144,000 ... These are without doubt the same as those of Revelation 7:4,9; namely, the entire register of the redeemed of earth without the loss of one. See further comment on this interpretation under those verses, above. Some are able to find only "the martyrs" here, "but it is unlikely to stand for a spiritual elite of any sort, such as the martyrs."[3] "The whole church is in view."[4] They are not the martyrs, nor the celibates, nor any special kind of Christians whatever. "'These words demand no such interpretation."[5]

Standing on the mount of Zion ... Of course, Zion is the poetic name for the old Jerusalem, but no literal city of any kind could be meant here.

This is that Zion which cannot be moved but abides for ever (Psalms 125:1); it is heaven (Hebrews 12:22). Hence, we read, "And I heard a voice from heaven" (Revelation 14:2,13).[6]

Having his name written on their foreheads ... Since this is not literally true of Christians, it must be understood as a mark of their identification with Christ and with God. It is a spiritual likeness, which also corroborates the interpretation given above regarding the mark of the beast (Revelation 13:16-18). Having the names of God and Christ written upon the forehead symbolizes thoughts and dispositions conformable to the will of God. Barclay believed that "'it might indicate ownership, loyalty, security, dependence and safety of the Christian."[7] Moffatt understood this whole vision as being "introduced as a foil of what preceded,"[8] and as anticipatory of heaven. Any notion that it is "a preview of the near future"[9] is erroneous. All such interpretations suppose that John (mistakenly, of course) believed that Christ would return very shortly to gather a literal army (the 144,000) on the hills of the literal Jerusalem.

[3] Leon Morris, Tyndale Commentaries, Vol. 20, The Revelation of St. John (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1969), p. 175.

[4] G. R. Beasley-Murray, The Book of Revelation (Greenwood, South Carolina: The Attic Press, 1974), p. 223.

[5] George Eldon Ladd, A Commentary on the Revelation of John (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1972), p. 190.

[6] William Hendriksen, More Than Conquerors (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1956), p. 183.

[7] William Barclay, The Revelation of John (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1976), p. 102.

[8] James Moffatt, The Expositor's Greek New Testament, Vol. V (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1967), p. 435.

[9] Martin Rist, The Interpreter's Bible, Vol. XII (New York-Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1957), p. 467.

Copyright Statement
Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/revelation-14.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And I looked, and, lo, a Lamb,.... The Alexandrian copy, and some others, read "the Lamb"; the same that had been seen before in, the midst of the throne, Revelation 5:6; and all the Oriental versions have the same article also; the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, for mention is made of his Father in a following clause; the King of Zion, where he is seen standing, and the Redeemer of his people, who are at large described; it is the same Lamb who is so often spoken of in this book before: in the two preceding chapters an account is given of the state of the church, as oppressed under Rome Pagan, and Rome Papal, and here of its more glorious and victorious condition, with Christ at the head of it; in the last chapter antichrist is described, with his followers and worshippers, and as exercising tyranny and cruelty upon the saints, and here Christ and his followers are represented in vision, and some hints given of the fall of Babylon, and of the wrath of God upon the worshippers of the beast, and of the happiness of those who belong to the Lamb: and of him it is here said, that he

stood on the Mount Zion; by which is meant not heaven, but the church on earth; why that is called Mount Zion; see Gill on Hebrews 12:22; here Christ the Lamb stood, as presiding over it, being King of Zion, or the church; where he stood and fed, or ruled, in the name of the Lord, and in the majesty of his God; and where he appeared in the defence of his church and people, oppressed by antichrist; for he is Michael that standeth for the children of his people, and who stands with courage, and in the greatness of his strength, and is invincible; nor does he stand here alone:

and with him an hundred forty and four thousand; the same with those in Revelation 7:3, though all the world wondered after the beast, and all that dwelt upon the earth worshipped him, yet there was a number preserved that did not bow the knee to him; a remnant according to the election of grace, who were called out of the world, and brought to Zion, and were on the side of the Lamb, and abode by him, and cleaved unto him:

having his Father's name written in their foreheads; not baptism, administered in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, as some think; nor eternal election, as others, though as their names were written in the Lamb's book of life, so this was manifest to themselves and others, as if his name and his Father's had been written in their foreheads; but rather adoption, the new name of a child of God, they having the spirit of adoption, whereby they cried, "Abba", Father, and being openly and manifestly the children of God, by faith in Christ Jesus; unless it should be thought there is an allusion to the inscription in the mitre on the forehead of the high priest, "holiness to the Lord", and so be expressive of that visible holiness which will be on the saints in the spiritual reign of Christ, which this vision respects; see Zechariah 14:20; or to the frontlets between the eyes of the people of Israel, to put them in mind of the law, and their obedience to it, Deuteronomy 6:8; and so may here denote the engagements of those saints in the service of God; though perhaps no more is intended than their open and hearty profession of their faith, and that they were not ashamed of appearing in the cause of God and truth; nor of Christ and his words, his Gospel and ordinances: the Alexandrian copy, the Complutensian edition, the Vulgate Latin, Syriac, and Arabic versions, read, "having his name, (the Lamb's,) and his Father's name written in their foreheads"; and the Ethiopic version adds, "and of his Holy Spirit". Mr. Daubuz thinks this vision refers to the times of Constantine, and to the Christians then, and particularly the council of Nice, and as contemporary with that in Revelation 7:9.

Copyright Statement
The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/revelation-14.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

And I looked, and, lo, a Lamb 1 stood on the mount Sion, and with him 2 an hundred forty [and] four thousand, having his Father's 3 name written in their foreheads.

(1) The history of the Church of Christ being finished for more than a 1300 years at which time Boniface the eighth lived as has been said: there remains the rest of the history of the conflicting or militant church, from there to the time of the last victory in three chapters. For first of all, as the foundation of the whole history, is described the standing of the Lamb with his army and retinue in five verses, after his worthy acts which he has done and yet does in most mighty manner, while he overthrows Antichrist with the spirit of his mouth, in the rest of this chapter and in the two following. To the description of the Lamb, are propounded three things: his situation, place and attendance: for the rest are expounded in the former visions, especially in the fifth chapter. {(2)} Prepared to do his office see (Acts 7:56), in the midst of the church, which mount Zion pictured before. {(3)} This retinue of the Lamb is described first by divine mark (as before in) (Revelation 7:2) in this verse. Then by divine occupation, in that every one in his retinue most earnestly and sweetly (Revelation 14:2) glorify the Lamb with a special song before God and his elect angels. Flesh and blood cannot hear this song, nor understand, (Revelation 14:3). Lastly by their deeds done before, and their sanctification in that they were virgins, pure from spiritual and bodily fornication, that is, from impiety and unrighteousness. They followed the Lamb as a guide to all goodness, cleaved to him and are holy to him, as by grace redeemed by him. In truth and simplicity of Christ they have exercised all these things, sanctimony of life, the guidance of the Lamb, a thankful remembrance of redemption by him and finally (to conclude in a word) they are blameless before the Lord, (Revelation 14:4-5).
Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/revelation-14.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Revelation 14:1-20. The lamb seen on Zion with the 144,000. Their song. The gospel proclaimed before the end by one angel: The fall of Babylon, by another: The doom of the beast worshippers, by a third. The blessedness of the dead in the Lord. The harvest. The vintage.

In contrast to the beast, false prophet, and apostate Church (Revelation 13:1-18) and introductory to the announcement of judgments about to descend on them and the world (Revelation 14:8-11, anticipatory of Revelation 18:2-6), stand here the redeemed, “the divine kernel of humanity, the positive fruits of the history of the world and the Church” [Auberlen]. The fourteenth through sixteenth chapters describe the preparations for the Messianic judgment. As the fourteenth chapter begins with the 144,000 of Israel (compare Revelation 7:4-8, no longer exposed to trial as then, but now triumphant), so the fifteenth chapter begins with those who have overcome from among the Gentiles (compare Revelation 15:1-5 with Revelation 7:9-17); the two classes of elect forming together the whole company of transfigured saints who shall reign with Christ.

a — A, B, C, Coptic, and Origen read, “the.

Lamb  …  on  …  Sion — having left His position “in the midst of the throne,” and now taking His stand on Sion.

his Father‘s name — A, B, and C read, “His name and His Father‘s name.”

inGreek, “upon.” God‘s and Christ‘s name here answers to the seal “upon their foreheads” in Revelation 7:3. As the 144,000 of Israel are “the first-fruits” (Revelation 14:4), so “the harvest” (Revelation 14:15) is the general assembly of Gentile saints to be translated by Christ as His first act in assuming His kingdom, prior to His judgment (Revelation 16:17-21, the last seven vials) on the Antichristian world, in executing which His saints shall share. As Noah and Lot were taken seasonably out of the judgment, but exposed to the trial to the last moment [De Burgh], so those who shall reign with Christ shall first suffer with Him, being delivered out of the judgments, but not out of the trials. The Jews are meant by “the saints of the Most High”: against them Antichrist makes war, changing their times and laws; for true Israelites cannot join in the idolatry of the beast, any more than true Christians. The common affliction will draw closely together, in opposing the beast‘s worship, the Old Testament and New Testament people of God. Thus the way is paved for Israel‘s conversion. This last utter scattering of the holy people‘s power leads them, under the Spirit, to seek Messiah, and to cry at His approach, “Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord.”

Copyright Statement
These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/revelation-14.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

The Lamb (το αρνιονto arnion). See Revelation 5:6; Revelation 7:17; Revelation 12:11; Revelation 13:8 and is in contrast with the anarthrous αρνιονarnion in Revelation 13:11. This proleptic vision of the Lamb “standing on the mount Zion” (εστος επι το ορος Σιωνhestos epi to oros Siōn second perfect active participle neuter of ιστημιhistēmi with επιepi and accusative) is reasoning after the visions of the two beasts. Mount Zion is the site of the new city of God (Hebrews 12:22), the Jerusalem above (Galatians 4:26), the seat of the Messianic Kingdom whether heaven or the new earth (Rev 21; 22). These victors have the name of the Lamb and God upon their foreheads as in Revelation 3:12; Revelation 22:4, in place of the mark of the beast above (Revelation 13:16; Revelation 14:11). This seal protects them (Revelation 9:4).

A hundred and forty and four thousand (εκατον τεσσερακοντα τεσσαρες χιλιαδεςhekaton tesserakonta tessares chiliades). “Thousands” literally (χιλιαςchilias feminine word for a thousand and so εχουσαιechousai feminine plural). For the 144,000 see Revelation 7:5, Revelation 7:8, though some scholars seek a distinction somehow.

Copyright Statement
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Bibliographical Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/revelation-14.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

A lamb

Read “the lamb.” See Revelation 5:6.

Stood ( ἑστηκὸς )

The participle, standing, as Rev.

His Father's name

Add αὐτοῦ καὶ τὸ ὄνομα Hisand the name, and render as Rev., His name and the name of His Father.

The Adoration of the Lamb is the subject of the great altar piece in the church of St. Bavon at Ghent, by John and Hubert Van Eyck. The scene is laid in a landscape. The background is formed by a Flemish city, probably intended to represent Jerusalem, and by churches and monasteries in the early Netherland style. The middle ground is occupied by trees, meadows, and green slopes. In the very center of the picture a square altar is hung with red damask and covered with a white cloth. Here stands a lamb, from whose breast a stream of blood issues into a crystal glass. Angels kneel round the altar with parti-colored wings and variegated dresses, many of them praying with joined hands, others holding aloft the emblems of the passion, two in front waving censers. From the right, behind the altar, issues a numerous band of female saints, all in rich and varied costumes, fair hair floating over their shoulders, and palms in their hands. Foremost may be noticed Sta. Barbara and Sta. Agnes. From the left advance popes, cardinals, bishops, monks, and minor clergy, with crosiers, crosses, and palms. In the center, near the base, a small octagonal fountain of stone projects a stream into a clear rill. Two groups are in adoration on each side of the fountain, - on the right, the twelve apostles kneeling barefoot, and an array of popes, cardinals, and bishops, with a miscellaneous crowd of church-people; on the left, kings and princes in various costumes. They are surrounded by a wilderness of flowering shrubs, lilies, and other plants. On the wings of the picture numerous worshippers move toward the place of worship, - crusaders, knights, kings, and princes, including the figures of the two artists on horseback. “Here, approaching from all sides, are seen that 'great multitude of all nations and hundreds and people and tongues' - the holy warriors and the holy pilgrims, coming in solemn processions from afar - with other throngs already arrived in the celestial plain, clothed in white robes, and holding palms in their hands. Their forms are like unto ours; the landscape around them is a mere transcript of the sweet face of our outer nature; the graceful wrought-iron fountain in the midst is such an one as still sends forth its streams in an ancient Flemish city; yet we feel these creatures to be beings from whose eyes God has wiped away all tears - who will hunger and thirst no more; our imagination invests these flowery meads with the peace and radiance of celestial precincts, while the streams of the fountain are converted into living waters, to which the Lamb Himself will lead His redeemed. Here, in short, where all is human and natural in form, the spiritual depths of our nature are stirred” (Mrs. Jameson, “History of Our Lord,” ii., 339).

Copyright Statement
The text of this work is public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/revelation-14.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And I looked, and, lo, a Lamb stood on the mount Sion, and with him an hundred forty and four thousand, having his Father's name written in their foreheads.

And I saw on mount Sion — The heavenly Sion.

An hundred forty-four thousand — Either those out of all mankind who had been the most eminently holy, or the most holy out of the twelve tribes of Israel the same that were mentioned, Revelation 7:4, and perhaps also, Revelation 16:2. But they were then in the world, and were sealed in their foreheads, to preserve them from the plagues that were to follow. They are now in safety, and have the name of the Lamb and of his Father written on their foreheads, as being the redeemed of God and of the Lamb, his now unalienable property. This prophecy often introduces the inhabitants of heaven as a kind of chorus with great propriety and elegance. The church above, making suitable reflections on the grand events which are foretold in this book, greatly serves to raise the attention of real Christians, and to teach the high concern they have in them. Thus is the church on earth instructed, animated, and encouraged, by the sentiments temper, and devotion of the church in heaven.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Bibliographical Information
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/revelation-14.html. 1765.

Scofield's Reference Notes

written in

See, Revelation 7:3; Revelation 22:4 contra: Revelation 13:16.

Copyright Statement
These files are considered public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available in the Online Bible Software Library.
Bibliographical Information
Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on Revelation 14:1". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/srn/revelation-14.html. 1917.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

1 And I looked, and, lo, a Lamb stood on the mount Sion, and with him an hundred forty and four thousand, having his Father’s name written in their foreheads.

Ver. 1. A lamb] In opposition to that counterfeit lamb, Revelation 13:12. A lion he can show himself at pleasure.

Stood] Ready pressed for action, as at the stoning of Stephen, or he stood sentinel for such as he here reserved to himself under the reign and rage of Antichrist.

A hundred forty and four thousand] The same that were sealed, Revelation 7:4, all the holy martyrs, confessors, believers.

Having his Father’s name] His Father and their Father, his God and their God; this was written. on their foreheads, as "holiness to the Lord" was upon the high priest’s, Exodus 28:36. For the constancy of their confession; they were not "ashamed of the gospel of Christ" Romans 1:16, nor "afraid with any amazement," 1 Peter 3:6.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/revelation-14.html. 1865-1868.

Sermon Bible Commentary

Revelation 14:1

The Communion of Saints.

The communion of saints is (1) the restoration of fellowship between God and man; (2) the restoration of the fellowship of men with each other.

I. Let us learn from it that we can never be lonely or forsaken in this life. Our Lord has promised, "Lo, I am with you alway, even to the end of the world." And in Him all His saints are with us too. No trial can isolate us; no sorrow can cut us off from the communion of saints. There is but one thing in which the sympathy of Christ has no share, and that is the guilt of wilful sin. The faith is the common consciousness and life of the elect, and they who stand for it, although they stand alone against all the world, are never alone, for all the companies of heaven and all the generations of the Church are at their side. Kneel down, and you are with them; lift your eyes, and the heavenly world, high above all perturbation, hangs serenely overhead. Only a thin veil, it may be, floats between.

II. Let us learn further, by the reality of this heavenly fellowship, to live less in this divided world. If we love the world, the love of the Father is not in us, and if no love of the Father, then no communion with His kingdom. Between these two we must make our choice. We are between two cities, the one visible, the other invisible; the one an object of sense, the other of faith; the one garish, splendid, and tumultuous, the other calm, glorious, and serene: on the one side, the world and this earthly life, with its fair show, luring gifts, bright promises, gilded ambition; on the other, the city of God, the fellowship of saints, the sympathy of Christ, the love of the Father, the beatific vision.

III. Let us learn from the communion of saints to live in hope. They who are now at rest were once like ourselves. Their life was once homely and commonplace. While on earth they were not arrayed in white raiment, but in apparel like that of other men, unmarked and plain, worn and stained by time and trial. Only one thing there is in which we are unlike them: they were common in all things except the uncommon measure of their inward sanctity. In all beside we are as they, only it is now our turn to strive for the crown of life.

H. E. Manning, Sermons, vol. iv., p. 303.


References: Revelation 14:1-3.—Spurgeon, Sermons, vol. iii., No. 110; Ibid., Morning by Morning, p. 17. Revelation 14:2, Revelation 14:3.—T. Burton, Christian Life and Truth, p. 425. Revelation 14:3.—G. Calthrop, Words Spoken to My Friends, p. 207; Talmage, Christian World Pulpit, vol. xii., p. 92. Revelation 14:4.—R. D. B. Rawnsley, Village Sermons, 4th series, p. 89.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Nicoll, William R. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". "Sermon Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/sbc/revelation-14.html.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Revelation 14:1.— The description of the melancholy state of the church and world, during this third period, in the fore-going chapters, might be apt somewhat to discourage good Christians and the faithful worshippers of God; for though God, by a spirit of prophesy, had before revealed this suffering state to the church, and so it was represented as what the wisdom of the divine Providence thought fit to allow, and what was therefore reconcilable to the goodness and power of the great Governor of the world;—yet it was a very useful design of these revelations to subjoin proper principles of consolation and encouragement to such a mournful account of temptation, danger and sufferings. This seems to be the intention of the chapter before us, in whichthe scene of the prophetical vision is changed from earth to heaven, from a view of the church under the persecution of the beast, to a view of the church in the presence of the Lamb, delivered from the state of corruption and oppression so much to be expected from this evil world, and arrived at a state of complete and most perfect religion and happiness in the future world. This vision then representsthe sure destruction of the enemies of truth and righteousness in the end, however they may prevail for a time. It shews the great reward of the faithful and the dreadful punishment of the apostate in the day of trial. Thus this part of the prophesy unites the strongest principles of warning, caution, encouragement, and hope, than which nothing could be more proper or useful for the church in such a state of providence; or more suitable to the general design of the whole prophesy, which is to encourage the constancy and patience of the saints in all their trials. When we consider the present chapter in this view, it will shew a moreeasy, natural, and proper connection between this vision and the foregoing than is generally observed; and make the whole plan and design appear more regular than it is usually thought to be. Such is Mr. Lowman's opinion of the intention of this chapter. But Dr. Newton, the learned Bishop of Bristol, understands it in a different, and, I think, a very just light.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/revelation-14.html. 1801-1803.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

This verse represents to us a fresh vision which St. John had, in which several things are very observable, as,

1. What and whom St. John was, a Lamb, by whom Christ is to be understood.

2. The posture which this Lamb was found in, he stood, showing thereby his readiness to deliver his church, and to do every thing that is needful for her.

3. The place where he stood on, Mount Sion, that is, in the midst of the church. Christ ever has been, is, and will be, present with his church, even to the end, although his presence with her is not always sensibly perceived; his care is mysteriously exercised; he is then taking most care of her when he seems to take least, nay, when the men of the world think he takes none at all.

Observe, 4. His company and attendants, and they are described two ways,

1. By their number, to wit, an hundred forty and four thousand, whereby the collective body of the whole church is to be understood; and intimates to us, that in the worst of times, even when apostasy and persecution do most universally prevail, Christ never wants a church, and is not without a number of true worshippers.

2. They are described by their badge or mark, having their Father's name written in their foreheads; in opposition to the mark of the beast mentioned in the foregoing chapter, and in allusion to a custom amongst men, who put their mark or names upon thier goods, especially upon such as are very precious, as silver or gold vessels, and the like; so that the mark of the Father's name upon the forehead denotes both the precious esteem which God has of his people, and also intimates their open profession and owning of him for their Lord and Master, and their faithful adherence to his worship.

Learn hence, That the sincere worship of God, with the open and avowed profession of his holy and undefiled religion, accompanied with a suitable conversation, is a better mark and note of the true church than multitudes and numbers, which are a note of the antichristian synagogue: the world wonders after the beast, when Mount Sion here affords only an hundred forty-four thousand, which had the Father's name written on their foreheads.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Burkitt, William. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/revelation-14.html. 1700-1703.

Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 14:1. καὶ εἰδον, καὶ ἰδού. The formula(3420) marks the unexpected, forcible contrast to the preceding vision.(3421)

τὸ ἀρνίον. Since the Lamb appears as the leader of the glorified,(3422) not only does the contrast between Christ and Satan, with his dragon-form, stand forth in startling relief; but the form of the Lamb also reminds us that the Lord himself has by his sufferings and death attained the victory,(3423) therefore his people must follow him; and that the redemption of believers (Revelation 14:4), and their glorification, depend upon the blood of the Lamb.(3424)

ἑστός. With the abbreviated form of the part.,(3425) cf. the inf. ἑστάναι, 1 Corinthians 10:12.(3426)

ἐπὶ τὸ ὄρος σιών. The failure to acknowledge the proper significance of the entire vision is connected no less with the arbitrary presumption that Mount Zion is to be regarded in heaven,(3427) than with the allegorizing interpretation, according to which Mount Zion is regarded as the Christian Church.(3428) Vitringa unites the reference of the whole to the true Church,(3429) with the correct acknowledgment(3430) that the locality represented in the vision is meant properly. Cf. similar local designations within the vision, which are to be understood with absolute literalness, Revelation 14:6; Revelation 14:14; Revelation 13:1; Revelation 13:11; Revelation 12:1; Revelation 7:1. The holy place named, the home of the O. T.—and, therefore, also of the N. T.(3431)

Church, is adapted like no other place for that which is displayed to the gazing John. With the Lamb there appear one hundred and forty-four thousand who have the name of the Lamb, and the name of his Father, written on their foreheads. These one hundred and forty-four thousand are, according to the usual conception,(3432) identical with those mentioned in ch. Revelation 7:4. The number is the same; the seal there mentioned on the foreheads may be combined with the names of God which the followers of the Lamb have written on their foreheads; also the place, Mount Zion, appears to apply especially to glorified believers from Israel. But there are weighty reasons for the distinction of the one hundred and forty-four thousand in our text from those named in Revelation 7:4.(3433) [See, for the contrary, Note LIII., p 256, on ch. Revelation 7:4.] 1. If John had wished here to designate those already mentioned in Revelation 7:4, he would have expressed this definitely by the article. Cf. similar retrospective allusions in Revelation 14:1 ( τὸ ἀρν.), Revelation 14:3 ( ἐν τοῦ θρ., τῶν τεσσ. ζ., τῶν πρεσβ.). This was the more necessary, because here a particular description of the one hundred and forty-four χιλιάδες follows ( ε͂ χουσαι, κ. τ. λ.), which could lead to an identity with the sealed only in case it be conceived that the seal had as an inscription the twofold names here designated; a conception which in itself has no difficulty, but is remote therefrom, because the sign of the seal has a designation and significance different from this sign of the name: there the fidelity, not to be affected by the impending trouble, is sealed, while here the name of God expresses the eternal and blessed belonging of believers to their heavenly Lord,(3434) in contrast with those who have made themselves bondsmen of the beast. (Revelation 14:9; Revelation 14:11; Revelation 13:16 sq.) 2. To this must be added the fact, which may be decisive, that the one hundred and forty-four thousand in our passage, which, according to Revelation 14:3 sqq., do not appear at all as from Israel, can be identified with those mentioned in Revelation 7:4, only in case one of the two false conceptions, with respect to ch. 7,(3435) be sanctioned; viz., either that the one hundred and forty-four thousand (Revelation 7:4) be regarded identical with the innumerable multitude (Revelation 7:9 sqq.), or this multitude be regarded as a part of the one hundred and forty-four thousand. But it is rather to be said that in this passage only the schematic number, which as a designation of a mass suits mainly believers out of Israel (cf. Revelation 7:4-8), is transferred to such as have completed their course, and designates not only the definite description, Revelation 14:3 sqq., but especially also the antithesis lying in the entire context to the heathen worshippers of the beast, as those springing from the heathen.(3436) This select band (cf. Revelation 14:4) appears as such in the holy numerical sign of believers out of Israel; it is contained in the innumerable company, viz., as an ἀπαρχή.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Meyer, Heinrich. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hmc/revelation-14.html. 1832.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Revelation 14:1. ἑκατὸν, κ. τ. λ.) They are the same CXLIV. thousands which are mentioned ch. 7, but now in a much more splendid condition; wherefore they are mentioned without the article αἱ: just as in ch. Revelation 17:3, θηρίον, the beast, without the article τὸ, is the same beast as that which is mentioned in ch. Revelation 13:1, but which afterwards became very unlike its former self.— τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ καὶ) This was wanting to the Codex Reuchlinianus,1(152) although it does not seem to have been wanting to the more ancient MS., from which it was copied. For, instead of the subsequent participle γεγρα΄΄ένον, Erasmus, in his 1James, 2 d, and 3d Editions, put καιό΄ενον. And this appears to have been inserted in an improper place from the margin, which in smaller [fainter] character, frequently used in margins, reminded [the reader] that the words καὶ ὄνο΄α were to be supplied; just as shortly afterwards, in Revelation 14:6, at τοὺς καθη΄ένους the same Codex Reuchlinianus introduced from other places the marginal gloss τοὺς κατοικοῦντας. It is more probable, in Wolf’s opinion, that καιόμενον ought to be attributed to a gloss. For it is well known, he says, that marks of this kind were accustomed to be burnt in either on the forehead or hand. And some one wishing to point out this custom, thought fit to explain the word γεγραμμένον by καιόμενον. I reply: If a name, which is being burnt in, can be expressed by καιόμενον, that which has been burnt in cannot thus be expressed. It is a matter of little consequence: it is admitted to be a gloss on both sides; the only question is as to its origin. My own view serves towards vindicating the reading respecting the name of the Lamb. Some one, relying on the reading of Erasmus, which does not contain the name of the Lamb, ventured to hope that the name of the Father, and not that of the Lamb, would hereafter come into favour. That enemy of the Nicene faith, and of the glory of Christ, was deceived. Nay, indeed both the name of the Lamb and the name of His Father are written on the foreheads of the CXLIV. thousands.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/revelation-14.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

REVELATION CHAPTER 14

Revelation 14:1-5 The Lamb with his company standing on Mount Sion,

Revelation 14:6,7 an angel preacheth the gospel,

Revelation 14:8 another proclaimeth the fall of Babylon,

Revelation 14:9-12 and a third, the punishment of them that worship the beast.

Revelation 14:13 The blessedness of those that die in the Lord.

Revelation 14:14-16 The harvest of the world.

Revelation 14:17-20 The vintage and winepress of God’s wrath.

God, in this part of the vision, showeth his servant John, that during the whole reign of antichrist, till the voice mentioned Revelation 14:8,

Babylon is fallen, should be heard, notwithstanding all his rage, he would preserve his church, though it would be but a small number, bearing no better proportion to the whole world than one hundred and forty-four thousand (the number of those sealed of each tribe of Israel, Revelation 7:1-17) bare to whole Israel, which were above six hundred thousand upon both their numberings, Numbers 1:26. The

Lamb here signifieth Christ, Revelation 5:6.

Mount Sion signifieth the church of the gospel, typified by Mount Sion amongst the Jews where the temple stood.

An hundred forty and four thousand is the same number that was sealed of all the tribes of Israel, Revelation 7:1-17: not that there was just so many which made up the church under antichrist’s persecution; but it signifies:

1. A small number in comparison of such as should be of another stamp.

2. It is a number made up of twelve times twelve, by which is signified that they were a people that should answer the Israelites indeed of the Old Testament, that remnant of the twelve tribes whom God had chosen, who adhere to the doctrine and precepts of the twelve apostles.

Having his Father’s name written in their foreheads; making an open profession of being the children and servants of God: as those servants and soldiers did that had anciently the names of their masters and generals in their foreheads; it being an ancient custom for masters to brand their servants, and captains their soldiers, as we do our beasts at this day.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/revelation-14.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

Агнец См. пояснение к 5:6.

на горе Сионе Город Иерусалим, куда Мессия вернется и прочно поставит стопы Свои (ср. Пс. 2; 47:2, 3; Ис. 24:23).

сто сорок четыре тысячи См. пояснение к 7:4.

имя Противоположность начертанию зверя. Это отпечаток для опознания тех 144 тысяч, которые принадлежат Богу (см. пояснение к 13:6).

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/revelation-14.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

A hundred forty and four thousand; here, as in chap Revelation 7:4; the representatives of the multitude of the redeemed during the times of trouble and persecution that have been foretold.

His Father’s name written in their foreheads; in contrast with the worshippers of the beast, who have his mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads. Chap Revelation 13:16.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/revelation-14.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

CONTENTS

We have here a most beautiful View of Christ, as a Lamb standing on Mount Zion, his Church, and with him a blessed Company of his Redeemed. An Angel is seen as flying in the Midst of Heaven. Another is heard, declaring the Fall of Babylon. Here is the Harvest of the Earth, and the Vintage, and Wine Press of the Wrath of God.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/revelation-14.html. 1828.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible


The Resurrection and Rapture (Revelation 14:1-5).

‘And I saw and behold the Lamb standing on Mount Zion, and with him one hundred and forty four thousand having His name and His Father’s name written on their foreheads.’

That this is the heavenly Mount Zion comes out in the following verses, for they sing before the throne. It can be said of them literally that they have ‘come to Mount Zion, and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to innumerable hosts of angels’ ( Hebrews 12:22) . The promise that they would have His name and His Father’s name written on them was given to overcomers in Revelation 3:12. The one hundred and forty four thousand of chapter 7 were sealed on their foreheads (Revelation 7:3). There is thus no reason to doubt that these one hundred and forty four thousand are overcomers from the churches and are the one hundred and forty four thousand of chapter 7, which confirms our interpretation there. As such they represent the whole church of God. This is the fulfilment of Matthew 24:31 prior to the judgment of the wicked (Revelation 14:14-20).

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/revelation-14.html. 2013.

Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation

(1) The hundred forty-four thousand--14:1-5.

1. And I looked, and, lo, a Lamb stood on the mount Sion, and with him a hundred forty and four thousand, having his Father's name written in their foreheads--14:1.

The Lamb standing on mount Zion was Christ: and mount Zion was the symbol of the new Jerusalem, where the new covenant was inaugurated, and where the church was established; and which Paul declared, in Galatians 4:26, to be the mother of us all. This heavenly Jerusalem was held in contrast with the old outward and earthly Jerusalem which here was representative of Judaism with all of its apostasies.

This new mount Zion was the seat of the new spiritual temple, as the dwelling of the New Testament church, described in chapter 11:19 as "measured off for them that worship there"--the firstfruits, further mentioned by Paul as the firstborn, in Hebrews 12;22-23 : "But ye are come unto mount Sion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of angels, to the general assembly and church of the firstborn, which are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect."

The hundred forty-four thousand was the numerical symbol for that great number of saints which were redeemed from the earth. These were the martyred number of the woman's seed, designated in chapter twelve as the man child which was caught up unto God in contrast with the remnant or rest of the woman's seed which remained on the earth to suffer tribulation, but not martyrdom. It is stated that this grand group of the hundred forty-four were redeemed from the earth--they represented the select company of martyrs, purchased by the blood of martyrdom, and having been redeemed from the earth they therefore belonged to heaven where they had been caught up unto God. These redeemed thousands with the Lamb had his Father's name written in their foreheads in contrast with not having the mark of the beast in their hands and on their foreheads. It was their badge of identification and mark of distinction.

The number hundred forty-four thousand was based on the mathematical calculation of twelve times twelve, as a symbolic reference to the twelve patriarchs of the old dispensation and the twelve apostles of the new covenant, and the number signified the full number of martyred saints. Here again the proleptic character of this chapter was applied, in that the full number of martyrs were visualized in the midst of rather than at the end of the scenes of death by martyrdom, which followed in the succeeding chapters. This chapter therefore abandoned the orderly succession of the events for the between scenes view of the final victory of the saints and judgment of the beasts.

Copyright Statement
These files are a derivative of an electronic edition available at BibleSupport.com. Public Domain.
Bibliographical Information
Wallace, Foy E. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". "Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/foy/revelation-14.html. 1966.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

"And I looked" (Gr. kai eidon) introduces three scenes in chapter14 ( Revelation 14:1; Revelation 14:6; Revelation 14:14), as this phrase did twice in chapter13 ( Revelation 14:1; Revelation 14:11). "Behold" (Gr. idou, cf. Revelation 14:14) calls special attention to the greatness of the sight that John saw here.

John saw in this scene the time yet future at the end of the Great Tribulation when Jesus Christ will return to the earth. His second coming does not take place here but in Revelation 19:11-21. John only saw it as happening in his vision here. He saw the Lamb standing on earth, specifically on Mt. Zion, with the144,000 Jewish witnesses that God had sealed for the Tribulation ( Revelation 7:3; cf. Zechariah 14:4-5). The contrast of the gentle Lamb standing and the fierce dragon pursuing ( Revelation 12:13-17) and the evil beasts arising ( Revelation 13:1; Revelation 13:11) is particularly striking. An interesting detail is that John saw the beast standing on sand ( Revelation 13:1) but the Lamb standing on rock ( Revelation 14:1; cf. Matthew 7:24-27).

Many dispensationalists take Mt. Zion to refer to earthly Jerusalem, but some dispensationalists take it (cf. Revelation 11:1; Revelation 11:18; Revelation 12:5) to refer to the heavenly Jerusalem (cf. Hebrews 12:22). [Note: E.g, Ryrie, p88; Smith, A Revelation . . ., p208; and Wiersbe, 2:607.] Most covenant theologians also take it as the New Jerusalem that God will bring down to earth from heaven ( Revelation 21:1 to Revelation 22:5). [Note: E.g, Ladd, pp189-90; Mounce, p267; and Beale, p735.]

"To interpret this as a heavenly city ... involves numerous problems .... If this group is the same as the144,000 of chapter7, they are specifically said to be sealed and kept safely through the tribulation. In this case, they move on into the millennial earth without going to the third heaven [God"s abode], since this is the meaning of the seal (cf. Revelation 7:3)." [Note: Walvoord, The Revelation ..., p214.]

Others take Mt. Zion as a figure for strength (cf. Psalm 2:6; Psalm 48:2; Psalm 78:68; Psalm 87:2; Psalm 125:1; Isaiah 28:16; Isaiah 59:20; Obadiah 1:17; Obadiah 1:21; Micah 4:7). [Note: Swete, p177.] However Zion, as that name occurs elsewhere in Scripture, usually refers to earthly Jerusalem (cf. 2 Samuel 5:7; Psalm 48:1-2; Isaiah 2:3; Isaiah 24:23; Joel 2:32; Obadiah 1:17; Obadiah 1:21; Micah 4:1-2; Micah 4:7; Zechariah 14:10). [Note: See Newell, p209; and McGee, 5:1006.] I think it probably does here too.

"Further, the argument that the144,000 must be in heaven as they hear the song before the throne may be disputed. There is no statement to the effect that they hear the Song of Solomon, only the declaration that they alone can learn it [ Revelation 14:3]." [Note: Walvoord, The Revelation ..., p214.]

Apparently their sealing ( Revelation 7:3) protects them from God"s wrath but not from the wrath of the dragon and the beasts (cf. Revelation 12:12; Revelation 12:17). Some of them will evidently die as martyrs ( Revelation 13:15). [Note: Thomas, Revelation 8-22, pp192, 194. ] Many interpreters believe that none of the144,000 will die during the Great Tribulation. [Note: E.g, Walvoord, The Revelation . . ., p216.] The seal is the earnest of their ultimate victory (cf. Revelation 22:4).

"The Divine name on the forehead suggests at once the imparting of a character which corresponds with the Mind of God, and the consecration of life to His service." [Note: Swete, p177.]

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/revelation-14.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 14:1. First the Lamb is seen standing on the mount Sion. It is the same Lamb that we have already met with at chap. Revelation 5:6,—the once crucified, but now risen and glorified, Lord. The ‘mount Sion’ is neither the literal Sion at Jerusalem, nor the Christian Church, but simply the most appropriate place for the people of God to occupy, the holy mount, the holy place of the tabernacles of the Most High. The scene of preservation is not heaven but earth.

And with him an hundred forty and four thousand, having his name and the name of his Father written on their fore-heads. These are the sealed of chap. 7, not one lost. True, they are not spoken of as the ‘sealed.’ In chap. 7 they were so described, for their preservation was there the prominent thought. Now that they have been preserved and admitted as priests within the veil, our attention may be directed to the contents of the seal. These are in part at least—it is not necessary to think wholly—the ‘name’ which belongs at once to the Father and to the Lamb, the name Lord. St. John, as his manner is, is loftier than St. Paul, who says, ‘Ye are the Lord’s’ (Romans 14:8).

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/revelation-14.html. 1879-90.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Behold a Lamb, by which is divers times represented our Saviour Christ. (Witham)

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/revelation-14.html. 1859.

Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books

In chapter 7, we saw these sealed to be kept safe. Now, we see not one of them was lost, for they are with the Lamb on Mount Zion, which is the church, heaven"s vestibule. (Psalms 125:1; Hebrews 12:22-24) There is a sense in which heaven is ours while we are still on earth. (1 John 2:24-25) It is our possession in promise and can only be taken away if we are not faithful. The Father"s name written in their foreheads must be the seal of chapter 7.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Hampton, Gary. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". "Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ghc/revelation-14.html. 2014.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

looked = saw. App-133.

a = the, as all the texts.

stood = standing.

mount Sion. Compare Hebrews 12:22.

hundred, &c. See Revelation 7:3-8.

His . . . name. The texts read "His name and His Father"s name". in = upon. App-104.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/revelation-14.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And I looked, and, lo, a Lamb stood on the mount Sion, and with him an hundred forty and four thousand, having his Father's name written in their foreheads.

In contrast to the beast, false prophet, and apostate church (implied in the healing of the wound that had been inflicted on idolatry by the Sword of the Spirit, Revelation 13:3; Revelation 13:14): introductory to the judgments about to descend on them and the world (Revelation 14:8-11, anticipatory of Revelation 18:2-6; Revelation 19:20) stand the redeemed, 'the divine kernel of humanity' (Auberlen). Revelation 14:1-20; Revelation 15:1-8; Revelation 16:1-21 describe the preparations for Messianic judgment. As Revelation 14:1-20 begins with the 144,000 of Israel (cf. Revelation 7:4-8), no longer exposed to trial as then, but triumphant, 'the first-fruits,' and then follow the general Gentile 'harvest' of redeemed: so Revelation 15:1-8 combines with Israel those who have overcome from among the Gentiles (cf. Revelation 7:9-17, with Revelation 15:1-5): the two classes of elect form together the whole company of transfigured saints who reign with Christ. A. 'Aleph (') A B C, Coptic, Origen, read, 'the Lamb.'

Lamb stood on ... Sion - having left His position "in the midst of the throne," now taking His stand on Sion.

His Father's name. 'Aleph (') A B C read, 'His name and His Father's name.'

In, [ epi (Greek #1909)] - 'upon.' God's and Christ's name here answers to the seal "upon their foreheads" in Revelation 7:3. As the 144,000 of Israel are "the first-fruits" (Revelation 14:4), so "the harvest" (Revelation 14:15) is the general assembly of Gentile saints to be translated by Christ as His first act in assuming His kingdom, prior to judgment (Revelation 16:1-21, the seven last vials) on the anti-christian world, in executing which His saints shall share. As Noah and Lot were taken seasonably out of the judgment, but exposed to the trial until the last moment (DeBurgh), so those who reign with Christ first suffer with Him-delivered out of the judgments, but not out of the trials. True Israelites cannot join in the idolatry of the beast anymore than true Christians. The common affliction will draw closely together, in opposing the beast's worship, the Old Testament and New Testament people of God. Thus the way is paved for Israel's conversion. This last scattering of the holy people's power leads them, under the Spirit, hail Messiah. "Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord."

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/revelation-14.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

THE CITADEL OF THE SAINTS AND THE SERVANTS OF THE LAMB.

(1) And I looked . . .—Better, And I saw, and behold, the Lamb (not “a Lamb:” it is the Lamb, the true Lamb of God, against whom the wild beast wages savage and subtle war) standing on the Mount Sion. The Saviour, the Lamb, in whose blood the saints have found their victory, is seen standing on the citadel of the heavenly city. Babylon is to be introduced (Revelation 14:8). In contrast, Zion, the chosen abode of God (Psalms 132:13-18), the type of the spiritual city whose citizens are true to the King (comp. Psalms 2:6; Psalms 74:2; Hebrews 12:22-24), is introduced. There are to be seen the Lamb, set as King upon the holy hill of Zion, and with Him the sealed ones, His faithful soldiers and servants. They are described as 144,000 in number: a number which represents the full growth of the choice ones of God, the true Israel of God. (See Note on Revelation 7:4.) These have their Father’s name on their foreheads: they can be recognised as children of God, (Comp. Note on Revelation 7:2-3, and Revelation 22:4.)

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/revelation-14.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And I looked, and, lo, a Lamb stood on the mount Sion, and with him an hundred forty and four thousand, having his Father's name written in their foreheads.
I looked
14; 4:1; 6:8; 15:5; Jeremiah 1:11; Ezekiel 1:4; 2:9; 8:7; 10:1,9; 44:4; Daniel 12:5; Amos 8:2; Zechariah 4:2
a Lamb
5:5-9,12,13; 7:9-17
mount
Psalms 2:6; 132:13,14; Isaiah 49:14; Joel 2:32; Micah 4:7; Romans 9:33; Hebrews 12:22-24
an
7:4-8
having
3:12; 7:3; 13:16,17; Luke 12:8
Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 12:5 - But unto;  2 Samuel 5:7 - Zion;  1 Chronicles 11:5 - the castle;  Psalm 9:11 - which;  Psalm 15:1 - holy;  Psalm 45:14 - virgins;  Psalm 65:1 - in Sion;  Psalm 69:35 - God;  Psalm 87:3 - Glorious;  Psalm 87:7 - As well;  Psalm 99:2 - great;  Psalm 125:1 - be as mount;  Psalm 137:3 - the songs of Zion;  Isaiah 24:23 - mount;  Isaiah 35:10 - and come;  Isaiah 51:11 - the redeemed;  Isaiah 60:14 - The city;  Isaiah 65:25 - my;  Jeremiah 51:10 - let us;  Ezekiel 9:4 - set a mark;  John 1:29 - Behold;  1 Peter 1:19 - as;  Revelation 9:4 - which;  Revelation 12:11 - the blood;  Revelation 14:3 - no;  Revelation 15:2 - that had;  Revelation 17:14 - and they;  Revelation 19:14 - the armies;  Revelation 22:4 - and his

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/revelation-14.html.

Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation

I. — THE SPARED JEWISH REMNANT

(Revelation 14:1-5).

MOUNT ZION, THE LAMB, AND THE JEWISH REMNANT.

. — "And I saw, and behold, the Lamb standing upon Mount Zion, and with Him a hundred (and)forty-four thousand, having His Name and the Name of His Father written upon their foreheads." The Revised Testament reads "a Lamb," and omits "having his Name." Both blunders are corrected in the Revised Version.

Zion is only named once in the Apocalypse. "Out of about 110 times that Zion is mentioned, ninety are in terms of the Lord's great love and affection for her, so that the place has great, very great significance, and Heaven knows it too."{*"Revelation of Jesus Christ," by W. R. Hartridge, page 54.} The first mention of Zion when capturedfrom the Jebusites by David (2 Samuel 5:7) is pregnant with interest, for, adds the sacred historian, "the same is the city of David." Saul, the predecessor of David on the throne, was the man of the people's choice, and typified "the king" who reigns in Jerusalem before the Lord comes. David, the true king of Israel, was Jehovah's chosen, and Zion the seat of his government. He is thus the prototype of our Lord, Who will reign in Zion, "and before His ancients gloriously" (Isaiah 24:23). Zion is rich in sacredmemories to the Jew. It is his goal of hope. It is, too, God's chosen city. "For the Lord hath chosen Zion: He hath desired it for His habitation. This is my rest for ever; here will I dwell; for I have desired it" (Psalms 132:13-14). "Beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole earth, is mount Zion, on the sides of the north, the city of the great King" (Psalms 48:2). It is the seat of universalgovernment for earth, and the centre of interest to the millennial world (Isaiah 2:1-22). It is where Jehovah has in purpose set His King (Psalms 2:6). There are three distinct thoughts connected with mount Zion: (1) It is the seat of royal power; (2) of God's intervention in grace; (3) of Jehovah's sovereignty, but all in respect to Israel.

The vision is a bright and gladdening one, a calm after a storm. Christ does not yet reign on Zion, but the time is near, and in the meantime He stands as the Lamb with His chosen ones. The vision is an anticipative one. Both the crowd of saved Gentiles (Revelation 7:9) and the millennial kingdom (Revelation 11:15; Revelation 12:10) are anticipative visions which have their actual fulfilment at the Advent in power.Here the Lamb stands on mount, Zion, but the Vials have yet to be poured out. The 144,000 here witnessed are of Judah; a similarly numbered company of all Israel (Revelation 7:4) forms a separate vision. This company has theName of the Lamb and His (not their) Father's Name written upon their foreheads. The mark of the Beast is on each one of his worshippers. The Name of the Lamb and His Father's Name as well on the forehead of each confessor of Christ. These witnesses are viewed as having come out of the fiery trial under the Beast. They are Jews who steadfastly maintained the rights of God and of the Lamb; now they are publicly owned of Him. Many of their brethren suffered even unto death, sealing their testimony with their blood. Those here were spared through the horrors of the Tribulation. We gather that the innumerable company of Gentiles (Revelation 7:9) are identical with the sheep who go into everlasting life (Matthew 25:34; Matthew 25:46); further, the "third part," refined as silver andtried as gold (Zechariah 13:8-9), the same as are here spoken of as 144,000 Jewish saints who occupy the leading place inthe earthly millennial kingdom. They stand with the Lamb on the seat of royalty. What an exchange! From the tyranny of the Beast to fellowship with the Lamb! From the place of suffering to the seat of glorious power!

Copyright Statement
These files are a derivative of an electronic edition available at BibleSupport.com. Public Domain.
Bibliographical Information
Scott, Walter. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". "Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/sor/revelation-14.html.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

The preceding chapter took us back to the first century of the Christian Era and dealt with the years of Pagan Rome, then came on to the time of Papal Rome and predicted the Dark Ages of1260 years. The present chapter will continue down through that period and through the days of the Reformation, finally reaching the last great day of judgment and the separation of the saved from the unsaved. The Lamb is Christ and Zion is the true church which has been persecuted all through the Dark Ages. In the course of that period there were multitudes of faithful Christians who would not receive the mark of the beast, but instead they had the name of the Father written in their foreheads.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/revelation-14.html. 1952.

Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation

Revelation 14:1

Revelation 14:1 And I looked, and, lo, a Lamb stood on the mount Sion, and with him an hundred forty and four thousand, having his Father's name written in their foreheads.

After the Apostle John had seen the anti-Christian beast, persecuting the church of God, the woman, and the remnant of her see; he looked what would become of that remnant of God's sealed ones;

And lo, a Lamb stood on the mount Sion.

Our Lord Jesus Christ is called a Lamb, first, as He was a sacrifice, for the sins of his people. { 1 Corinthians 5:7; John 1:29} See the exposition of Revelation 5:6-9. See KNOLLYS: Revelation 5:6" [ff] See KNOLLYS: Revelation 5:7 See KNOLLYS: Revelation 5:8 See KNOLLYS: Revelation 5:9 By his standing on Mount Sion, is meant Christ's presence with his church, and his kingly power for her protection and preservation, in all generations, { Ephesians 3:21} that God may have glory by Jesus Christ in his church, typed out here by Mount Sion, for strength, { Psalm 125:1-2} and for beauty, { Psalm 48:2}

And with him an hundred forty and four thousand.

These were the sealed ones, {chapter Revelation 7:3-4} so that our Lord Jesus Christ had lost none of all them that the Father had given him. { John 6:39}

Having his Fathers name written in their foreheads.

This doth distinguish the followers of the Lamb from the worshippers and followers of the beast. The worshippers of the beast had the mark of the beast in their foreheads; which is an open and visible profession of their subjection and obedience unto the universal headship, government, dominion, laws, and ordinances of the Pope and Church of Rome. (See exposition on Revelation 13:16-17) See KNOLLYS: Revelation 13:16 The true worshippers of God, that worship him in spirit and truth, and the followers of the Lamb, our blessed Lord Jesus Christ, have his father's name written in their foreheads; that is an open and visible profession of their subjection and obedience unto the universal headship, rule, authority, government, dominion, laws, and ordinances of God the Father, and of our Lord Jesus Christ. The sealed ones were of the election of God, as 2 Timothy 2:19. And these written ones were also a remnant of the same election of grace, as Romans 11:5 yet we may observe some things wherein they differ, and are distinguished. First, in time; they were sealed at the beginning of the beast's forty and two months. See Revelation 7:3-4, etc. These were congregated at the ending time of the witnesses' thousand two hundred and threescore days, when the spirit of life entered into the witnesses. See Revelation 11:11-15, etc. They were sealed a little before the first trumpet sounded; these were congregated upon the sounding of the seventh trumpet, when it began to sound, see the exposition of chapter7 verse3, 4, etc. See KNOLLYS: Revelation 7:3 & See KNOLLYS: Revelation 7:4 and chapter8 verse7, etc, See KNOLLYS: Revelation 8:6 and chapter10 verse7, 11. See KNOLLYS: Revelation 10:5 & See KNOLLYS: Revelation 10:11 Secondly, in condition; the sealed ones were in a wilderness condition of sufferings, { Revelation 12:6} and in a mourning sackcloth state. { Revelation 11:3-7} The congregated ones were in an overcoming, conquering, and rejoicing condition over the beast, and his image, and over mystery Babylon the great. { Revelation 18:20; Revelation 20:4}

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Knollys, Hanserd. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". "Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hkc/revelation-14.html.

Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms

Revelation 14:1. And I saw, and behold the Lamb stood upon the mount Zion, and with an hundred forty and four thousand, who had his name and the name of his Father written on their foreheads. The words, "and I saw and behold," indicate, the unexpected nature of the lovely and consoling spectacle. Instead of the Lamb, Luther has incorrectly a Lamb. The preponderance of authorities is decidedly in favour of the article. It has respect to what had been said in the earlier part of the book as characteristic of the Lamb. In this passage, viewed by itself, it does not sufficiently appear why Christ should appear here in the form of a Lamb. The Lamb here is not the chief figure; the wonderful object is the circle that surrounds him, while, according to the calculations of human reason, he should have appeared there alone.

The tender Lamb forms a contrast to the savage beast. Though apparently so weak, he still knows how to endow his elect with invincible strength against the beast, together with a subservient and adhering world, so that these are unable to shake their fidelity. That this power is rooted in the blood of the Lamb is evident from ch. Revelation 7:14, where the blessed, who stand in white robes before the throne of God, are represented as having washed their robes "in the blood of the Lamb;" and also from ch. Revelation 12:11, where it is said, "And they overcame him by the blood of the Lamb and by the word of their testimony;" ch. Revelation 5:9, Revelation 13:8. We are to regard the Lamb here also appearing as having been slain, as in ch. 5.

The mount Zion, where the Lamb stands, is mentioned only here in the Revelation. But here, as in Hebrews 12:22, it means the heavenly Zion (see Hebrews 12:18 in that ch. of Heb., where this spiritual mountain is contrasted with that outward and earthly one, which formed the seat of the old covenant). The heavenly Zion appears here as the local position of the heavenly temple, which stands related to the Ancient tabernacle, "the tent of meeting," as the substance to the shadow; it is the place "where God and angels meet with men, and the righteous are eternally blessed." Since Christ, the brightness of the Father's glory, has his people assembled with him there, the word, "I dwell among them," receives its complete realization. Some would understand merely the mountain known on earth by the name of Zion. A rare contrast truly, this glorious scene and the poor earthly Zion! This had long ago lost its significance to the Seer of the Revelation; it had become in his view but a common profane place, a mount like other mounts (see vol. i, p. 415). Besides, it is the usual manner of the author to employ Jewish things merely as the symbol of Christian (see vol. i, p. 424). Jerusalem, in particular, never designates in the Apocalypse the city vulgarly known by that name. Further, as certainly as the voice from heaven in Revelation 14:2 is the voice of the 144,000, so certainly must the mount Zion, where the Lamb stands with them, be the heavenly one. According to Revelation 14:3 the throne of God is on mount Zion. But this does not belong to the earthly Zion, it belongs to the heavenly (comp. ch. Revelation 4:2). Finally, the comparison of ch. Revelation 7:9-17, Revelation 15:2-5, leaves no room to doubt that the 144,000 are presented to us in their state of heavenly bliss. But in such a state they have nothing to do with the earthly Zion. Ch. Revelation 7:15 especially is to be compared, "Therefore are they before the throne of God, and serve him day and night in his temple." The temple there is the heavenly one. So also here mount Zion can only be brought into notice as the site of the heavenly temple. Some older expositors suppose that substantially it is the true church on earth which is here represented to our view, although they appear assembled in the heavenly sanctuary, of which even on earth they were members (Hebrews 12:22; Revelation 13:6); and that the subject of this section is the wonderful preservation of the church on earth (Vitringa: Res erat admiratione digna, dari ecclesiam verara in ecclesia falsa). But the comparison of the parallel sections already referred to is against this view; and so also here are Revelation 14:2-3, which admit of our thinking, not of a militant, but only of a triumphant church. The "new song" is sung by a chorus of conquerors.

The 144,000 are identical with those in ch. Revelation 7:4; for this is undoubtedly the number which embraces all the true members of the Christian church. There they are placed before us in their earthly preservation; here, as in ch. Revelation 7:9, ss., where also the 144,000 are the subject of discourse—for the multitude no one could number, as was shown there, is not different from them—in their heavenly bliss and glory. It might also have stood: the hundred and forty and four thousand. Yet this was not necessary, as it is more customary for the groups formally to preserve their independence, than that they should definitely refer back to the earlier portions. Comp. ch. Revelation 17:3, where a beast is the subject, although the fame beast is meant which was already spoken of in ch. 13.

Instead of "his name and the name of his Father," Luther has merely, "the name of his Father," in opposition to all the best copies, the nature of the thing, and the expression in Revelation 14:4, "first-fruits to God and the Lamb." The omission can only have arisen from the negligence of some copyists.

If at ch. Revelation 13:16-17, in regard to the mark, the name of the beast on the forehead as being the symbol of confession, it was rightly remarked, "he who bears on his forehead the mark of the beast, thereby declares himself before all the world to be a servant of the beast; the forehead is the most appropriate place for a confession:"—then, that the persons here spoken of should have the names of Christ and of his Father on their forehead, in a place where they were no longer exposed to temptation, can only indicate, that they had remained steadfast in their confession, even to the end. The design must simply be, to meet anxious doubts in regard to the possibility of maintaining a steadfast confession, which could not fail to arise in the bosom of believers, after having heard of the amazing power that was to be exercised by the beast over men's minds; to meet the despair which, next to levity, is the most dangerous enemy to steadfastness in confession, but which was very natural in respect to an adversary who was to compel all, small and great, rich and poor, bond and free, to receive a mark on their right hand and on their foreheads. The name, therefore, is not written on their foreheads as a reward, but it glitters there as the sacred insignia which they had triumphantly maintained amid all the assaults of the world, that plied every effort to rob them of it. They did not first receive this glorious name in heaven, but they have maintained it on earth in sweat and blood, and therefore have gone with it to heaven, where He, whom they had faithfully confessed on earth, now confesses himself to them. Happy he who shall there be found in the number of those who have the name of the Lamb and of his Father written on their foreheads! and written in clear, broad, manifest, not faint, half-effaced characters! No one shall attain to this blessedness by his own power (ch. Revelation 19:8). Looking merely to this we must, with the disciples, be appalled, and exclaim, "Who then can be saved?" But here also the word of Jesus holds, "And Jesus looked on them and said to them, With man it is impossible, but with God all things are possible."

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/revelation-14.html.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

1.I looked, and lo—The words signalize the change of sight-direction, and the opening of a new scene of symbols. Great is the contrast between the sea of the beast and the mount of the one hundred forty and four thousand. The phrase, And I saw, or looked, opens a second movement of the panorama at Revelation 14:6, and a third at Revelation 14:14.

A Lamb—Rather, the Lamb; known from former mention. The glorious leader is here the Lamb, since it is in his atoning character that this glorious host expects to conquer. The mount Zion was of course easily seen by John from Moriah. The throne might seem to be in the most holy place, yet allowing all visional freedom. The Jerusalem they are in is not the material Jerusalem, but the mystic Christian capital, in antithesis with the mystic antichristic capital, Babylon.

And with him—Who are this hundred forty and four thousand? Dusterdieck denies them to be the same as those of chapter vii, and affirms them to be a choice body of eminently pure saints. For, 1. The article is omitted before the number, so that they are not the, but a hundred forty and four thousand, the number being merely a churchly designation; and, 2. They are the Jewish symbol, because the enemies they oppose are pagan, that is, Gentile. But Alford maintains the full identity with the glorious company of the former chapter. We think the truth lies between the two commentators. The two glorious companies are the same, but not in equal amount. Chapter vii purposes to symbolize the entire Church of glorified spirits; this simply represents a part of the same, including only the earlier Church—the Church of both the pagan and papal martyrdoms, hence they are called first-fruits. The hundred forty and four thousand are still from Israel, and the harpers are still the Gentiles. In fact, the whole are the souls under the altar of chapter vi, multiplied in number, and giving their own holy character to the whole Church of their period; they have risen from beneath the altar, have scaled mount Zion, and fill the very heaven above the mystic Jerusalem, pouring down their strains of song upon the ear of St. John.

 

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/revelation-14.html. 1874-1909.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Revelation 14:1. Instead of the beast, the Lamb; instead of the beast’s followers and their mark, the Lamb’s followers with the divine name; instead of the pagan earth, mount Zion. The vision is based on an old Jewish apocalyptic tradition, copied by the Christian editor of 4 Esdras (2:42) but already present in the Jewish original (13:35: ipse [i.e., Messias] stabit super cacumen montis Sion, 39 et quoniam uidisti eum colligentem ad se aliam multitudinem pacificam, hae sunt decem tribus), which apparently described (cf.Joel 2:32) a further cycle of the tradition underlying Revelation 7:1-8. The appearance of this manlike messiah on mount Zion was accompanied by the manifestation of the celestial Zion (postponed here till 21.). Thus, Revelation 14:1-5 is, in some respects, a companion panel to Revelation 7:9 f., though the retinue of messiah are painted in more definitely Jewish colours. They are distinguished for their testimony borne against the Imperial cultus and the contaminations of the pagan world.

 

 

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Revelation 14:1". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/revelation-14.html. 1897-1910.