Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 16:13

And I saw coming out of the mouth of the dragon and out of the mouth of the beast and out of the mouth of the false prophet, three unclean spirits like frogs;
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Animals;   Dragon;   Frogs;   Good and Evil;   Temple;   Wicked (People);   Scofield Reference Index - Antichrist;   Resurrection;   Thompson Chain Reference - Frogs;   The Topic Concordance - Coming of the Lord Jesus Christ;   Day of the Lord;   Gathering;   Israel/jews;   Nations;   War/weapons;   Wrath;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Reptiles;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Babylon;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Millennium;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Dead Sea Scrolls;   False Prophet;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Order;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Frog;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Antichrist;   Babylon, Mystical;   Divination;   Frogs;   Idol;   Lucifer;   Sadducees;   Zechariah, the Book of;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Beast;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Antichrist;   Frog;   Moses;   Plagues of Egypt;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Angels;   Antichrist ;   Beast;   Demon;   Devil ;   Dragon ;   Har-Magedon;   Inspiration and Revelation;   Lying ;   Moses ;   Mouth Lips;   Numbers;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Antichrist;   Demon;   Dragon,;   Frog;   Vials;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Frog;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Frog,;   Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Frog;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Armageddon;   Frog;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Crime;   Frog;   Revelation of John:;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Three unclean spirits - Perhaps false teachers, called afterwards spirits of devils, which persuade the kings of the earth by lying miracles to come forth to the place of general slaughter, Revelation 16:14, Revelation 16:16,

Some good critics apply this to Vespasian, and his pretended miracles. See the account in Tacitus, lib. iv. c. 81.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 16:13". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/revelation-16.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

And I saw three unclean spirits - They assumed a visible form which would well represent their odiousness - that of frogs - but still they are spoken of as “spirits.” They were evil powers, or evil influences (Revelation 16:14, “spirits of devils”), and the language here is undoubtedly designed to represent some such power or influence which would, at that period, proceed from the dragon, the beast, and the false prophet.

Like frogs - βατράχοι batrachoiThis word does not occur in the New Testament except in the passage before us. It is properly translated frogs. The frog is here employed clearly as a symbol, and it is designed that certain qualities of the “spirits” here referred to should be designated by the symbol. For a full illustration of the meaning of the symbol, the reader may consult Bochart, Hieroz. P. II. lib. v. cap. 4. According to Bochart, the frog is characterized, as a symbol:

(1)for its rough, harsh, coarse voice;

(2)on this account, as a symbol of complaining or reproaching;

(3)as a symbol of empty loquacity;

(4)as a symbol of heretics and philosophers, as understood by Augustine;

(5)because the frog has its origin in mud, and lives in mud, as a symbol of those who are born in sin, and live in pollution;

(6)because the frog endures all changes of the season cold and heat, summer, winter, rain, frost - as a symbol of monks who practice self-denial;

(7)because the frog though abstemious of food, yet lives in water and drinks often, as a symbol of drunkards;

(8)as a symbol of impudence;

(9)because the frog swells his size, and distends his cheeks, as a symbol of pride.

See the authorities for these uses of the word in Bochart. How many or few of these ideas enter into the symbol here, it is not easy to decide. We may suppose, however, that the spirits referred to would be characterized by pride, arrogance, impudence, assumption of authority; perhaps impurity and vileness, for all these ideas enter into the meaning of the symbol. They are not here, probably, symbols of persons, but of influences or opinions which would be spread abroad, and which would characterize the age referred to. The reference is to what the “dragon,” the “beast,” and the “false prophet” would do at that time in opposing the truth, and in preparing the world for the great and final conflict.

Out of the mouth of the dragon - One of which seemed to issue from the mouth of the dragon. On the symbolic meaning of the word “dragon,” see the notes on Revelation 12:3. It, in general, represents Satan, the great enemy of the church; perhaps here Satan under the form of paganism or paganism, as in Revelation 12:3-4. The idea then is, that, at the time referred to, there would be some manifestation of the power of Satan in the pagan nations, which would be bold, arrogant, proud, loquacious, hostile to truth, and which would be well represented by the hoarse murmur of the frog.

And out of the mouth of the beast - The papacy, as above explained, Revelation 16:5-6), that although the fifth vial was poured upon “the seat of the beast,” the effect was not to crush and overthrow that power entirely. The papacy would still survive, and would be finally destroyed under the outpouring of the seventh vial, Revelation 16:17-21. In the passage before us we have a representation of it as still living; as having apparently recovered its strength; and as being as hostile as ever to the truth, and able to enter into a combination, secret or avowed, with the “dragon” and the “false prophet,” to oppose the reign of truth upon the earth.

And out of the mouth of the false prophet - The word rendered “false prophet” - ψευδοπροφήτου pseudoprophētou- does not before occur in the Book of Revelation, though the use of the article would seem to imply that some well-known power or influence was referred to by this. Compare the notes on Revelation 10:3. The word occurs in other places in the New Testament, Matthew 7:15; Matthew 24:11, Matthew 24:24; Mark 13:22; Luke 6:26; Acts 13:6; 2 Peter 2:1; 1 John 4:1; and twice elsewhere in the Book of Revelation, with the same reference as here, Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10. In both these latter places it is connected with the “beast:” “And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet”; “And the devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet are.” It would seem, then, to refer to some power that was similar to that of the beast, and that was to share the same fate in the overthrow of the enemies of the gospel. As to the application of this, there is no opinion so probable as that it alludes to the Muhammedan power - not strictly the Turkish power, for that was to be “dried up,” or to diminish; but to the Muhammedan power as such, that was still to continue for a while in its vigor, and that was yet to exert a formidable influence against the gospel, and probably in some combination, in fact, if not in form, with paganism stud the papacy. The reasons for this opinion are:

(a)that this was referred to, in the former part of the book, as one of the formidable powers that would arise, and that would materially affect the destiny of the world - and it may be presumed that it would be again referred to in the account of the final consummation, see Revelation 9:1-11;

(b)the name “false prophet” would, better than any other, describe that power, and would naturally suggest it in future times - for to no one that has ever appeared in our world could the name be so properly applied as to Muhammed; and,

(c)what is said will be found to agree with the facts in regard to that power, as, in connection with the papacy and with paganism, constituting the sum of the obstruction to the spread of the gospel around the world.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 16:13". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/revelation-16.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

And I saw coming out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet, three unclean spirits, as it were frogs:

Out of the mouth of the dragon ... the beast ... the false prophet ... Ah! Here are the "kings of the east" mentioned above. Their purpose in crossing the boundary will quickly appear.

Three unclean spirits, as it were frogs ... "Their evil influence is shown under the figure of frogs, because it was by producing frogs that the magicians deceived Pharaoh (Exodus 8:7).[37] The next verse tells us more about these frogs. "To say that they come out of the mouth of the dragon, the beast and the false prophet is to say that their words are like plagues, unclean, empty futilities and allies of the powers of darkness."[38] The dragon, the beast, and the false prophet were accurately identified by Summers as "the devil, godless government and false religion."[39] Lange called these frogs "the modern nightingales who announce the new springtime of mankind."[40] From the dirtiness and slimey nature of the frogs, we may conclude that they are the devil's propaganda agents, making a lot of noise like frogs, but being in themselves small, weak, dirty, and despicable.

[37] J. R. Dummelow. Commentary on the Holy Bible (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1937), p. 1086.

[38] William Barclay, op. cit., p. 130.

[39] Ray Summers, op. cit., p. 189.

[40] Lange as quoted by Lenski, op. cit., p. 477.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
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Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Revelation 16:13". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/revelation-16.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And I saw three unclean spirits like frogs,.... Rome, the seat of antichrist, being destroyed, and the kingdom of the beast darkened, and brought into great contempt, Mahometanism greatly declining, the Gospel succeeding everywhere, the Jews being converted, and resettled in their own land, the devil bestirs himself more than ordinary; and dispatches his, and the emissaries of antichrist, to the kings of the whole earth, that can any ways be engaged on their side, and against the saints; and these are no other than the creatures of antichrist, such as cardinals, priests, and particularly Jesuits, as their original from the dragon, the beast, and the false prophet, show. Mr. Daubuz thinks these "three" are the "monks", the "religious knights", and "secular clergy": and these are called "spirits"; not because they are what are called familiar spirits, or devils themselves, for they are the spirits of devils, as in the next verse; but either because they pretend to be spiritual men, ecclesiastics, men in spiritual offices, and indeed are spiritual wickednesses in high places; or because of their agility, swiftness, and expeditiousness in going to and fro, Satan like, to do mischief: and they are said to be "unclean"; as the evil spirits and devils are, being so by nature, and delighting in uncleanness, and giving themselves up to work it with greediness: and they are "like frogs"; the allusion is to the plague of frogs in Egypt, Exodus 8:5 and these antichristian emissaries are fitly compared to them, for their impurity, and pleasure they take in it, as frogs do in dirt and filth; and for their being talkative, impudent, and troublesome, like the noisy croaking frogs; so "rhetoricians" are by CiceroF1Ad Atticum, l. 15. Ep. 16. compared to frogs; and as the frogs of Egypt got into the king's bedchamber, Exodus 8:3 so these get into the private retirements of princes, into their cabinet councils, and stir them up to war and bloodshed: and as for the number, "three", this is only used to express a sufficient number of them, or to make the account square with the dragon, beast, and false prophet, from whom they proceed; and besides, this is omitted in the king's manuscript. Now John saw these, in a visionary way,

come out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet; by the dragon is meant the devil, Revelation 12:9 not as acting in Rome Pagan, which has been long ago destroyed, rather as in the Pagan parts of the world, and as in the Turkish empire, now ruined; who, seeing his cause declining everywhere, bestirs himself to support and revive it, though this issues in the binding of him for a thousand years, Revelation 20:2. By the beast is meant the first beast, in Revelation 13:1 and so the Ethiopic version renders it; the antichristian civil state, now sadly shattered and weakened, by the pouring out of the fifth vial: and by "the false prophet" is meant, not Mahomet, or the supporters of his religion, but the second beast in Revelation 13:11 or the antichristian ecclesiastic state, as appears from the description of this prophet in Revelation 19:20 compared with that: so then these spirits manifestly appear to be the emissaries of antichrist, under a diabolical influence; his creatures, that are made, and sent forth by him, have their commissions and orders from him, to act for him in every shape, to support his interest, civil and religious, by lies, murders, and false doctrine; a further account is given of them in the next verse.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 16:13". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/revelation-16.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

And I saw 13 three unclean spirits 14 like frogs [come] out of the mouth of the 15 dragon, and out of the mouth of the 16 beast, and out of the mouth of the 17 false prophet.

(13) That is, every one of them focus their whole force, and conspired that by wonders, word and work they might bring into the same destruction all kings, princes and potentates of the world, cursedly bewitched by them by their spirits, and teachers of the vanity and impunity of the beast that committed fornication with the kings of the earth. This is a good description of our times.

(14) Croaking with all importunity and continually day and night provoking and calling forth to arms, as the trumpets and furies of wars, as is declared in (Revelation 16:14).

(15) That is, the devil; (Revelation 12:3)

(16) See (Revelation 13:1).

(17) That is, of that other beast; (Revelation 13:11), for so he is called also in (Revelation 19:20), (Revelation 20:10).

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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Revelation 16:13". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/revelation-16.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

unclean spirits like frogs — the antitype to the plague of frogs sent on Egypt. The presence of the “unclean spirit” in the land (Palestine) is foretold, Zechariah 13:2, in connection with idolatrous prophets. Beginning with infidelity as to Jesus Christ‘s coming in the flesh, men shall end in the grossest idolatry of the beast, the incarnation of all that is self-deifying and God-opposed in the world powers of all ages; having rejected Him that came in the Father‘s name, they shall worship one that comes in his own, though really the devil‘s representative; as frogs croak by night in marshes and quagmires, so these unclean spirits in the darkness of error teach lies amidst the mire of filthy lusts. They talk of liberty, but it is not Gospel liberty, but license for lust. There being three, as also seven, in the description of the last and worst state of the Jewish nation, implies a parody of the two divine numbers, three of the Trinity, and seven of the Holy Spirit (Revelation 1:4). Some observe that three frogs were the original arms of France, a country which has been the center of infidelity, socialism, and false spiritualism. A and B read, “as it were frogs,” instead of “like frogs,” which is not supported by manuscripts. The unclean spirit out of the mouth of the dragon symbolizes the proud infidelity which opposes God and Christ. That out of the beast‘s mouth is the spirit of the world, which in the politics of men, whether lawless democracy or despotism, sets man above God. That out of the mouth of the false prophet is lying spiritualism and religious delusion, which shall take the place of the harlot when she shall have been destroyed.

the dragon — Satan, who gives his power and throne (Revelation 13:2) to the beast.

false prophet — distinct from the harlot, the apostate Church (of which Rome is the chief, though not sole, representative), Revelation 17:1-3, Revelation 17:16; and identical with the second beast, Revelation 13:11-15, as appears by comparing Revelation 19:20 with Revelation 13:13; ultimately consigned to the lake of fire with the first beast; as is also the dragon a little later (Revelation 20:10). The dragon, the beast, and the false prophet, “the mystery of iniquity,” form a blasphemous Antitrinity, the counterfeit of “the mystery of godliness” God manifests in Christ, witnessed to by the Spirit. The dragon acts the part of God the Father, assigning his authority to his representative the beast, as the Father assigns His to the Son. They are accordingly jointly worshipped; compare as to the Father and Son, John 5:23; as the ten-horned beast has its ten horns crowned with diadems (Greek, Revelation 13:1), so Christ has on His head many diadems. While the false prophet, like the Holy Ghost, speaks not of himself, but tells all men to worship the beast, and confirms his testimony to the beast by miracles, as the Holy Ghost attested similarly to Christ‘s divine mission.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 16:13". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/revelation-16.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Coming out of (εκek alone, no participle ερχομεναerchomena).

Of the dragon (του δρακοντοςtou drakontos). That is Satan (Revelation 12:3, Revelation 12:9).

Of the beast (του τηριουtou thēriou). The first beast (Revelation 13:1, Revelation 13:12) and then just the beast (Revelation 13:14.; Revelation 14:9, Revelation 14:11; Revelation 15:2; Revelation 16:2, Revelation 16:10), the brute force of the World-power represented by the Roman Empire” (Swete).

Of the false prophet (του πσευδοπροπητουtou pseudoprophētou). Cf. Matthew 7:15; Acts 13:6; 1 John 2:22; 1 John 4:3; 2 John 1:7. Identified with the second beast (Revelation 13:11-14) in Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10. So the sixth bowl introduces the dragon and his two subalterns of chapters Rev 12; 13 (the two beasts).

Three unclean spirits (πνευματα τρια ακαταρταpneumata tria akatharta). Out of the mouths of each of the three evil powers (the dragon and the two beasts) comes an evil spirit. See the use of mouth in Revelation 1:16 (Revelation 9:17.; Revelation 11:5; Revelation 12:15; Revelation 19:15, Revelation 19:21) as a chief seat of influence. In 2 Thessalonians 2:8 we have “the breath of his mouth” (the other sense of πνευμαpneuma). For ακαταρτονakatharton (unclean) with πνευμαpneuma see Mark 1:23.; Mark 3:11; Mark 5:2.; Acts 5:16; Acts 8:7. Christ expelled unclean spirits, but His enemies send them forth” (Swete). See Zechariah 13:2 “the false prophets and the unclean spirits.”

As it were frogs (ως βατραχοιhōs batrachoi). Cf. Exodus 8:5; Leviticus 11:10. Old word, here alone in N.T. Like loathsome frogs in form.

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
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Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Revelation 16:13". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/revelation-16.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Frogs

Possibly with reference to Exodus 8:1-14.

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 16:13". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/revelation-16.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And I saw three unclean spirits like frogs come out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet.

Out of the mouth of the dragon, the wild beast, and the false prophet — It seems, the dragon fights chiefly against God; the beast, against Christ; the false prophet, against the Spirit of truth; and that the three unclean spirits which come from them, and exactly resemble them, endeavour to blacken the works of creation, of redemption, and of sanctification.

The false prophet — So is the second beast frequently named, after the kingdom of the first is darkened; for he can then no longer prevail by main strength, and so works by lies and deceit. Mahomet was first a false prophet, and afterwards a powerful prince: but this beast was first powerful as a prince; afterwards a false prophet, a teacher of lies.

Like frogs — Whose abode is in fens, marshes, and other unclean places.

To the kings of the whole world — Both Mahometan and pagan.

To gather them — To the assistance of their three principals.

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Wesley, John. "Commentary on Revelation 16:13". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/revelation-16.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

13 And I saw three unclean spirits like frogs come out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet.

Ver. 13. Three unclean spirits] Spiritual fathers, as the Papists call their Jesuits, who seek to subject all to the pope, and the pope to themselves, being ultimus diaboli crepitus, as one speaketh, the last attempt of a daring devil. These are the pope’s janizaries, {a} bloodhounds, vultures, whose nest (as Aristotle saith) cannot be found, yet they will leave all game to follow an army, because they delight to feed on carrion.

Like frogs] For their filthiness, impudency, loquacity, with their continual brekekekex {b} coax {c} coax. (Aristoph.)

Come out of the mouth] That is, by the counsel and command, by virtue of that vow of mission, whereby the Jesuits are bound to the pope, to go whither he shall send them, about whatsoever attempt he shall enjoin them. Yea, if their governors command them a voyage to China or Peru, without dispute or delay they presently set forward. Hence haply they are called spirits.

{a} One of a former body of Turkish infantry, constituting the Sultan’s guard and the main part of the standing army. The body was first organized in the 14th century, and was composed mainly of tributary children of Christians; after a large number of them had been massacred in 1826, the organization was finally abolished. ŒD

{b} Used by Aristophanes to imitate the croaking of frogs. ŒD

{c} To make a pet of; to pet, fondle, caress; to treat endearingly or with blandishment. Obs. OED

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Revelation 16:13". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/revelation-16.html. 1865-1868.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

In the foreginng verses an account was given of the subject upon which the sixth vial was poured out, namely, upon the river Euphrates. Here we have an effect that followed thereupon, namely, a war-like expedition, or gathering to battle.

Where note, 1. The principal commanders in this battle, namely, the dragon, the beast, and the false prophet.

2. The instruments employed and made use of by them, who are here said to be, for their nature, spirits, for their quality, unclean, for their number, three, for their similitude and resemblance, like frogs; namely with respect ot their original, they breed of corruption, and in great numbers swarm and and croak in all places, and live both in the water and upon the earth: by all which many interpreters understand emissaries, missionaries, negotiators, solicitors, and legates, sent forth and employed by antichrist for the support and strengthening both of him and his kingdom, by soliciting the kings of the earth to join together in a battle against the church.

Behold here how the dragon, the beast, and the false prophet, do send forth all their emissaries, and employ all their instruments, do stir up princes, and engage them in battle, to withstand the reformation of Christians, and the conversion of the Jews: I saw unclean spirits like frogs come out of the mouth of the dragon, and go forth to the kings of the earth to gather them to battle.

Observe farther, The actins here said to be performed by them, namely, their working miracles by the power of the devils; that is, such wonderful things as Satan can sometimes produce, or at least delude people's senses, and make them believe that they are produced and effected by him.

Where note, That the advantage which the false church makes of a pretended power with her to work miracles, the Spirit of God both here and elsewhere 2 Thessalonians 2:9 makes to be a badge of antichrist and his followers: They are the spirits of devils, working miracles.

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Burkitt, William. "Commentary on Revelation 16:13". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/revelation-16.html. 1700-1703.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Revelation 16:13. ὡς βάτραχοι(182)) See App. on this passage. The nominative case has the same meaning, as Exodus 34:4, δύο πλάκας λιθίνας, καθάτερ αἱ τρῶται.

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Revelation 16:13". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/revelation-16.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

God here showeth John, that after the power and strength both of the pope and Turks should be broken, the devil would yet make one push more; to which purpose he would influence some on the behalf of the antichristian secular power, others on the behalf of

the beast with two horns, or

the false prophet.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Revelation 16:13". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/revelation-16.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

трех духов нечистых Обычное в Новом Завете название бесов (ср. Мф. 12:43; Мк. 1:23; Лк. 8:29). Эти три – особенно гнусные, сильные и лживые (ст. 14), подобные жабам. Сравнение только усиливает их отвратительность (ср. Лев. 10:11, 41). Согласно ветхозаветным законам о пище (Лев. 11:10, 11, 41), жабы были нечистыми животными. Согласно персидской мифологии, эти животные являлись причиной чумы. Таким образом, бесы описаны как гнусные, холодящие кровь, отвратительные существа.

драконазверялжепророка’ «Несвятая троица», состоящая из сатаны (дракона; см. пояснение к 12:3), антихриста (зверя; см. пояснение к 11:7) и помощника антихриста (лжепророка; см. пояснение к 13:11), изрыгает эту чуму.

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Revelation 16:13". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/revelation-16.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

Like frogs; loathsome, creeping, unclean things.

The dragon; the devil. See note to chap Revelation 12:3.

The beast; the first beast that rose up out of the sea. chap Revelation 13:1.

The false prophet; the second beast that rose out of the earth, chap Revelation 13:11, was in league with the first beast, chap Revelation 13:12-15, and wrought miracles before him.

That this beast is here to be understood is certain from chap Revelation 19:20. Here then is represented a league between the civil and ecclesiastical persecuting powers under the direction of Satan, and the three frogs seem to denote their emissaries and agents, exciting the nations to a general warfare against Christ and his people. This brings on the final decisive conflict so often foretold in the holy writ, and again set forth in chap Revelation 19:11-21. There are times when certain forms of spiritual delusion seem contagious. Nations become morally insane. Satan and his servants, the secular and ecclesiastical persecuting powers, send out their vile agents to revive their drooping interests, increase their influence, and concentrate their powers. But the final issue will always be a new victory of the truth.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Revelation 16:13". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/revelation-16.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

Revelation 16:13-16 give further comments on the sixth bowl judgment. They are not an interlude between the sixth and seventh bowls (except Revelation 16:15). They reveal that rulers from all over the earth will join the kings of the East in a final great conflict.

The dragon, beast, and false prophet will evidently join in making a proclamation that will mobilize the armies of the world to converge on Palestine. Something proceeding from the mouth suggests a proclamation. This is the first mention of "the false prophet," but he is clearly the beast out of the earth (cf. Revelation 13:11-17). He deceives the people. What he urges them to do for their advantage results in their destruction eventually.

The three unclean spirits that proceed from their mouths, the agents of this diabolical trio, are demons (fallen angels, Revelation 16:14; cf. Matthew 10:1; Mark 1:23-24; Mark 3:11; Mark 5:2; Mark 5:13; Acts 5:16; Acts 8:7). They resemble frogs in that they are unclean and loathsome (cf. Leviticus 11:10-11; Leviticus 11:41). The second Egyptian plague involved frogs ( Exodus 8:5), but these demons are only "like" frogs.

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 16:13". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/revelation-16.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 16:13. The dragon, the beast, and the false prophet are again before us. They are the three great enemies of the people of God who have already been described; although here we have for the first time the second beast of chap. Revelation 13:11 spoken of as the ‘false prophet,’ a designation afterwards applied to it in chaps. Revelation 19:20 and Revelation 20:10. The point to be chiefly noticed is that all the great enemies of God’s people are gathered together. All the demoniacal powers of the world in their united forces are on the stage.

Three unclean spirits as it were frogs. An unclean spirit comes out of the mouth of each; and the spirits are as ‘frogs,’ unclean, boasting, noisy, offensive animals. There may perhaps be a reference to the frogs of Egypt. The land of Egypt had ‘brought forth frogs in the chambers of their kings’ (Psalms 105:30)—so does this spiritual Egypt.

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Revelation 16:13". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/revelation-16.html. 1879-90.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Saw: App-133.

spirits. App-101.

like = as it were, with texts.

dragon. See Revelation 12:3.

false prophet. Greek. pseudoprophetes. In Rev. here; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10. See Revelation 13:11-17.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Revelation 16:13". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/revelation-16.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And I saw three unclean spirits like frogs come out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet.

Unclean spirits like frogs - antitype to the frogs sent on Egypt. The 'unclean spirit' in the land (Palestine) is foretold, Zechariah 13:2, in connection with idolatrous prophets. Beginning with infidelity, as to Christ's coming in the flesh, men shall end in gross idolatry of the beast, the incarnation of all that is self-deifying and God-opposed in the world-powers of all ages. Having rejected Him that came in the Father's name, they shall worship one that comes in his own (John 5:43), really the devil's representative, As frogs croak by night in marshes, so these unclean spirits in dark error teach lies amidst the mire of filthy lusts. They talk of liberty (2 Peter 2:19), not Gospel liberty, but license for lust. There being three, as also seven, in the last and worst state of the Jewish nation (Matthew 12:45), implies a parody of the two divine numbers, three of the Trinity, and seven of the Holy Spirit (Revelation 1:4). Threes frogs were the original arms of France, the center of infidelity, socialism, and false spiritualism. 'Aleph (') A B read, 'as it were frogs,' instead of "like frogs." The unclean spirit out of the mouth of the drayton symbolizes proud infidelity opposing God and Christ. That out of the beast's mouth is the spirit of the world, which in politics, whether lawless democracy or despotism, sets man above God. That out of the mouth of the false prophet is lying spiritualism, which shall take the place of the superseded harlot.

The dragon - Satan, who gives his Vower and throne (Revelation 13:2) to the beast.

False prophet - distinct from the harlot, the apostate church (of which Rome is the chief, though not sole, representative) (Revelation 17:1-3; Revelation 17:16); identical with the second beast: compare Revelation 19:20 with Revelation 13:13; ultimately consigned to the lake of fire with the first beast; also the dragon a little later (Revelation 20:10). The dragon, beast, and false prophet, "the mystery of iniquity," form a blasphemous antitrinity, counterfeit of "the mystery of godliness," God manifest in Christ, witnessed to by the Spirit. The dragon personates the Father, assigning his authority to his representative, the beast, as the Father assigns His to the Son. They are accordingly jointly worshipped: cf. as to the Father and Son, John 5:23 : as the ten-horned beast has its ten horns crowned with diadems (Revelation 13:1), so Christ has on His head many diadems (Revelation 19:12). While the false prophet, like the Holy Spirit, speaks not of himself, but tells all men to worship the beast, and confirms his testimony by miracles, as the Holy Spirit attested Christ's divine mission.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 16:13". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/revelation-16.html. 1871-8.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And I saw three unclean spirits like frogs come out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet.
three
14; 2 Thessalonians 2:9-11; 1 Timothy 4:1-3; 2 Timothy 3:1-6; 2 Peter 2:1-3; 1 John 4:1-3
like
Exodus 8:2-7; Psalms 78:45; 105:30
come out of
12:3,4,9-13; 13:1-7,11-18
the false
19:20; 20:10
Reciprocal: Exodus 8:6 - and the frogs;  1 Kings 22:22 - a lying spirit;  2 Chronicles 18:11 - all the prophets;  Job 24:22 - draweth;  Job 26:4 - whose spirit;  Isaiah 27:1 - the dragon;  Ezekiel 29:3 - the great;  Micah 2:11 - a man;  Zechariah 13:2 - unclean

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Revelation 16:13". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/revelation-16.html.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

Frogs are slimy, loathsome creatures and are used to represent three very loathsome powers and individuals. They are the dragon (Satan, Revelation 12:9), the beast (Rome) and the false prophet. The last phrase is singular in grammatical form but does not refer to any particular one of the false prophets. It means the group of evil workers who used their deceptive tactics to mislead the people all over the domain or the dominions of Rome.

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Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 16:13". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/revelation-16.html. 1952.

Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation

Revelation 16:13

Revelation 16:13 And I saw three unclean spirits like frogs come out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet.

That which John saw and heard in this vision, {related Revelation 16:13-16} was preparatory unto the Supper of the great God { Revelation 19:16-20} and interval between the sixth and seventh vial; in which vision John

saw three unclean spirits like frogs (croaking frogs) come out of the mouth of the dragon;

that old serpent called the devil;

and out of the mouth of the beast, (the Pope) and out of the mouth of the false prophet;

the papal priests, cardinals, lord bishops, etc.

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Knollys, Hanserd. "Commentary on Revelation 16:13". "Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hkc/revelation-16.html.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

13.From this infernal triad—the pagan dragon, pseudo-orthodox beast, and the hierarchic

false prophet—three unclean spirits go forth. One goes from the mouth of each, and so is the symbol of utterance and propagation of principles according to the utterer.

Like frogs—Unseemly figures issuing from the mouths of the monsters, like frogs from a miasmatic morass. The only appearance of the real frogs in Scripture previous to this is as one of the plagues of Egypt. The Hebrew word for frog signifies marsh-leaper; and the Egyptian conception was, that he was truly slime-born. Hence the slimy frog well represents the earthborn errors and depravities of the three monsters sent into the air in opposition to the heavenborn forces bearing down upon them. And, with their dismal croaking, they are the proper missionaries of atheistic despair, and fit pleaders for a falling cause. The pagan frog-form comes forth from the dragon; and modern atheism is essentially pagan. It substitutes a falsity in the place of the true God. Sometimes, with ancient Epicurus and Lucretius, it substitutes blind law, abolishing any intelligent lawgiver. Or, with Holbach, it substitutes the great material whole, under the name of Nature, as evolving all the changes we see. Or, with Comte, it makes an object of worship of what he calls the Great Being, the human race, and establishes a ritual in honor of the greatest specimens of humanity. Or, with Spencer, it imagines an Unknown Absolute, which, without consciousness or sense itself, is author of the intelligent system. The deity last invented seems to be god, Force, which produces motion, and in some unexplained way moves things into intellectual forms and operations. All these conceptions are simply the antitheistic workings of the old rebellious, godless spirit which transformed the first archangel into that old serpent the devil, here symbolized as the dragon.

The beast—Is the power of spiritual despotism. It assumes to take the place of God in overruling the consciences of men, and thereby ruling over men themselves, to its own supreme aggrandizement. Its primal apocalyptic representative is the Romish spiritual empire, personally individualized in the pope, and brought to a climax in the proclamation of the dogma of papal infallibility. But developed by that expansion of which we have repeatedly spoken, it applies to all the great spiritual despotisms, whether Christian, Mohammedan, or Pagan, which have organized force and persecution, interfering between man and God.

The false prophet—The lying theologian, the framer of mendacious dogmas, superstitions, and systems of error. He is often subservient to the spiritual despot, and often becomes the spiritual despot himself. And thus the dragon, the beast, and the false prophet are a sort of anti-trinity. The first, as pagan and atheistic, is opposed to God; the second, as lord of a hostile kingdom, is opposed to Christ; and the third, as the spirit of error, is opposed to the Holy Spirit of truth. Alford insists that these demons are literal; but as two of them come from the mouths of symbolical beings they may well be held as symbols. Not, indeed, as symbols of “classes of men” or “sects,” but of malign principles, infernal influences, and depraved systems and organisms.

Working miracles—Or supernatural wonders, pretended or real. These prodigies are, of course, wrought through the agencies of men. The pseudo-“spiritism,” or demonism, of the present day may at least serve as illustration.

Unto the kings’ world—Correcter reading, Upon the kings of the whole inhabited world. Revelation 18:3. The universality of kings symbolized by the ten horns. Neither the summons to war or the fight itself is limited to a single locality.

The battle—A battle of ideas, resolving itself into perhaps a corporeal battle, a series of wars for centuries. Yet there may be great critical contests, or even one all-decisive contest, greatly decisive of the vast result.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Revelation 16:13". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/revelation-16.html. 1874-1909.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Revelation 16:13. perhaps a reminiscence of the second Egyptian plague, but probably an Iranian touch; the frog was a special agent of Ahriman in the final contest (cf. reff., H. J. 1904, 352, and Hübschmann, 230, 231). According to Artemidorus (ii. 15) frogs represent , and they were naturally associated with serpents (cf. Plut. Pyth. 12) as amphibious.

 

 

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Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Revelation 16:13". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/revelation-16.html. 1897-1910.