Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 16:14

for they are spirits of demons, performing signs, which go out to the kings of the whole world, to gather them together for the war of the great day of God, the Almighty.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Good and Evil;   Miracles;   Temple;   Wicked (People);   Scofield Reference Index - Armageddon;   Thompson Chain Reference - Demons;   Evil;   Lying Wonders;   Magic;   Satan-Evil Spirits;   Spirits, Evil;   Wonders;   The Topic Concordance - Coming of the Lord Jesus Christ;   Day of the Lord;   Gathering;   Israel/jews;   Nations;   War/weapons;   Wrath;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Devil, the;   Miracles through Evil Agents;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Babylon;   Gog and Magog;   Mouth;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Millennium;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Day of the Lord, God, Christ, the;   Dead Sea Scrolls;   Demon;   False Prophet;   Judgment, Day of;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Order;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Daemon;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Antichrist;   Babylon, Mystical;   Devil;   Divination;   Idol;   Josiah;   Lucifer;   Sadducees;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Esdraelon;   Miracles, Signs, Wonders;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Antichrist;   Devil;   Esdraelon;   Frog;   Plagues of Egypt;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Angels;   Ascension of Isaiah;   Day and Night;   Day of Judgment;   Demon;   Demon, Demoniacal Possession, Demoniacs;   Exorcism;   God;   Har-Magedon;   Miracles;   Sign ;   Spirit Spiritual ;   World;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Antichrist;   Day;   Demon;   God;   Vials;   Wars;   39 War Fighting;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Antichrist;   Smith Bible Dictionary - An'tichrist;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Armageddon;   Gog and Magog;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Esdraelon, Plain of;   Miracle;   Omnipotence;   Revelation of John:;   War;  

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

For they are the spirits of devils - On the meaning of the word used here, see the notes on Revelation 9:20. It is used here, as it is in Revelation 9:20, in a bad sense, as denoting evil spirits. Compare the notes on Matthew 4:1-2, Matthew 4:24.

Working miracles - Working what seemed to be miracles; that is, such wonders as to deceive the world with the belief that they were miracles. See the notes on Revelation 13:13-14, where the same power is ascribed to the “beast.”

Which go forth unto the kings of the earth - Which particularly affect and influence kings and rulers. No class of people have been more under the influence of pagan superstition, Muhammedan delusion, or the papacy, than kings and princes. We are taught by this passage that this will continue to be so in the circumstances referred to.

And of the whole world - That is, so far that it might be represented as affecting the whole world - to wit, the pagan, the Muhammedan, and the papal portions of the earth. These still embrace so large a portion of the globe, that it might be said, that what would affect those powers now would influence the whole world.

To gather them - Not literally to assemble them all in one place, but so to unite and combine them that it might be represented as an assembling of the hosts for battle.

To the battle of that great day of God Almighty - Not the day of judgment, but the day which would determine the ascendency of true religion in the world - the final conflict with those powers which had so long opposed the gospel. It is not necessary to suppose that there would be a literal “battle,” in which God would be seen to contend with his foes; but there would be what might be properly represented as a battle. That is, there would be a combined struggle against the truth, and in that God would appear by his providence and Spirit on the side of the church, and would give it the victory. It accords with all that has occurred in the past, to suppose that there will be such a combined struggle before the church shall finally triumph in the world.

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Bibliographical Information
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 16:14". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/revelation-16.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

for they are spirits of demons, working signs; which go forth unto the kings of the whole world, to gather them together unto the war of the great day of God, the Almighty.

With the barrier breached and Satan's propagandists able to operate in the church itself, the ultimate crisis will soon arrive.

They are spirits of demons ... Their teaching is satanic, motivated by the hatred of God and of his truth.

Working signs ... Not merely the priests of the ancient emperor cult, but the Medieval apostate religion with its bleeding and speaking images, and its miracles, such as driving the snakes out of Ireland, are examples of the "signs" done by the frogs. The lying miracles of the man of sin are meant (2 Thessalonians 2:1-12).

To gather them together unto the war ... This refers to the kings of the earth who are thus gathered. Plummer identified these as, "those who sin and delight in the possession of the pleasures of this world."[41] Thus, the frogs had the spirit of the devil, and the people had the spirit of the world. The result was a foregone certainty. They joined forces for the great spiritual battle. This brings us to the threshold of Armageddon.

ENDNOTE:

[41] A. Plummer. op. cit., p. 396.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Revelation 16:14". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/revelation-16.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

For they are the spirits of devils,.... They are of their father the devil; they are acted and influenced by him, he works effectually in them, and leads them captive at his will; they do his lusts, and are murderers and liars, and false teachers, like him:

working miracles; lying ones, to deceive men; this clearly points out who are meant, namely, the followers of antichrist, who, as they spread the doctrines of devils, endeavour to confirm them by signs and lying wonders:

which go forth unto the kings of the earth: those who have committed fornication with the Romish antichrist, such of them as will remain:

and of the whole world; as many Pagan princes as they can come at, and engage by any ways and means in their interest; they will go forth to them like the lying spirit to Ahab's prophets, 1 Kings 22:22

to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty; that is, they will persuade them to gather together, to fight against the saints, the Gentile Christians in the several parts of the world, and the Jewish Christians, now settled in their own land; and this will be the battle of the Lord, who is God Almighty, and it will be fighting against him; and therefore the attempt must be vain and fruitless, and issue in the ruin of those who are gathered to it, who will be deceived and drawn into it by these diabolical spirits: and this is called "the battle of that great day of God"; not of the day of judgment, for it will be before that time; but of that day of vengeance upon all the remains of his and his church's enemies, both Pagan, Papal, and Mahometan, who will for this purpose be gathered together; "which", as the Ethiopic version renders it, "God has appointed".

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 16:14". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/revelation-16.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

devilsGreek, “demons.”

working miraclesGreek, “signs.”

go forth unto — or “for,” that is, to tempt them to the battle with Christ.

the kings of the earth and, etc. — A, B, Syriac, and Andreas omit “of the earth and,” which clause is not in any manuscript. Translate, “kings of the whole habitable world,” who are “of this world,” in contrast to “the kings of (from) the East” (the sun-rising), Revelation 16:12, namely, the saints to whom Christ has appointed a kingdom, and who are “children of light.” God, in permitting Satan‘s miracles, as in the case of the Egyptian magicians who were His instruments in hardening Pharaoh‘s heart, gives the reprobate up to judicial delusion preparatory to their destruction. As Aaron‘s rod was changed into a serpent, so were those of the Egyptian magicians. Aaron turned the water into blood; so did the magicians. Aaron brought up frogs; so did the magicians. With the frogs their power ceased. So this, or whatever is antitypical to it, will be the last effort of the dragon, beast, and false prophet.

battleGreek, “war”; the final conflict for the kingship of the world described in Revelation 19:17-21.

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 16:14". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/revelation-16.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Spirits of devils (πνευματα δαιμονιωνpneumata daimoniōn). “Spirits of demons.” Explanation of the simile ως βατραχοιhōs batrachoi See 1 Timothy 4:1 about “deceiving spirits and teachings of demons.”

Working signs (ποιουντα σημειαpoiounta sēmeia). “Doing signs” (present active participle of ποιεωpoieō). The Egyptian magicians wrought “signs” (tricks), as did Simon Magus and later Apollonius of Tyana. Houdini claimed that he could reproduce every trick of the spiritualistic mediums.

Which go forth (α εκπορευεταιha ekporeuetai). Singular verb with neuter plural (collective) subject.

Unto the kings (επι τους βασιλειςepi tous basileis). The three evil spirits (dragon and the two beasts) spur on the kings of the whole world to a real world war. “There have been times when nations have been seized by a passion for war which the historian can but imperfectly explain” (Swete).

To gather them together (συναγαγεινsunagagein). Second aorist active infinitive of συναγωsunagō to express purpose (that of the unclean spirits).

Unto the war of the great day of God, the Almighty (εις τον πολεμον της ημερας της μεγαλης του τεου του παντοκρατοροςeis ton polemon tēs hēmeras tēs megalēs tou theou tou pantokratoros). Some take this to be war between nations, like Mark 13:8, but it is more likely war against God (Psalm 2:2) and probably the battle pictured in Revelation 17:14; Revelation 19:19. Cf. 2 Peter 3:12, “the day of God,” his reckoning with the nations. See Joel 2:11; Joel 3:4. Paul uses “that day” for the day of the Lord Jesus (the Parousia) as in 1 Thessalonians 5:2; 2 Thessalonians 1:10; 2 Thessalonians 2:2; 1 Corinthians 1:8; 2 Corinthians 1:14; Philippians 1:6; Philippians 2:16; 2 Timothy 1:12, 2 Timothy 1:18; 2 Timothy 4:8.

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
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Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Revelation 16:14". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/revelation-16.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Of the earth and of the whole world

Omit of the earth and.

World ( οἰκουμέης )

See on Luke 2:1.

The battle ( πόλεμον )

Rev., more literally, war. Battle is μάχη .

That great day ( ἐκείνης )

Omit. Read, as Rev., “the great day.”

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 16:14". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/revelation-16.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Scofield's Reference Notes

kings Times of the Gentiles Revelation 16:19; Luke 21:24.

world "oikoumene" = inhabited earth. (See Scofield "Luke 2:1").

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Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on Revelation 16:14". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/srn/revelation-16.html. 1917.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

14 For they are the spirits of devils, working miracles, which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty.

Ver. 14. The spirits of devils] Or breathing devils.

Working miracles] Lying wonders, 2 Thessalonians 2:9.

Unto the kings of the earth] The pope’s nuncios, legates a latere, and other emissaries, stir up the spirits of princes to embroil the world with wars, for the upholding of his tottering greatness; but all in vain. The greatest impostors have ever been the greatest courtiers. The Arians in their age, and from them the Jesuits learned it. As Pharaoh’s frogs, they get into kings’ bedchambers.

And of the whole world] Papists shall call in the help of foreign princes out of Asia, Africa, America, to suppress the heretics, as they call them. But with poor success; for they shall associate themselves only to be broken in pieces, Isaiah 8:9. Exorientur, sed exurentur, It will spring up but it will be destroyed. Revelation 19:18. The mountain of the Lord shall be lifted up above all mountians. These auxiliaries shall speed no better than those subsidiary Syrians, 2 Samuel 10:18-19.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Revelation 16:14". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/revelation-16.html. 1865-1868.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Revelation 16:14. ἐκπορεύεσθαι) Many varieties of reading occur here, and among them, ἐκπορεύεται(183) is a specious one: but if this were the original reading, it would not have been altered in such a variety of ways, as the infinitive, ἐκπορεύεσθαι, which was not equally comprehended by the copyists on account of the parenthesis. But the sentence would be abrupt without the infinitive, εἶδον πνεύματα ἐκ τοῦ στόματος. For the mode of expression is not the beast out of the sea, out of the earth, out of the bottomless pit, but ascending out of the sea, etc. Nor does the other infinitive, συναγαγεῖν, subjoined without any con junction, cause any difficulty, as alleged by Wolf. For there is often an accumulation of infinitives: Luke 1:74-79; Ephesians 3:16-17; 1 Thessalonians 4:3-4; 1 Thessalonians 4:6 : and the sense is plain in this passage: I saw them go forth, that they might gather. There is a Simultaneum [See Append. Techn. Terms], concerning which see Erkl. Offenb. p. 84. Moreover two events are marked as occurring at the same time, either by a repetition of the same words, 2 Kings 2:14, or by an interruption of the construction, as here.

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Revelation 16:14". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/revelation-16.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Which, from the influence of the devil, should solicit the kings of the earth to join together in a battle against the church. This is, undoubtedly, the battle in Armageddon, Revelation 16:16.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Revelation 16:14". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/revelation-16.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

знамения Сверхъестественные чудеса (ср. 13:12-15) с целью обмануть (ср. 19:20; 3Цар. 22:20-23; Мк. 13:22) царей, чтобы они напали на Палестину. Это влияние будет настолько сильным, что нечистые духи заставят царей совершить поход в Палестину, несмотря на сильный зной, засуху и тьму.

царямвсей вселенной Теперь не только цари от восхода солнечного, но уже весь мир начинает последнюю завершающую битву (Пс. 2:2, 3; Иоил. 3:2-4; Зах. 14:1-3).

брань в оный великий день Бога Вседержителя Армагеддонская битва (ст. 16). Это великая война с Богом и Христом (см. пояснение к 2 Фес. 1:7-10; ср. Иоил. 2:11; 3:2, 4). Война закончится, когда придет Христос (19:17-20).

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Revelation 16:14". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/revelation-16.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

That great day of God; when he will inflict full vengeance on his foes. Satan and wicked men are leagued together, and cooperate in opposing God; and often the greater their efforts the nearer they are to destruction.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Revelation 16:14". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/revelation-16.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

Here John identified the spirits as demons. The demons go out to the kings of the earth deceiving them to assemble their armies in Palestine for the battle of Armageddon. A deceiving spirit earlier lured King Ahab into battle ( 1 Kings 22:21-23). They will do this under the influence of Satan, the beast, and the false prophet. The demons persuade them, but their decision is something that God, the ultimate cause, puts in their hearts ( Revelation 17:17).

It may also be the advancing army from the east that moves these kings to assemble for war. [Note: Moffatt, 5:447.] These kings from all over the world will gather to destroy Israel (cf. Psalm 2:1-3; Joel 2:11; Joel 3:2; Zechariah 14:2-3). Satan"s purpose in bringing all these soldiers into Palestine in the first place appears to be to annihilate the Jews. When Jesus Christ returns to earth, specifically to the Mount of Olives ( Zechariah 14:1-4), they will unite in opposing Him. However God"s sovereign hand will be regulating Satan"s activities ( Zechariah 14:2). This will not be the day of Satan"s triumph but that of the Lord God Almighty. He will show Himself supreme in this climactic battle (cf. Joel 2:31). The description of this battle follows in Revelation 19:11-16.

Gundry believed that the day of the Lord includes the battle of Armageddon but not the Tribulation. [Note: Gundry, p92.] Most premillennial interpreters believe this distinction lacks convincing support, and I agree with them.

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 16:14". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/revelation-16.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 16:14. For they are spirits of demons working signs. They thus show at once their hellish origin, and the power lent them in order that they may be the better enabled to effect their end.

Which go forth unto the kings of the whole world, to gather them together to the war of the great day of God, the Almighty. We have now the purpose for which mention of these unclean spirits is introduced. It is that Satanic might and deception may be exerted to their utmost, so that the enemies of God from all parts of the world may be led to go up to the war in which they shall be destroyed. The representation may rest upon 1 Kings 22:20-22, when a lying spirit goes forth to persuade Ahab to rush upon his late. These lying spirits in like manner persuade the kings of the whole godless world to rush upon the fate prepared for them in the last great judgment of God—‘His day.’

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Revelation 16:14". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/revelation-16.html. 1879-90.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

the. Omit.

devils = demons.

miracles. App-176.

unto. Greek. epi. App-104.

of the earth and. The texts omit.

world. App-129.

that = the.

Almighty. Add "the". See Revelation 16:7.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Revelation 16:14". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/revelation-16.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

For they are the spirits of devils, working miracles, which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty.

Devils - ` demons.'

Working miracles - `signs.'

Go forth unto, [ epi (Greek #1909)] - 'for,' i:e., to tempt them to the battle with Christ.

The kings of the earth and. 'Aleph (') A B, Syriac, Andreas, omit "of the earth and." [ Oikoumenees (Greek #3625)], 'Kings of the whole habitable world,' 'of this world,' in contrast to "the kings of (from) the east" (the sunrising); Revelation 16:12, the saints to whom Christ has appointed a kingdom (Luke 22:29), "children of light." God, in permitting Satan's miracles, as in the Egyptian magicians His instruments in hardening Pharaoh's heart, gives the reprobate up to judicial delusion preparatory to their destruction (1 Kings 22:22). As Aaron's rod was changed into a serpent, so were those of the Egyptian magicians. Aaron turned the water into blood; so did the magicians. Aaron brought up frogs; so did the magicians. With the frogs their power ceased. So, whatever is antitypical to this, will be the last effort of the dragon, beast, and false prophet.

Battle - `war:' the final conflict for the kingship of the world (Revelation 19:17-21).

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 16:14". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/revelation-16.html. 1871-8.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

For they are the spirits of devils, working miracles, which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty.
the spirits
12:9; 1 Kings 22:19-23; 2 Chronicles 18:18-22; Ezekiel 14:9; John 8:44; 2 Corinthians 11:13-15; 1 Timothy 4:1; James 3:15
working
13:13,14; 19:20; Deuteronomy 13:1,2; Matthew 24:24; Mark 13:22; 2 Thessalonians 2:9
which
1 Kings 22:6,10,11,19-22; Acts 13:8-10
the whole
3:10; 12:9; 13:3; Luke 2:1; Romans 1:8; 1 John 5:19
to gather
16; 17:14; 19:19; 20:8; Isaiah 34:1-8; 63:1-6; Ezekiel 38:8-12; Joel 3:11-14
God Almighty
7
Reciprocal: Exodus 8:2 - frogs;  Joshua 8:16 - drawn away;  Joshua 9:2 - gathered;  Joshua 10:4 - and help;  Joshua 11:5 - all these;  1 Kings 22:22 - a lying spirit;  2 Chronicles 11:15 - for the devils;  2 Chronicles 14:9 - Zerah;  2 Chronicles 18:11 - all the prophets;  Job 24:22 - draweth;  Job 26:4 - whose spirit;  Psalm 56:2 - many;  Psalm 105:30 - brought;  Isaiah 54:15 - they shall;  Ezekiel 13:5 - to stand;  Ezekiel 38:15 - and many;  Joel 3:2 - also;  Joel 3:14 - multitudes;  Micah 2:11 - a man;  Zephaniah 3:8 - to gather;  Zechariah 12:3 - though;  Zechariah 13:2 - unclean;  Zechariah 14:1 - General1 Timothy 4:2 - lies;  Revelation 1:8 - the Almighty;  Revelation 4:8 - Lord God Almighty;  Revelation 6:17 - the great;  Revelation 11:17 - Lord God Almighty;  Revelation 16:13 - three;  Revelation 20:3 - should deceive;  Revelation 21:22 - the Lord

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Revelation 16:14". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/revelation-16.html.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

Devils means the demons by which the apostate church imposed upon the victims of their treachery. Working miracles is explained at Revelation 13:14, and it is the same that Paul predicts in 2 Thessalonians 2:9 as follows: "Whose coming is after the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders." Gather them to the battle means the battle will continue until the great day.

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Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 16:14". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/revelation-16.html. 1952.

Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation

Revelation 16:14

Revelation 16:14 For they are the spirits of devils, working miracles, which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty.

The unclean spirits are here said to be

the spirits of devils, working miracles

as Revelation 13:13-14 Like that lying spirit in the mouth of Ahab's false prophets. { 1 Kings 22:21-22} And our blessed Lord Jesus testified, that in the latter days before his second coming, there will come false Christs and false prophets. {Luke 21:8; Matthew 24:24-25} Behold I have told you before.

Which go forth to the kings of the earth

By the kings of the earth we are to understand those kings that give their power, strength, and kingdom to the beast. { Revelation 13:17} And therefore when John had the full vision of this

battle of that great day of God Almighty

he saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies gathered together (by these frogs) to make war against Him that sat upon the white horse, and against his army, { Revelation 19:1-21} whose name is called the WORD of God, { Revelation 16:11-21; Revelation 17:13-14} which is here called

the battle of that great day of God Almighty

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Knollys, Hanserd. "Commentary on Revelation 16:14". "Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hkc/revelation-16.html.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Revelation 16:14. “They are (not, these are) spirits of daemons”. These devilish imps muster God’s opponents to the final conflict. The fierce invasion of the kings of the east seems to give an impetus to the kings of the world. Antichrist’s power extends to these (cf.Revelation 11:10). “As the Lord sent his apostles to all the nations, so shall he (i.e., Antichrist) send false apostles” (Hippol. vi. cf.A. C. 188 f.). The sources of the tradition lie in Addit. Esther, 11:6 f., where the two dragons cry, and at their summons all nations gather to do battle against the righteous nation; also in the belief that Israel’s foes muster against her in the latter days (Revelation 17:14, Revelation 19:17-20. Revelation 20:7-10; after Ezekiel 38-39.; Zechariah 14:2 f.; En. lvi. 90.; Sib. Or. iii. 310–322, 663–674). In Asc. Isa. iv. Beliar, in the guise of Nero, comes “and with him all the powers of this world, and they will hearken to him in all that he desires” (cf. below on Revelation 17:13; Revelation 17:17). These demonic spirits are not crushed till the day of judgment (En. Revelation 16:1 , Jub. x., Matthew 8:29). The three locusts which issne from the month of the Beast in Hermas, Vis. iv. 1. 6, belong to the conception of Revelation 9:1.

 

 

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Bibliographical Information
Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Revelation 16:14". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/revelation-16.html. 1897-1910.